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With an Introductory Sketch of the 
Country and People of Nepal 

- Daniel Wright 


New Delhi, Madras 

Asian Educational Services 1990 

First Published 1877 

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Ikhachhen -22 Lalitpur 









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Price Rs 195 
First Published 1877 
AES Reprint 1990 
ISBN 81-206 0552-7 

Published by J Jetley 
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Printed at Nice Printing Press 
Delhi- U 0051 


The few following remarks are all that seem necessary, 
by way of preface, regarding the contents of this small 

For the Introductory Sketch I alone am responsible. 
It is based upon personal observation and inquiry, during 
a residence of ten years in the country, and I have 
inserted nothing in it but what, to the best of my belief, 
is correct as far as it goes. It does not, of course, pre- 
tend to be a full account of the country ; for such a work 
is hardly possible while our relations with Nepal remain 
as they are at present, and would, moreover, be exit of 
place in a book of this sort. 

The translation of the History lias been made by 
Shew Shunker Singh, the Mir Munshi attached to the 
British Itesidency, who has lived in Nepal for nearly 
thirty years. He was assisted, when necessary, by 
Pandit Shri Gunanand, who is a native of Nepal, 
residing at Patan, and whose ancestors, for many gene- 
rations, have been the compilers of this History. 



I am not myself an Oriental scholar, and have had 
nothing to do with the translation beyond revising it 
for publication, and adding a few notes regarding the 
customs and places mentioned. The work translated 
is the Vansavali or Genealogical History of Nepal, 


according to the Buddhist recension. The original 
manuscript, written in Parbatiya with an admixture of 
Sanskrit and Newari, is in the possession of Professor 
Oowell- There is another redaction, or at all events a 
similar work, recognised by the Gorkhas and Hindu 
races of the country, copies of which are in the Biitish 
Museum and the University Library of Cambridge. 

At the present time the orthography of Oriental 
proper names is somewhat unsettled. In general, 
throughout the History, the names have been written 
as nearly as possible in their original form, the vowels 
having the Italian sounds. The different sounds of the 
letters d, t, s and sh, in Sanskrit, have not been systema- 
tically indicated by points or otherwise. The Munshi 
often uses hh for sh, j for y, and b for v. In the names 
of some well-known places, and in such familiar words as 
Durbar, Jung, etc, the usual spelling has been retained, 
more espeoially in the Introduction. Some names may 
be found spelled differently in different places, but this is 
usually not owing to any mistake, but because the words 
have inten onally been given as written in the original 


The Illustrations are copies of drawings made for me 
by a native of Nepal. Though, not of much value as 
works of art, they convey a very fair idea of the places 
and objects represented. The Portraits are from photo~ 
graphs taken by a friend. 

The Appendix contains, among other things, a short 
vocabulary, Parbatiya and Newaii ; some Newail songs, 
with a literal translation ; and a list of the manuscripts 
which I have procured for the TJniversity Library of 
Cciixibridge. These, though of slight interest to the 
general reader, may, I am told, prove interesting to 
Oriental scholars. 

In conclusion, I must acknowledge my obligations to 
Professor Cowell of Cambridge, and Professor Eggeling of 
Edinburgh, both of whom have given me much assistance 
in the correct writing of Sanskrit words. My brother, 
Professor "W. "Wright of Cambridge, has greatly helped 
me in revising the proof-sheets and superintending the 
publishing of the work, the cost of which has been most 
liberally undertaken by the Syndics of the University 
Press at Cambridge. 



12th Jwnucvry, 1877 





Preliminary remarks. Description of the road leading to the 
"Valley of Nepal. The Valley itself Hills around at Rivers. 
Extent. Kathmandu, Its buildings, temples, and palaces 
Parade-ground ThSpathaJi, the residence of Sir Jung Bahadur 
British Presidency. Willow avenue Description of Patan. 
Description of Bhatgaon, K.irtipur, and other towns. Pashu- 
pati and its temples. Gaukarna Bodhnatha. Balaji. 
Swayambhunatha. Patls and Dharas 


Population of the country Various Races. Gorkhas, Newaxs, 
Magars, Gurungs, Linibus, KiratTs, BhQtiyas, and Depehas 
Then appearance, languages, dress, and ornaments Eood 
Drinks Education Religions. Marriage. Satis Adultery 
and its punishment Divorce Eras in use in Nepal Reli- 
gious festivals 25" 


Occupations of the people. Brahmans Priests. Astrologers. 
Baids Clerks Laws and punishments Castes Slavery. 
Trade and manufactures Agriculture Live stock. The 
army The revenue The roads 43 




Brief sketch of the recent history of the country, and of the inter- 
course with the Butish Colonel Kirkpatiick J s mission War 
with the British m 1814 Appointment of a Resident Do- 
mestic intrigues and struggles for power Death of Geneial 
Bhlmasena Thapa General Matbabar Smgh Inst appear- 
ance of Jung Bahadur His rise to power The ELot massacre. 
Sir Jung's visit to England War with Tibet m 1854 Tioops 
sent to assist the British m 1857. The Nana Sahib Sir 
Jung's proposed visit to England in 1875 . , .51 


Rematks on the aspect of political matters in Nepal at the present 
time Sir Jung Bahadur's influence His numerous relatives 
Prospect of the country being thrown open to Europeans. 
Trade Character of the Nepalese Position of the Resident 
and other Europeans m Nepal Means of obtaining informa- 
tion regaiding the country Amusements and employments of 
young men of the upper classes Concluding general lemarks 
on the country and its climate . 67 



Mythological period of the history, extending through the Satya, 
Treta, and Dwapar Yugas or ages. It contains numerous 
cunous legends regarding the temples, towns and holy places 
of the country „ . ... 77 


Founding of the Gupta dynasty by Ne Muni, Discovery of Pashu- 
pati in Bhuktamana's reign. Altfr dynasty fiom Hindustan 
KiratT, dynasty Commencement of Kali Yuga Sakya Sinha 
Buddha ^comes to Nepal. Asoka visits Nepal SomabansI 
Rajputs invade the country and ser/e the throne SuryabansT 
Rajput dynasty Sunayasri Misra, Iumoduction of cultiva- 
tion into Nepal Shankaracharya visits Nepal and overthrows 
the Buddhist religion. Religious persecutions Yikramaditya 
visits Nejial and intioduces his era . 107 




Vikramaditya's successor begins a new dynasty The Salivahana 
era introduced into Nepal Founding of Patan or Labtpui 
Legend of Machehhindia-natha Revival of Hinduism under 
a supposed incarnation of Shankaiacharya Founding of 
Kantipur or Kathmandu A Thakmi Raja founds a new- 
dynasty, known as the Vais Thakut i 1 33 


A new Rajput dynasty. Founding of Khtipur and of Bhaktapur 
or Bhatgaon Intioduction of the Nepal era, and legends 
connected with it. Arrival of Newars in the countiy undei 
Raja Nanya-deva from the south Karnataka, who expelled 
the Malla Rajas and founded a fresh dynasty Legend of 
Keschandra Nepal invaded fiom the west by Mukunda-sSna 
The Khas and Magar castes enter the country Pestilence, 
and destruction of the invaders The Vais Thakuris of Noakofc 
again seize the throne, and hold the country for 225 years 
Country invaded by Han-sinha-deva of AyScthya, who founded 
a dynasty Legends connected with his conquest of the 
countiy Tin j a Devi Invasion by and defeat of the Bhotiy as 
Legend of the Baid and Kaikotak Nag , f 161 


The line of Hari-smha-d§va having become extinct, the throne- is 
filled by a descendant of the former Malla Rajas, who founds a 
new dynasty Laws of Jayasthiti Malla Division of the 
kingdom Malla Rajas of Bhatgaon. First invasion of the 
Nepalese territory by the Gorkha kings Birth and education 
of Prithwinarayana Sah . 181 


Ran Malla, king of Banepa The Malla Rajas of Kantipur or 
Kathmandu, down to the time of the Goikha invasion Re- 
pairing of the Swayambhu temple Taking of Kathmandu by 
theGdrkhas . 200 




History of the kings of Patan, in particular of Raja Siddhi- 

Narsinha Taking of Patau by the Gorkhaa 233 


Progress of the Gorkha invasion under the-command of Prith'wina- 
rayana. Taking of Bhatg£on Fate of the three kings of 
Bhatgaon, Kathmandu and Patan 253 

The Gorkha dynasty m Nepal Death of Piithwinarayana. War 
ynih. Tibet and China General Btumasena Thapa made prime 
minister, War with the British Great earthquakes 259 


Special history of the Dynasty 273 


Genealogy of Swasti Srimad Ati-prachand Bhujdandetyadi Sri Sri 
Si I Maharaj Jang Bahadur Rana, GOB and GCS I, 
Thong-lin-pim-ma-ko-kang-rang-syan, Prime Minister and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of Nepal 285 


A buef Genealogy of Sii(5)man Mahaiajadhiraj Surendra Vikram 

Sah Bahadur Shamsher-jang Deva, king of Nepal 280 


I Musical Instruments 294 

II Agncultmal Implements 296 

III Nepalese Coinage 297 

IV. Weights and Measures 298 

V Measurement of Time 299 

VI Vocabulary 3QQ 

VIL Newari Songs 306 

VIII Rajas of Nepal 312 

IX. List of Manuscripts 31 g 


PLATE I Frontispiece 

Sib Jung Bahadur Rana, Q C. B , GCSI, etc , etc 

He is dressed in a Chinese robe of silk, lined and trimmed with 
fur, and wears the insignia of the Bath and other decorations His 
jewelled headdress is said to be worth .£15,000 His right hand rests 
on his sword, to which is attached a long handkerchief. 

PLATE II, p 10 

The Square in front of the Palace at Kathmandu, 

In it may be seen various temples and monoliths. The Hanuman 
gate and the stone with Raja Pratapa Malta's prayer are on the left- 
hand side The figure of Hanuman has an umbrella over it 

PLATE in., p 17 
The Temple built ry Bhupatindra Malla, at Bhatgaon, a.d 1703. 

PLATE IV, p. 23 

View of the Ohaitya and other buildings on the summit of the 

Swayambhu hill. 

At the top of the staircase stands the large brazen bajra, mentioned 
in the Introduction (p 24) The buildings to the extreme right and left 
give a good idea of the houses occupied by the lower and middle olasses 
xa the towns In front are groups of worshippers, ISTewaris and Bhotiyas , 
one of the latter is twirling m_his hand a small prayer-cylinder, 


PLATE V, p 28 
A Ran! ok Hepalese lady of rank 

PLATE YI , p 43 

The five Buddhas , the five Taras, their wives , and the five 

bodhisatwas, their sons 

These images are woi shipped by the Nepalese Buddhists 

PLATE VII , p 78 

The footsteps of Manjusri and of Buddha 

These are caived on stone, and let into the pavement in ftont of a 
temple or holy place 


View of the hill on which the Swayambhu chaitya stands 

The mountain to the right is .Nagaijun Houses of !Newari agn- 
culturists, shrines, and patls, are in the fojegiound In tlie centio of 
the picture, on the road leading through the wood to the temple, is seen 
the colossal figure of Sakya ]V(um (p 23) 

PLATE IX , p 100 

View of the Teaiple of Bodhnath 

In the niches m the outer wall may be seen the prayer-cylinders, 
■which are twilled by woishippeis 

PLATE X, p 11G 

Matikajya chaitya, the -Asoka chaitya on the par\de-grouxd of 



PLATE XI, p 174 

Specimens of several forms of chaityas 

The central one is an old, pure Buddhist, mound-temple That to 
the left is a more modern Buddhist form The one to the right is a 
mixed Tfmdu and Buddhist shrine, combining the Imga and jalhaii with 
Buddhist figures 

PLATE XII, p 193 

Gateway and window of the Durbar built at Bhatgaon, ad 1697, 

by Baja Bhupatindra Malla. 

The oval m the centre of the carved window, immediately above 
the door, contains the piece of glass mentioned m the text 

PLATE XIII, p 213 

The prayer composed, and written in fifteen characters, by PiAja 

Pratapa Malla, a d 1654, 

It is msciibed on a stone, built into the ■wall of the Palace at 
Kathmandii, near the Hanuman gate (Plate II ). 

PLATE XIV , p. 267. 

Dhara or fountain, built by General Bhimasena in the reign of 
Raja G-irban-juddiia Vikram Sah 

In the background is a pati or dharmasala 

PLATE XY, p. 284 
The present King of Nepal, Sri Surendba Vikram Sah 

PLATE XVI., p. 288 

General Jagat Jung Bahadur, the eldest son of Sir Jung Bahadur, 

in military undress 

Behind Mm stands an officer of the ISTepalese army, in the ordinal y 
summer-dress of a Gorkhall gentleman He carries a kukhrl in his 
feamarband or waistband. 


Page 13, line 2 Head. "DharSra." 

,, Ime 21. Here and elsewhere read * ' 2?h3p3thali " 
16, line 21 Here, and in a lew other places, read "Buddhist." 

„ last line but one " Bhaktapur " is the correct form of the name. 
19, line 13 Bead "Bogmati " 

22, line 12 The more correct form of the name is " Gokaina." 

23, last line Bead "Buddha " 

35, no 3 Read " &ttz." 

36, line 15 Bead "Bauddha mSigi " 
53, la-it two lines Bead "B3jSndra Bxkiam " 
55, line 14 Bead "Mathabar " 

77, line 12 The MS has ""Wpa&hwi," which the Munshi writes 
"Bipaswl," but the correct form is, I beheve, "Vipashyi." 

78, line 21. Bead here, and in some other places, "Manjueri " 
89, line 27 Bead "Ling and " 
92, line 26 Here, and on pages 97 — 99, and page 114, note, for 

"Buddha TSIilkantha" read " Budha-Nilkantha " or "Burha-Nil- 

kantha " 
115, line 19 Bead "in possession " 
176 line 11 More eorrectly "Kasahls " 


or THE 




Pieliminaiy remarks Description of the road leading to the Valley of 
Nepal The Valley itself Hills around it Hirers Extent. 
Kathmandu. Ita buildings, temples, and palaces. Parade-ground, 
Thapatah, the lesidence of Sn Jung Bahadur British Residency. 
"Willow avenue. Description of Patan Description of Bhatgaon, 
iKirtrpiir, and othei towns. Pashupati and its temples. Gaukarna. 
Bodhnatha. Balajl. Swayambhunatha. Patls and I>haras. 

As any one may ascertain by consulting a map of India, 
the kingdom of Nepal is a small independent State, 
situated on the north-eastern frontier of Hindustan. 
It is a strip of country about five hundred miles long 
and a hundred and thirty broad, lying between the 
snowy range of the Himalaya on the north, Sikkhim on 
the east, and the provinces of British India on the south 
and west. 

W N. 1 


The name Nepal, however, is lestricted by the 
natives of the country to the valley surrounding the 
capital, and it is of this portion of the country alone 
that thje following history and the present sketch treat. 
This is the only pait of the kingdom which is open 
to the investigations of Europeans , and it would be 
a hopeless task to attempt the descnption of places 
which cannot be visited, or the collection of accurate 
information regaidmg a countiy wheie every inquiry 
made by a European is viewed with the most jealous 
suspicion, wheie the collection of statistics is looked on 
as mere folly, and wheie, above all, Baion Munchausen 
himself would have been considered a marvel of accuiacy 
and truthfulness l 

After leaving the frontier-station of Segowli, there 
is little to attract the notice of the travellei till he 
reaches the sal forest The first portion of the road, 
as far as Huksowl, is, like most of the roads m Tnhut 
and Chumpaiun, a very fair driving road, with bridges 
over the rivers and nullahs. Beyond this there is a 
mere rough cart-tiack, as far as Simrabasa, which is a 
small village close to the maigm of the foxest. From 
this village a nanow sandy road passes almost stiaight 
through the foiest to Bichiakon or Blchakdh, which 
consists of a few huts and a large powah or tiaveller's 
house of rest, and is situated on the bank of a shallow 

The road now lies along the bed of this stream, and 
is very rough, but still passable by bullock-caits duiing 
the dry season. After a mile or two, the road runs 
thiough the Chinaghatti jange of hills, passing be- 
neath sandy cliffs several hundred feet m height and 
ciowned with mtiees and other timber. After about 


six miles, the road quits the bed of the river, and again 
enters a forest of sal trees, growing on low undulating 
hills. Here much of the tnnber used m Kathmanduf 
is cut during the cold season. The road then crosses 
a small stream, the Kurru, by a wooden bridge ; and 
about a mile beyond this it reaches the village of 

Here there is a large powah, and, in the cold season, 
a considerable village ; but the place is almost deserted 
from April to November on account of the aoul, or 
malarious fever, which is deadly to all except the natives 
of the Terai. During the cold weather almost all the 
imports for the supply of Nepal pass through Hetowra, 
and, ii consequence, a Nepalese officer and guard of 
soldiers are stationed there, who however retire to the 
hills as soon as the hot weather sets in. 

The road now winds along the banks of the Rapti, 
and the scenery for some eight or ten miles is as grand 
as can be found in almost any part of the lower Hima- 
laya. An excellent road has been cut from Hetowra 
to Bhimphedi, and bridges have been thrown across 
the river in several places. This work was executed 
by tbe soldiers of the Nepalese army between 1865 and 
1870 About eight miles from Hetowra are the village 
and, powah of Nimbuatar, and seven miles farther on 
stands the village of Bhimphedi. All along this valley 
there is a considerable amount of cultivation, wherever 
the land is level enough to admit of it ; and near Bhim- 
phedi there are several small hamlets. 

From Bhimphedi the road passes up a most rugged 
and precipitous hill, on which stands the small fort of 
Sisaghuri or Chisapani, so named from a spring of 
very cold water a little above the fort. The fort is 



about sixteen hundred feet above the level of the 
village of Bhimphcdi, and it takes a traveller nearly 
an hour and a half to reach it. Sisaghun # is m the 
hot weather the quarters of the officer and guard that 
go to Hetowra in the cold weather, and there is a 
small village below the fort, where custom duties are 
levied on all goods and travellers entering the country." 

The road now runs upwards to a gap, near the top 
of the ridge on which the fort stands, at a height of 
about 2,800 feet above Bhimphedi. The descent on the 
northern side is not so steep nor so long as the ascent, 
but is still rugged and difficult. At the foot of the 
hill runs a clear rapid stream, up which the road pro- 
ceeds, crossing it in several places by temporary bridges 
made of stones and brushwood. In the cold season this 
stream is small, but in the rams it becomes formidable, 
and in one place it has been found necessary to throw 
a lofty bridge across it. The hills on both sides of the 
bed of this stream are steep and bare. At the extremity 
of the gorge stand a powah and a small village named 
Markhu, after passing which the road lies over a low, 
bare, undulating range of hills, called the Ekdunta, till 
the valley of Chitlong or little Nepal is entered. 

This valley is well cultivated, and contains several 
small villages. It is on a higher level than the large 
valley of Nepal, and in consequence its climate is con- 
siderably colder. It is subject, too, to violent storms of 
wind and fyail, which frequently do much injury to 
the crops. After passing through Chitlong, the road 
runs over the mountain-range of Chandragiri. This 
range is steep and rugged but well wooded, and the 
iscent from Chitlong is by no means equal in these 
aspect* to the descent into the Nepal valley. From 



the summit of the pass a magnificent view is obtained 
of both valleys 1 . 

The Y a ^ e y o£ Nepal, in which stands the capital of 
the country, and in which are the residence of the court 
and the head-quarters of the army, is an extensive tract 
of comparatively level ground, entirely surrounded by 
lof&y mountains. Its length from east to west .is about 
twenty miles, and its breadth from north to south about 
fifteen- The length and breadth vary greatly, as there 
are numerous spurs running out from the hills and en- 
closing narrow valleys, but the above is a fair statement 
of the average length and breadth The more promi- 
nent mountain-peaks are named as follows • to the east, 
Mahadeo Pokhri, to the north, Munichtir, Seopuri, 
Kukani and Kowhilia; to the west, Nagarjun ; to the 
south, Chandragiri, Champa Devi, Phurphing, and 
Phulchowk, The last-mentioned is the highest of the 
surrounding peaks, measuring 9,720 feet above the level 
of the sea 2 . The other peaks vary from 6,000 to 7,500 
feet. The level of the valley itself is 4,500 feet above 
the sea. 

1 Boute from Segowli to Kathmandu 



Brvers crossed 

Segowli to Euksowl 


Sikrana, Euksowl, Tilaway. 

Euksowl to SimrabSsa 


Euksowl and Tilaway. 

Simrabasa to Bichakoh 


Small stream 

Bichakoh to Hetowrah 



Hetowra to Nimbuatar 


S&mri and Eanti. 

Nimbuatar to Sisaghuri 


Small stream 

Sisaghuri to Msrkhu 



Markhu to Thankot 


Small stream 

Thankot to Kathmandu 


Kallmati and Vishnumati, 

a The height is so given in maps, hut with the aneroid I did not find it to he 
more than 9,300 Possibly, however, my mbtrument was not correct 


The surface of the yalley consists of ground on two 
levels, constituting a series of table-lands (tars), and val- 
leys (kholas), through each of which latter a small stream 
usually Sows, though many of these are dried up in 
the hot season. The difference m level between the 
tars and kholas varies greatly. Near the base of the 
hills it is not great, but it rapidly increases towards 
the centre of the valley, and in some places the precipi- 
tous edges of the tars are from 30 to 100 feet m 

The country is well watered, but none of the streams 
are of great size, as they all rise from the neighbouring 
hills. Some of them are mere mountain-torrents, and 
are quite dried up in the hot weather, but others, which 
rise from springs at the foot of the hills, always contain 
a fair amount of water. The principal streams are the 
Bagmati and Yishnumati. The former rises from the 
northern, side of the Seopuxi peak, and enters the valley 
through a narrow gorge, about the middle of the northern 
side. It flows south and south-west to its junction with 
the VishnumatL The latter rises from the southern 
side of Seopiiri and "Kukahi, towards the north-west 
corner of the valley, and flows south and south-east 
Both streams receive numerous small tributaries, so that 
when they unfte, just to the south of Kathmandu, 
they form a considerable river. The united stream flows 
south-east, passing through a rocky ridge, which crosses 
the valley, by means of a deep narrow cleft, which is 
spanned by an iron suspension bridge, the only one of 
the kii$& in the country. The river makes its exit 
through the hills at the south-east corner of the valley, 
and its banka are there steep and in many places im- 


Both, the above-mentioned rivers, and also several 
of the smaller streams, are crossed by well-built bridges, 
which, with few exceptions, have been erected during the 
present reign, or, more properly speaking, while the 
present minister, Sir Jung Bahadur, has been m power 
These bridges are all built upon massive sal piles and 
cross beams, also of sal, on which is laid a strong road 
of brickwork, with a parapet of about two or three feet 
in height 

The valley is almost entirely under cultivation, and, 
as irrigation is much employed, its surface is almost 
never destitute of a crop of some sort From the eastern 
extremity of the valley a road passes through a rocky 
defile leading to a long narrow valley called Banepa; 
and from this another road leads southwards across the 
hills to the town and valley of Panowti, which can also 
be reached by a path from the mam valley across the 
northern shoulder of Phulchowk. Both these valleys are 
fertde and well-cultivated. The streams which water 
them run to the east and join the Kusi. 

At the western end of the valley are two deep 
valleys, the Dhuni and Kolpu Bryasi The former is 
the moie southerly of the two, and is on a much lower 
level than Kathmandu The streams from these valleys 
run to join the Gunduk 

Fiom the north-east corner of the valley a rugged 
path runs across Kukani. This is the main road leading 
to Gorkha and to Tibet. From the summit of the pass 
a magnificent view of the Himalaya snowy range is 
obtained, the foreground being occupied by numerous 
nimoi langes, some of winch too are always snow-capped, 
and between which he several large,, fertile, well- watered 


The principal peaks of the snowy range seen from 
Kukani are: Mount Everest, 29,000 feet; Gosain 
Than, 26,000 feet; Yasa and Mutsiputra, 24,000 feet; 
and the so-called Diwalgiri, 26,800 feet. There are 
many intermediate peaks, and on a favourable day 
the snow may he seen from Kmchinjunga on the east to 
Diwalgiri on the west, stretching over at least 120 
degrees of the horizon. 

The principal valleys seen from the pass are the Liku 
and Taddi Kholas and the valley of Noakot Through 
the latter runs the Trisul Gunga, a large and rapid 
stream, afterwards known as the Gunduk. All these 
valleys are fertile and well cultivated, and being much 
lower than the valley of Nepal are of course warmer, 
and produce in abundance all the iruits found in the 
plains of Hindustan 

No Europeans are allowed to cross the Trisul Gunga, 
though there is an excellent bridge about four miles from 
the town of Noakot. 

On reaching the top of the Chandragiri pass, a 
stranger is at once impressed with an idea of the 
denseness of the population of the valley. Besides three 
large towns, which are conspicuous objects m the view, 
there are many smaller towns and innumerable hamlets, 
studded all over the higher grounds and slopes of 
the hills; and in addition to these, in almost every 
field there appears to be a cottage The natives them- 
selves estimate the population of the valley at about 
half a million, and probably this is not far from the 

The names of most of the towns and villages will 
be mentioned in the history, so it is only necessary here 


to give a short description of the present condition of a 
few of the most important. 

Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, stands near the 
centre of the valley, in Lat 27°42'N , and Long. 85°36'E. 
It is situated at the junction of the Bagmati and Vish- 
numati rivers, but lies closer to the latter, extending 
along its eastern bank for about a mile. When seen 
from above, its shape is very irregular, but it is said 
by the natives to resemble the ELhora or sword of Devi. 
It is known by several names, such as Yindesi, Kantiptir, 
and Kathmadu or Kathmandu It is said to have been 
founded by Raja Gunakamadeva, in the Kahgat year 
3824 (a d 723) 

The town is built on no regular plan ; but the main 
street may be said to run nearly north and south, and 
it is crossed at various angles by several others, while 
between these is a network of narrow dark lanes. The 
population, including that of the suburbs, is stated at 
50,000, but probably 30,000 would be nearer the truth. 
The houses are from two to four stories high, and are 
all built of brick and tiled, except in the suburbs, where 
the roofs are of thatch. The better class of buildings is 
elaborately ornamented with plaster and paintings, and 
the houses m general possess large projecting wooden 
wmdows or balconies, which are richly carved. Some of 
the windows represent a peacock with outspread tail ; 
others contain groups of figures of gods, men, griffins, 
horses, birds, lizards, etc , and are surrounded by garlands 
of flowers. The carving, as a rule, is bold and well- 
executed, but the best specimens are to be found on the 
older buildings, as the taste for it seems to be dying 
out. In several parts of the town tfchere are small open 
spaces, paved like the streets with brick and stone. In 


these the markets are held, and in the mornings they 
are quite gay with the flowers, fruit and vegetables 
exposed for sale. 

In the centre of the town stands the Maharaja's 
palace, which is a huge, rambling, ungainly building 
Part of it is very old, built in pagoda fashion and covered 
with elaborate and grotesque carvings. Other parts of 
it, such as the Durbar-room, have been built within the 
last ten years and possess glass windows, which are 
rare in Nepal, being found only in the houses of the 
wealthiest. In the square in front of the palace are 
numerous handsome temples. Many of these are like 
pagodas, of several stories in height, and profusely 
ornamented with carvings 1 , painting, and gilding The 
roofs of many of them are entirely of brass or copper 
gilt, and along the eaves of the different stories are 
hung numerous little bells, which tinkle in the breeze. 
At some of the doorways are placed a couple of large 
stone lions or griffins, with well-curled manes, which 
remind one strongly of the figures found at Nineveh. 
Another description of temple is built of stone with 
pillars and a dome. Though less ornamented and less 
picturesque, this style is far more graceful than the 
other Close to the palace, on the north, is the temple 
of Taleju, one of the largest of the pagoda type. It is 
said to have been built by Raja Mahmdia Malla, about 
A. D. 1549 It is devoted entirely to the uso of the 
royal family In front of several of the temples are 
tall monoliths, some surmounted by figuies of old 
Rajas, who founded the temples, others by the winged 

1 It u, untoituuate that the caivmg on many temples and powahs, and some- 
times even on private hou&es, contains most obscene groups ot Z\ have 
never been able to get any loasou assigned foi tins fittfcy otatomnreppt that such 
figures are supposed to protect the builchugs from being btiuck by lightning 


figure of Garur. The figures are often in a kneeling 
posture, facing a temple, and are generally overhung 
by a brazen snake, on whose head is perched a little 
bird Not far fiora the palace, and close to one of the 
temples, is an enormous bell, suspended to stone pillars , 
and in another building are two huge drums, about 
eight feet in diameter The bell is sounded by pulling 
the tongue, but the peal is by no means what might be 
expected from its size Here too are several huge and 
hideous figures of Hindu gods and goddesses 1 , which 
on festival days are dressed up and ornamented in the 
usual way 

About two hundred yards from the palace stands a 
large semi-European building, called the Kot, which is 
famous as being the place where, in 1846, the massacre 
took place of almost all the leading men of the country, 
by which event the present prime minister was esta- 
blished in power 

Besides the temples already noticed, many others' 
are to be found m every street and lane. In fact, at 
a first glance, the town seems to consist of almost 
nothing but temples. They vary in size from the 
gigantic pagoda of Taleju to a diminutive shrine cut 
out of a single stone, with an image a few inches high 
in the centre. Many of them present a most repulsive 
appearance^ being dabbled over with the blood of cocks, 
ducks, goats, and buffaloes, which are sacrificed before 

The streets of Kathmandu are very narrow, mere lanes 
in fact ; and the whole town is very dirty. In every lane 

1 During my residence in NepSl I have twice heard of people having committed 
suicide on tho steps m iiont of one of these images The suicide always takes 
place at night, and thejbody is found m the morning, with its throat cut fiom ear 
to ear, and its hmbs decproubly arranged^ lying on one of the &teps 1 

12 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

there is a stagnant ditch, full of putrid mud, and no 
attempt is ever made to clean these thoroughly. The 
streets, it is true, are swept in the centre, and part of the 
filth is carried off by the sellers of manure ; but to clean 
the drains would now be impossible without knocking 
down the entue city, as the whole ground is saturated 
with filth. The houses are generally built in the form 
of hollow squares, opening off the streets by low door- 
ways ; and these central courtyards are too often only 
receptacles for rubbish of every sort. In short, from a 
sanitary point of view, Kathmandu may be said to be 
built on a dunghill in the middle of latrines 1 

On leaving the town by the north-east gateway, and 
turning to the south, the first object one sees is a large 
tank, the Ranipokhri. It is surrounded by a wall, and 
in the centre is a temple, united to the western bank 
by a long narrow brick bridge. On the south side is 
a large figure of an elephant, cut out of, or rather built 
of, stone, bearing the image of Raja Pratapa Malla, the 
maker of the tank, and of his Bam A little farther 
south the road passes through an avenue of bukayun 
trees, which runs between the city and the great parade- 
ground or Tudikhel. This ground is a large opeii space, 
covered with a fine green sward, and here the troops 
are daily drilled and exercised In the centre is a square 
stone buildmg about thirty feet high, which was erected 
by Sir Jung Bahadur after his return from England in 
1851. On the top, till lately, stood a figure of Sir 
Jung Bahadur, holding a sword in one hand and a scroll 
m the other, and at the four corners were hideous 
brazen griffins or dragons. All these have however 
been removed to a new temple built by Sir Jung 
Bahadur on the bank of the Bagmati. To the west 


of the parade-ground is a more graceful object, namely 
the Darera or column erected by a former prime minister, 
General Bhlmasena Thapa. This column is beautifully 
proportioned, standing on a base of stone, and rising 
to a height of 250 feet. This is the second column of 
the kind that was built by Bhlmasena, the first having 
been thrown down by a violent earthquake in 1833. 
The column now standing was struck by lightning in 
1856, and a large rent was made all down one side. 
It was repaired, however, in 1869, and now looks as 
well as ever. There is a good winding staircase inside, 
and from the windows at the top a fine bird's-eye view 
of the town and its environs may be obtained. 

A little farther south stands the arsenal, and to the 
east of the parade-ground are store-houses for ammuni- 
tion, cannon, etc , and a manufactory where these are 
cast and bored. A new workshop on a larger scale 
has lately been built about four miles south of the city, 
on a small stream, the Nukku, near Chaubahal. 

The road now turns to the east, and at about a mile 
south-east of Kathmandu it reaches Thapatali, the resi~ 
dence of Sir Jung Bahadur. This is an immense 
building, or rather range of buildings, situated close to 
the northern bank of the Bagmati, just where it is 
crossed by a bridge leading to Patan. 

Thapatali consists of a succession of squares of gi- 
gantic houses, four or five stories in height, which are 
occupied by Sir Jung Bahadur, his sons, and their 
numerous families. The buildings and grounds are kept 
in good order, and the place is well worth visiting, 
especially as the owner most obligingly allows stran- 
gers to inspect the public rooms, and the grounds, 
with all the curiosities contained in them. The four 



public rooms are large, lofty, and ornamented with 
pictuies and carvings They are full of curiosities of 
ISTepalese, Chinese and English manufactuie. Of the 
last it is difficult to say what there is not. From a 
baby's fiock to a reflecting telescope or an Erard's 
piano, there seems to be a specimen of everything, all 
jumbled together. The Durbar-room is beautifully fur- 
nished with satin sofas, mahogany and ivory chairs, 
pianos, etc. The walls are graced with pictures of Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria and Punce Albert, which were 
given as presents to the King, besides full-length por- 
traits of Sir Jung Bahadur, his brothers and other 
relatives, which were painted m England and Fiance. 
In the centie of the hall stands a crystal chandelier 
some thirty feet in height, which was also brought 
from London, and cost, it is said, £500 After inspect- 
ing the public rooms, the stranger is shown the tro- 
phies of Sn Jung Bahadur's hunting expeditions These 
consist of skulls of elephants, tigers, rhinoceroses, wild 
buffaloes, and gayal , stacks of deer-horns of all sorts ; 
dkina of the above-mentioned animals, ciocodiles, and 
3nakes, with many other cunosities. In the Elephant 
comt are generally to be found some fine males, used 
for hunting wild elephants, and also frequently one or 
two comical little young ones, born after their mothers 
have been caught in the annual hunting expedition. 
The stables, cowhouses and kennels are likewise open for 
inspection, and are well worth looking at 

Before crossing the Bagmati to Patan, it may be 
as well to return by the road just described and pro- 
ceed northwards. The road skirts the suburbs of Kath- 
mandu and then passes a series of large houses, built 
like Thapatali, but on a smaller scale, which belong to 


three of Sir Jung Bahadur's brothers. Just beyond 
these houses, a road strikes off stiaight north, leading 
to the British Besiden cj, which lies about a mile to 
the north of Kathmandu 1 . It is pleasantly situated 
on a high table-land, and is well sheltered by lofty 
pmetrees A little to the north-east stand the lines 
of the Resident's escort, which consists of one com- 
pany of sepoys 

The road that is now being described turns to the 
west, and leads, through a splendid avenue of willow- 
trees, across the Yishnumati, to a place called Balaji, 
where the King has a pleasure-house and gardens Here 
the mam road ends, and a footpath proceeds across the 
hills to the north-west. 

Fiom Thapatali a road runs across a bridge over 
the Bfigmati and leads to Patau. From the centre of 
the bridge a good view is obtained of the numerous 
temples lining the northern bank, and also of the 
houses and grounds of Thfipatah At the northern end 
of the bridge stands a curious stone pillar, supported 
on the back of a gigantic tortoise, and surmounted by 
a grotesque hguie of a lion This was erected by 
General Bhimasena Thapa, the builder of the bridge. 

The town of Patan stands on a rising ground, a 
short distance fioin the southern bank of the Bagmati, 
and about two miles south-east of Kathmandu. It is 
an older town than Kathmandu, having been built m the 
reign of Baja Bir Deva m the Kaligat year 3400, A d. 
299. The tradition connected with its building is given 
in the History. It is known by the names of Yellon- 

1 This spot was assigned, for the Britisli Eesidency because, owing to a deficient 
supply of •ftatei, it \va^ a barren patch, supposed to be very unhealthy and to be 
the abode of demons ' Now the place lb one of the be&fc wooded and uiOnt beautiful 
spots m the \ alley 


desi and Lalita Patan The latter name is derived 
from Laht, the founder of the city. Its general aspect 
is much the same as that of the capital. The streets 
are as narrow and dirty, the gutters as offensive, and 
the temples even more numerous , but it appears much 
more dilapidated than Kathmandu, many of the houses 
and temples being in rums. The main square, how- 
ever, 'in the centre of the town, is very handsome. 
On one side is the old Durbar, with a fine brazen 
gateway, guardian lions, and endless carvings. In front 
of this are monoliths, with the usual figures on them, 
and behind these is a row of very handsome old temples 
of every description. 

One of Sir Jung Bahadur's brothers sometimes re- 
sides at the Durbar, being in command of the division 
of the army which is quartered at Patan. The parade- 
ground lies to the south-east of the town, the road to 
it passing through a suburb abounding m pigs. The 
parade-ground is extensive, and theie are several large 
tanks to the west, while on the northern side stands 
a huge Budhist temple of the most primitive descrip- 
tion. This temple is merely a mound or dome of brick- 
work, covered with earth. There is a small shrine at 
each of the cardmal points, and on the top what looks 
like a wooden ladder. Many similar mound-temples, or 
Chaityas, exist in and around Patan. The population 
of the town is said to be about 30,000. 

Prom Kathmandu a wide road leads neaily due 
east to the third large town or city of the valley, 
Bhatgaon, which is about nine miles from the capital. 
This town was founded by Baja Anand Malla, A t>. 865, 
and was at first named Bhagtapiir, but was also known 
as Dharma Patan and Khopodesi. Its shape is said to 

Marin-. tMvtiRinld Initio*'!). 

(Pldtelll) AT BHATGAON (pp!7,]95J 


be that of the Dambril 1 of Mahadeo. It is built on 
high ground, sti etching from east to west, and most 
of the side streets run down a steep incline towards 
the bank of a small stream on the southern side, 
which afterwards joins the Bagmati. Bhatgaon has 
much wider, better paved, and cleaner streets than 
either of the other towns. Its houses too seem in better 
repair, and it strikes a stranger as being altogether m 
a more nourishing condition. The population is esti- 
mated at about 30,000. 

The mam square, as usual, contains an immense 
number of temples, conspicuous among which is the 
central one, called by the Newars Nyatpola Dewal, or 
the five-storied temple. None but the priests are allowed 
to enter it, so that the common people do not even 
know to what god it is dedicated This five-storied 
temple is pagoda-shaped, and stands on a base consistmg 
of five platforms. The staircase leadmg to the entrance 
is guarded on each platform by two colossal figuies. The 
lowest are statues of Jayamalla and Phatta, two cham- 
pions of a Bhatgaon Raja, each of whom is said to have 
had the strength of ten men The next are elephants, 
ten times as strong as the men. The third are lions, 
ten times as strong as the elephants. The fourth are 
sarduls or griffins, ten times as strong as the lions. 
And the fifth are Byaghnni and Singhrim, two goddesses 
of supernatural power. The same design is seen in many 
of the smaller temples in Bhatgaon, the rhinoceros, horse, 
and camel, however, sometimes taking a place in the 
series. Some of the finest carvings are to be found in 
the square in front of the old Durbar, which is famous 

1 A dainbrH or damru is a small drum shaped like an hour-glass 
W K. 2 

1 8 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

for a magnificently designed brazen gateway At the 
Dm bar is the residence of tlio young eat brother of the 
minister, General Dor Shamsher, who commands the 
Bhatgfion division of the army 

To the west and south of the town are several large 
tanks. One of these, which stands close to the western 
gate, and between it and the parade-ground, is above 
the level of the ground, and is surrounded by a wall 
with four gates in the middle of the sides This tank 
is full of gold and silver fish, which were originally 
brought fiom China in the time of General Blmnasena 
These fish are now common m many of the small tanks 
in the valley. Close to this tank, on the north, is a 
small house, built by the Bhatgaon general for the use 
of the Butish resident 

Besides these three laige towns, there are about 
sixty smaller ones scattered over the valley, to give a 
description of which would only lead to tiresome repeti- 
tion. The names of the principal ones only will thorefoie 
be given, and a few words said about them 

At the foot of the Chandiagiii pass is a small town 
called Thankot , and eastwaid of this, on a rocky ridge 
that runs acioss the valley, aie several villages The 
chief of these, Kirtipur, consists of several long narrow 
streets, built along the top of the ridge This town is 
famous among the Nepalese for religious reasons, and 
also for the resistance it offeied to the Gorkha conquerors 
It sustained seveial sieges, and the brother of Puthwi 
Naiayan, the Goikha kmg, was killed befoie it. At last 
it was entered by tieacheiy, and the savage conqueior 
ordered the noses of all the men, women and clnldien 
to be cut off. Theic is no doubt of the tiuth of tins, 


as it was recorded by Father Giuseppe 1 , who was then 
present in the country, and thirty years afterwards, 
when Colonel Kirkpatrick visited Nepal, he saw many 
of the unfortunate victims. The population of Kirtipur 
is said to be about 4000 East of Kirtipur, and about 
two miles south of Kathmandu, stands Chowbahal, which 
is a small town of about 1000 inhabitants. It is built 
on a conical eminence, rising out of the ridge already 
mentioned, and to the east of the town is the narrow 
gorge through which the Bagmati passes. 

About three miles south-east of Chowbahal, on the 
eastern bank of the Bagmati, stands the village of 
Bhogmati, famous in Nepalese traditions, in connection 
with Machchhindranatha. Across the river, embedded 
in jungle on the mountain-side, stood a shootmg-box 
belonging to Sir Jung Bahadur Unfortunately this 
was burned down a year or two ago. 

Some miles farther south, on the southern side of 
the river, but placed high on the hill-side, is the small 
town of Phuiphing. A road passes-. Phurphmg across 
the mountain to Chitlong, but it is so rugged and steep 
that it is scarcely ever used. 

From Patau two roads pass out. One of these runs 
south, through the villages of Sonagutti and Thecho, 
and leads to the small town of Chapagaon or, as it is 
more usually pronounced, Champagaon This town stands 
on a small eminence, and close to it is a sacred grove, 
containing an old temple and many fine old trees 

The other road runs out from Patan to the south- 
east, and passing through the small towns of Harsiddhi, 

1 A description of the country, with a Ml account of the invasion of the Gor- 
Ivbas, ^utten by Father Giuseppe, i& to be found in the second volume of the 



Thyba and Bauragaon, terminates at Godavari. Godavari 
is one of the holiest places in Nepal, and once eveiy 
twelve years a great mela is held there for a whole month, 
to which thousands of people come from all parts o£ 
Nepal. The spring, according to tradition, is m direct 
communication with the river Godavari m Madias. 
There are several little temples and tanks picturesquely 
situated at the foot of the hills, and Sir Jung Bahadur 
and his brothers have "budt large country houses here, 
which however are seldom occupied 

Large cardamom gardens have been constructed at 
Godavari and yield a profitable crop. 

A narrow footpath leads up from one of the temples 
to the summit of Phulchowk This mountain is said 
to be 9,720 feet high, and the ascent is long and tire- 
some, though by no means difficult. It is thickly wooded, 
and at the top very fine tree-rhododendrons are found, 
of every hue, from pure white to dark crimson Among 
the jungle, the wild rose, yellow jessamine, arbutus, 
iris, etc., grow in profusion. At the very top is a small 
shrine, often visited by pilgrims from the valley, and 
close to this are two heaps, one consisting of weavers' 
shuttles, and the other of small iron tridents, which are 
deposited here by the pilgrims. 

On the road from Kathmandu to Bhatgaon, there are 
three towns, Nadi, Budi and Themi, the last of which 
is famous for the manufacture of earthenware of all 

Another narrow road, paved with stone, leads from 
the capital m a north-easterly direction to the sacred 
shrines of Pashupati This road passes by the villages 
of Navasagar, Nandigfion, Haiigaon, Chabahd, and 
TWapatan, all of which are famous m tradition 


Pashupati stands on the western bank of the Bag- 
mati, about three miles north-east of Kathmandu. The 
town itself is rather dilapidated, and consists of one main 
street, running east and west, and a few side streets, 
which are horribly dirty and abound with pigs. Close 
to the bank of the river stands the holiest temple of 
ifepal, the shrine of Pashupatinatha It is a handsome 
building in the pagoda style, with a brazen gilt roof, 
and large richly carved silver gates. A good view of 
it is obtained from the high bank on the opposite side 
of the river, but no European is ever allowed to approach 
even the outer wall of the temple The banks of the 
river are paved for several hundred yards, and there 
are stone steps and places for burning the dead here 
and there. The river is crossed by two handsome 
bridges, from which a good view of the buildings is 
obtained. The stream is here narrow, and runs between 
precipitous banks of 80 or 100 feet in height. The 
banks are wooded above the temples, and amongst the 
trees on the face of the banks are some curious fakirs' 
caves. On the eastern side of the river is a hill, covered 
with lofty trees (chiefly oak and champa) and jungle, 
which is alive with monkeys, who are as familiar and 
impudent as in most other holy places This wood is 
the Mrigasthali of Nepalese tradition. In the centre 
of the wood are numerous small shrines and temples, 
including a large one lately built by Sir Jung Bahadur. 

To Pashupati almost all the dying are brought when 
their end approaches, and at the last moment they are 
hurried to the edge of the stream, and their lower ex- 
tremities are immersed in the water. Here too the 
bodies of the dead are burned, and there is a spot close 
by where Satis are immolated. 


Every year, in the month of February, from 10,000 
to 20,000 pilgrims from the plains of Hindustan come 
to visit Pashupati and' bathe in the B^gmati, The minor 
festivals held at the place are innumerable, and hardly 
a day passes that it is not visited by crowds for religious 

About four miles east of Pashupati is a small town, 
Changu Narayan, and two miles north-east of this stands 
Sankhu, which was once a place of some importance, but 
is now only noted for the religious ceremonies performed 

About four^niiles west of Sankhu is Gaukarna, a small 
and very holy village, frequently mentioned in Kepalese 
traditions. It stands on the banks of the Bagmati, about 
two miles above and north-east of Pashupati. Close to 
Gaukarna is a large jungle, which has been enclosed as a 
deer park by Sir Jung Bahadur. 

Between Gaukarna and Pashupati, about a mile north 
of the latter, and about three and a half miles from 
Kathmandu, is a peculiar village called Bodhnath. This 
village is built m a circle round an immense Budhist 
temple. The temple consists of a circular platform of 
brickwork, on which is raised a solid dome of brickwork, 
surmounted by a brazen minaret of peculiar shape Around 
the platform are niches, in each of which are painted 
cylinders, about 15 inches high and 6 inches m diame- 
ter, fitted into an iron frame. Each of these is filled 
with a roll of the usual Budhist prayers, and the pious 
twirl the cylinders as they walk round the temple per- 
forming their devotions. The mound is about 100 yards 
in diameter, and has the usual four shrines at the cardi- 
nal points. This place is a favourite resort of the Bhotiyas 
and Tibetans, who visit the valley m the cold season, 


and many of the houses are occupied as jewellers' shops, 
wherein are manufactured peculiar amulets, armlets, neck- 
laces, etc., which the Bliotiyas wear in great profusion. 

At the foot of the Seopfiri mountain is a small village 
containing the tank and shrine of Nilakantha, which is 
also famous in Nepalese history. 

At the extremity of the willow avenue, already men- 
tioned, stands a small village named Balajl. This is 
situated at the foot of the Nagarjun mountain, which is 
often mentioned in the History. The mountain has 
within the last six years been inclosed by a wall, and 
it is now made a deer park and game preserve for Sir 
Jung Bahadur There are several caves and fakirs' huts 
along the northern side of the hill, and some small tem- 
ples on the crest of the hill and at the very summit At 
the foot of the hill are springs, 111 one of which lies a 
huge recumbent figure of Mahadeo The king has a 
pleasure-house and garden hero, and in the grounds are 
several laige tanks, full of big fish, which aie very tame 
and come to be fed 

To the west of the capital, at a distance of about 
a mile and a half, stand the village and temple of 
SimbhumTth or more properly Swayambhuuatha. As this 
is fully described m the Histoiy, and as a very coiTect 
picture of it is given in this woik, it is needless to 
say more about it here. There are two roads leading to 
it £tom Kathmandu, which cross the Vishnumati by 
narrow budges These roads aie paved with stone, and 
the top of the hill, where the temples stand, is reached 
by a staircase of about 400 stone steps The height is 
about 250 feet above the level of the valley. 

At the foot of the staircase is a colossal statue of 
Sakya Smha ; an incarnation of Budha At the top of 

24 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap r 

the staircase is a circular erection about three feet high, 
covered with brass, and bearing a large gilt Bajra or 
thunderbolt of Indra, which resembles a double-headed 
sceptre Around the large central dome-shaped temple 
or mound are numerous small temples, shrines, bells, 

Simbhunath is much frequented by the Newars and 
Bhotiyas, but is not held in great respect by the Hindu 
part of the population. 

South-east of Simbhunath, between it and Kathmandu, 
lies the artillery parade-ground, on which stands a large 
house, used as an arsenal and museum of old weapons of 
all sorts. 

As regards the buildings of the country one point 
remains to be noticed, and that is the number of Powahs, 
Patis, and Satals scattered all along the roads and paths. 
These are resting-places for travellers and pilgrims 
Some are large square two-storied buildings, frequently 
attached to temples and shrines Others are mere sheds, 
consisting of a -wall with a tiled verandah supported on 
wooden pillars. All of them are erected by private per- 
sons, and supported by the descendants of the builders. 
Many of them therefore are falling into ruins, but new- 
ones are as constantly erected to replace them. The 
building of these resting-places, and of Dharas or water- 
ing-places, is considered a highly meritorious act by the 


Population of the countiy "Various races Gurkhas, N*ewars, Magais, 
Gurungs, Iambus, Knatis, Bhotiyas, and Lepchas Then appear- 
ance, languages, dress, and ornaments Food Drinks .Education 
.Religions Marriage Satis Adultery and its pumshment Divorce. 
Eras m use in Nepal Religious festivals 

Fob the size of the country Nepal possesses a great 
variety of races in its population The principal of these 
are the Gorkhas, JNTewars, Magars, Gurungs, Limbus, 
Kiratis, Bhotiyas and Lepchas 

The Gorkhas, or Gorkhalis, so named from the former 
capital of their country, are the dominant race. They 
formerly occupied the district around the .town of 
Gorkha, which is about forty miles west of Kathmandti. 
They are said to be of Rajput descent, and to have 
been driven out of Rajputana on the occasion of an 
invasion by Musulmans 1 They first settled near Palpa, 
having passed through the Kumaon hills, and gradually 
extended their dominions to Gorkha. A little more than 
a hundred years 2 ago they invaded Nepal, and the 
country to the eastward, and they have remained the 
ruling race ever since 

The Gorkhas are in general rather fine-looking men. 
Some of the higher castes, such as are found in some 
regiments of the army, are tall and slim in figure, but 

1 The royal family claims to be descended from that of Udaipui 
s The centenary of the conquest -was in 1868 


muscular and wiry, and have high features like the 
natives of Hindustan However, owing to intermarriage, 
etc , the various races have become much mixed. They 
are essentially a military race, and form the bulk of the 
army They are temperate and hardy, and make good 
soldiers, but they are by no means industrious, and take 
but a small share in the agricultural or mechanical 
labours of the country. They live chiefly in Kathmiindu, 
but many are scattered about in the other towns and 
throughout the country 

The Newars constitute the iargest section of the 
inhabitants of the valley, but are not numerous beyond 
its limits. They were the occupiers of the country prior 
to the invasion of the Gorkhas, and they still form the 
bulk of the population of Patau, Bhatgaon, and most 
of the smaller towns They axe m general a shorter set 
of men than the Gorkhas, and their features are more 
of the Mongolian type They perform almost all the 
agricultural and mechanical work of the country, and 
many of them are skilful carpenters, masons, woikers 
in metal, painters and embroiderers * Most of the trade 
of the country too is m the hands of Newars, and a few 
of them are very weal thy. 

The Magars and Gurungs inhabit chiefly the country 
to the west of the Nepal valley They are short powerful 
men, of Mongolian cast of features. These ate the men 
mostly to be found m what are called the British Gorkha 

1 They are industrious enough when working for themselves m the fields or 
elsewhere, but *hen employed by Europeans they aie the most idle, exasperating 
workers that it is possible to conceive The only way to get them to work is to 
have a sopoy to watch them Most of them too aie Banras or Budhiat pnobtB, and 
on an average they take four holidays in. a week ' 


The Limbus and Kirafcis occupy the hilly country 
to the eastwaid of the valley. The Limbus are much 
employed in the army, and both they and the Kiratis 
are famous as hunters They are both short natfaced 
people, powerfully built, and decidedly Mongolian m 

The Lepchas occupy the hills near Sikkhim, and in 
general characteristics closely resemble the Bhotiyas. 

The Bhotiyas are the hillmen living around the valley, 
and between it and Tibet. They are powerful, muscular, 
but ugly people Much of the carrying of burdens is 
performed by them, and the load they can bear is sur- 
prising. It is by no means uncommon for them to carry 
two maunds, though one maund (80 lbs ) is the regular 
load, and this too has to be carried over hills several 
thousand feet in height, where the paths are of the most 
primitive construction. The Bhotiyas always carry loads 
on their backs, supported by a strap across the forehead, 
whereas the Newars invariably carry theirs in baskets 
with a pole across the shoulder. 

In addition to these regular inhabitants of the valley, 
a number of natives of Bhotan and Tibet visit it in the 
cold season, generally living around Bodhnath and 

A few Musulmans, consisting of Kashmiri and Iraki 
merchants, live 111 Kathmandii. The former have been 
established there for several generations. Altogether 
they do not number more than about one thousand. 

These various races differ greatly from each other in 
many respects. The language used by the Gorkhas is 
Parbatiya, which is a modern dialect of the Sanskrit, 
and is written in the same character. The Newari lan- 
guage is quite distinct, and the written character also 

28 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

is somewhat different. The other races have each a 
language, or at least a dialect, of their own ; and some 
of them, such as the Limbus and northern Bhotryas, use 
the Tibetan language 

The Gorkhas are decidedly the best-dressed part of 
the population. In summer they wear paejamas and a 
jacket, or long tunic, of white or blue cotton, with a 
kamarhand, in which is invariably fastened a kukhri, 
or large heavy crooked knife. In winter they wear 
similar clothes padded with cotton, or, if they are able 
to afford it, lined with fur. The headdress is generally 
a small closely-rolled turban of dark cloth, but they 
often wear a loosely folded pagri, or a gaudy little skull- 
cap, ornamented with tinsel and braid. 

The poorer classes of the Newars wear in general 
little but a waist-cloth and a jacket of coarse cotton or 
woollen cloth, according to the season. Some of the 
wealthier, particularly merchants who have visited Tibet, 
wear a handsome dress, consisting of very full short 
trousers, a long tunic, and a fur-edged cap. Some of the 
men, especially the inhabitants of Harsiddhi, wear a long 
robe like a woman's gown, reaching to the ankles, and 
gathered into numerous plaits at the waist. The head- 
dress of the Newars is a small skull-cap of black or 
white cloth, thinly wadded with cotton, and generally 
turned up for an inch or so at the border. The dress of 
the other races varies little from those already described 

The women of all the races dress much alike, wearing 
a cloth 1 by way of petticoat, gathered into a mass of 
plaits m front and almost touching the ground, but short 
behind, barely reaching the knee. Besides this, they 

1 The ladies of the higher classes like their mttshn to be Mxty or eighty yards m 
length Of course they cannot walk much with such a bundle round thorn 

tbtlm IMmkutt Uik"T™lii 



wear a jacket, and a sari (shawl or sheet), which is either 
worn as in. the plains of India, or wrapped round the 
"body like a broad kamarband. Headdress they have 
none. The Newar women may be distinguished fiorn 
those of the other races by having their hair gathered 
into a short thick club on the crown of the head, wheieas 
the otheis have it plaited into a long tail, ornamented at 
the end with a tassel of red cotton or silk. 

All the women wear a profusion of ornaments, such 
as golden or brass plates with jewels on the top of then 
heads, necklaces of beads (coral or gold), rings, eai rings 
of peculiar shapes, nose-rings, etc. The handsomest, or 
at any rate the most peculiar, ornaments are worn by 
the Bhotiya women, and consist of necklaces of agate, 
coral, and other stones, massive chains, silver amulets 
of great size, bracelets of shells, and the like. 

All classes are very fond of flowers and use them 
greatly for ornamenting their hair, especially on festiva] 
days. Both men and women generally have flowers 
stuck in their hair or behind their ears. 

The next subject to be noticed is the food of the 

The Brahmans of course live in the same way as 
their brethren in the plains of India, but the bulk of 
the population consumes a great deal more flesh than 
is customary m Hindustan. The Gorkhas eat chiefly the 
flesh of khaals, or gelding goata, which are imported in 
great numbers both from the Teiai and the northern 
hills The higher classes also consume large quantities 
of game, such as deer, wild boar, pheasants, etc. The 
wild pigs are caught when young, and kept and fed 
like domestic pigs m England. They become very tame, 
and may often be seen on the roads, following th^r 


owners from distant villages just like dogs. The Newars 
are great consumers of buffaloes, and also of goats, sheep, 
ducks and fowls. The sheep they eat are all imported 
from the Mis to the north and west, as they will not use 
the sheep from the plains of India, because they have 
long tails ' The Magars and Gurungs are Hindus, but of 
low caste The former eat pork but not buffaloes' flesh; 
while the latter eat the buffalo but not the pig The 
Limbus, Kiratis and Lepchas are Budhists, and live in 
the same way as the Newars It is nob very often, 
however, that the poorer classes can indulge in fiesh, and 
the greater part of their food consists of rice and vege- 
tables, which are generally plentiful throughout the 
year. They are especially fond of garlic, both raw and 
cooked, and of radishes. The latter they use in a semi- 
fermented or rotten state called Sinki, the smell of 
which is something unutterably abominable. Hence it 
is anything but pleasant for a European to find him- 
self in a crowd of Newars, or even to follow a string 
of them along a narrow path. 

The JSTewars, ,and most of the lower castes, consume 
a considerable quantity of a coarse spirit called Hakshl, 
which is distilled from rice and wheat 1 It is prepared 
by families in their own houses, and there is no tax on 
it when made merely for home consumption, but a license 
is required if it is to be sold. Amongst the Newais 
the consumption of this is habitual, but drunkenness 
is after all not very common among them, except on 
the mela days and during the season of transplanting 
the nee 

1 The higher elates .arc supposed not to touch spirits, as they woxild lose caste 
by f,o dfuutf Sticingc to s,rv, hcnvc^ci, im timle la bo pioiitable m Nepal as that of 
impoitmy brandy oi chiiun>,i</uc ! 


The higher classes, and the lower too when they 
can afford it, consume a Lirge quantity of tea 1 . This 
is imported from Tibet It is prepared m two ways , 
either boiled with spices, when it tastes like weak 
negus , or made with ghee and milk, when it more 
resembles vi eak chocolate. 

The subject of schools and colleges in Nepal may be 
treated as briefly as that of snakes in Ireland There 
are none. Sir Jung Bahadur and some of the wealthier 
class have tutors, either Eiuopeans or Bengali Babiis, 
to teach their children English, but there is no public 
provision for education of any sort. Every man teaches 
his own children, or employs the family priest or Pandit 
for the purpose. The lower classes are simply without 
education of any kind whatever. 

As might be expected among so many races, there 
are several religions. The Kashmiris and Irakis are 
Musulmans. The Gorkhas, Magars, and Gurungs, are 
Hindus Their religion and customs are very much the 
same as those of the inhabitants of Hindustan, and 
they are divided into the same castes, and observe the 
same rules as regards food and water 

Polygamy is generally practised, and some of the 
wealthy men have numerous wives The marriage of 
widows is foibidden, and Sati was formerly of common 
occurrence. Of late years, however, that is, since Sir 
Jung Bahadur's visit to England, this custom has been 
discouraged, and various restrictions have been placed 
upon it Thus women having young children are not 
allowed to immolate themselves ; nor are intending Satis 

1 The tea pi of erred by tlio Nepalese 13 the brick- tea Ordinary tea, snch aq the 
English uno, ib not pmed, and m only kept and drunk by a few of the hij/lur 
cl isso who hn\ v \i lUd ( 1 lkuttii 


prevented from altering their intention even m presence 
of the fatal pile Formerly a woman having once de- 
clared her intention was forced to adhere to it, and if 
she attempted to escape, she was stoned to death 
These improvements, as well as many to be hereafter 
noticed, are entirely due to the personal influence of 
Sir Jung Bahadur, and have been carried out hi spite 
of the greatest opposition from the priests and Brahmans. 
The Gorkhas punish breaches of conjugal fidelity most 
severely. An erring wife is imprisoned for Me 1 , and 
the dishonoured husband was expected to cut down the 
seducer with his kukhri the first time he encountered 
him. Sir Jung Bahadur has however placed restrictions 
on this custom, as he found it open to much abuse. The 
culprit is now arrested, and after his guilt is proved, 
the injured husband is allowed to cut him down in 
public, the victim being allowed a chance of escaping 
by running away, for which purpose he is given a start 
of a few yards 2 . Practically however his chance of 
escaping is very small, as he is generally tripped by some 
of the bystanders. The old laws against adultery, and 
also agamst breaches of caste, were most severe and 
brutal, but as these revolting punishments are now 
things of the past, it is of no use dwelling upon them. 

The Newars, Limbus, Kiratis, and Bhotiyas are all 
Budhists. Their religion has become singularly mixed 
up with Hinduism, and there are several castes or 

1 Besides the imprisonment she is generally m the first place subjected to very 
severe domestic discipline, m the shape of a most cruel flogging 

a The man can save his life, with the loss of caste, if he passes under the lifted 
leg of the husband, but this is so ignominious that death is usually preferred The 
woman can save her paramour if she persists m saying that he is not the first man 
with whom she has gone astray Massacres of this sort frequently take place, and 
I have known of several instances wherem young men highly connected have fallen 


divisions among them, but their customs are in the 
main much alike. 

T11 their worship they make great use of offerings of 
flowers and fruit, and some sects sacrifice buffaloes, goats, 
cocks, and drakes at their shrines. The blood alone is 
sprinkled on the shrines, and the flesh is consumed by 
the worshippers. Formerly much barbarity was prac- 
tised in the performance of these sacrifices, but of late 
years, thanks to Sir Jung Bahadur, the ceremony is 
restricted to the decapitation of the victim and the 
sprinkling of the blood. 

The marriage-tie is by no means so binding among 
the Newars as amoog the Gorkhas. Every Newar girl, 
while a child, is married to a bel-fruit, which after the 
ceremony is thrown into some sacred river. When she 
arrives at puberty, a husband is selected for her, but, 
should the marriage prove unpleasant, she can divorce 
herself by the simple process of placing a betel-nut 
under her husband's pillow and walking off. Of late 
years, however, this license has been somewhat restricted, 
and a divorce cannot now be effected in so simple a 
manner Widows are allowed to remarry In fact, a 
Newarin is never a widow, as the bel-fruit to which 
she was first married is presumed to be always in exist- 
ence. Adultery is but lightly punished among the 
Newars The woman is divorced, and her partner in 
guilt has to make good the money expended by the 
husband on the marriage, or, failing this, he is imprisoned. 

The Newars burn their dead, and widows may, if 
they please, immolate themselves as Satis, but it is very 
seldom that they avail themselves of this privilege. 

The laws of inheritance are the same in Nepal as 
throughout Hindustan. The eldest son obtains the 

W N 3 


largest portion of the property of Ms deceased father ; 
but provision is made for the younger children and 
widow or widows. 

There are three principal eras in use in Nepal. The 
introduction of these and the traditions connected with 
them are given m the History. 

The Sambat of Vikramaditya commences 57 years 
before the Christian era ; the Saka era of Salibahana 
begins 78 years after the Christian era; and the Ne- 
palese era dates from October, a.d. 880 The Kaligat 
era is also sometimes used , it begins B.C. 3101. 

The Sambat and Saka years m Nepal begin on the 
1st of Baisakh Badi, instead of the 1st of Chait Sudi as 
in Hindustan. The Nepalese year begins on the 1st of 
Kartik Badi. 

As the shrines in Nepal are estimated at the modest 
number of 2,733, it may naturally be supposed that the 
religious festivals are somewhat numerous. To a stranger 
indeed they seem never ending, and the marvel is when 
the people find time to earn their livelihood 

The origin of most of these festivals is fully noticed 
in the History, so that it is unnecessary to repeat the 
traditions here. To give a complete list of them would 
be a prodigious task Only a few of the principal will 
therefore be mentioned 

1 The Machckhmdra Jatra, 

This festival is in honour of Machchhmdranatha, the 
guardian deity of Nepal. The traditions connected with 
it are fully given in the History. Machchhmdra's temple 
and image are at the village of Bogmati. The cere- 
monies commence on the 1st of Baisakh, when the idol 


is bathed with holy water and the sword of the king 
is presented to it. The image is then taken to Patan, 
mounted on a large rath or oar, on which is placed a, 
shrine ornamented with carvings, evergreens, flowers-, 
etc- This progress lasts for several days, generally a 
week, as there are regular stages, at each of which the 
image halts for a day, and its attendants are fed at the 
expense of the neighbourhood. The image remains at 
Patan for a month, and then on an auspicious day it 
is taken back to Bogmati. This day is called Gudri- 
jhar, because the blanket of Maohchhindra is shaken 
before the people to show that he carries nothing away 
from them, and that, though in poverty, he is contented. 

2. Bajra Joginl Jatra, on the 3rd of Baisakh. 

Bajra Joginl was originally a goddess of the Bu~ 
dhists only, but is now worshipped hj Hindus as well. 
Her temple is on the Manichur mountain near Sankhu. 
Not far from her temple is that of Kharg Joginl, where 
fire is always kept burning, and near which is the 
image of a human head. The traditions connected with 
these are given in the History. The Jatra of Bajra 
Joginl is held at Sankhu, and lasts for a week. The 
image of the goddess is placed in a khat, or wooden 
shrine, and carried through the town on men's shoulders. 

3. Sithl Jatra. 

This takes place on the 21 st of Jeth, on the banks 
of the Vishnumati, between Kathmandii and Sinibhii- 
nath. After feasting, the people divide into two parties 
and have a match at stone-throwing Formerly this 
used to be a serious matter, and any one who was 
knocked down, and fell into the hands of the opposite 



party, was sacrificed to the goddess Kankeshwari, who 
has a temple near the place. Nowadays, however, the 
stone-throwing is confined to children 

4, Gathia Mogal or Ghantd Karn. 

This is the name of a Rakshasa or demon; and the 
festival is to celebrate his expulsion from the country. 
The ISTewar boys make a straw figure, which they 
beat and drag about in the streets, and they beg for 
a dam from everybody they meet while so doing. The 
figures are burned in the evening This festival takes 
place on the 1 4th of Sawan. 

5. Banra Jatra. 

This festival takes place twice a year, on the 8th 
of Sawan and 13th of Bhadon. The Banras, or priests 
of the Baudha-margi Newars, go about from house to 
house, and receive a handful of rice or grain at each. 
This is done in commemoration of their ancestors having 
been Bhikshus, or mendicant priests, who lived on alms 
and followed no trade. The Newars on these occasions 
decorate then* shops and houses with pictures, flowers, 
etc., and the women sit in front with large baskets oi 
rice and grain, which they dispense m handfuls to the 
Banras as they pass. A wealthy Newar may get up 
a private Banra Jatra at any time, if he pleases ; but 
it is an expensive amusement, as he has to make large 
presents to the first Banra who gets his foot over the 
threshold of the house. If the king is invited to this 
Jatra, he must be presented with a silver throne, um- 
brella, and cooking utensils 


6 Rakhi Purnimd. 

This festival takes place on the last day of Sawan. 
It is observed both by Budhists and Hindus, but with 
different rites The Budhists bathe in sacred streams 
and visit their temples. The Brahman priests tie an 
ornamental thread on the wrists of all their followers, 
and in return receive presents. Many persons on this 
occasion go on pilgrimage to Gosam Than and bathe in 
the sacred lake there 

7 Nag Panchaml. 

This festival takes place on the 5th of Sawan. This 
Is the anniversary of a great struggle between a famous 
Nag and Garur. The stone image of Garur at Changu 
Narayan is said to perspire on this occasion, as a result 
of the struggles of Garur. The priests wipe oft' the 
perspiration with a handkerchief, which is sent to 
the king. Water, in which a thread of this hand- 
kerchief has been steeped, is said to be a sovereign 
remedy for snake-bites Fortunately, poisonous snakes 
are almost unknown m Nepal ' 

8- Janm Ashtami. 

This festival takes place on the 8 th of Bhadon, 
and is in memory of the birthday of Krishna. The 
shops and houses in the towns are ornamented with 
pictures, etc. 

9. Gal Jdtra. 

This is purely a Newar festival. It takes place on 
the first day of Bhadon. All Newars who have lost 
members of their family during ^the year yught to 


disguise themselves as cows and dance round the palace 
of the king. The ceremony nowadays is performed 
vicariously, and consists merely of a masked dance 
with singing of songs. 

10. Bagh Jdtra. 

This takes place on the 2nd of Bhadon. The dancers 
on this occasion ought to he disguised as tigers, but it 
is now merely a repetition of the Gai Jatra. 

11. Indra Jdtra. 

This festival lasts for eight days, beginning on the 
26th of Bhadon. On the first day a high wooden post 
is erected before the king's palace, and all the profes- 
sional dancers of the country assemble, disguised with 
all sorts of hideous and ludicrous masks, and dance 
around the palace. If an earthquake happens during 
the festival, it is considered a very bad omen, and the 
festival must be begun anew, reckoning the day on which 
the earthquake took place as the first. On the third 
day a number of young virgins are brought before the 
king and worshipped as Kumari devls, after which they 
are mounted on cars and carried through "the city. When 
the cars arrive at the palace, the gaddi is brought out, 
and the king's sword (sometimes the king himself) is 
placed on- it, and presents are given by all the officials. 
This day is called Anant Chaudas. It was on this oc- 
casion that Prithwi Narayan, the Gorkha conqueror of 
Nepal, entered Kathmandti with a few followers, and 
when the gaddi was brought out, he seated himself on 
it. Most of the Hewars being drunk, he met with little 
opposition, and the Newar Raja fled from the city. 


12. Dasahra or Durga Puja. 

This festival takes place on the 26th of Kuar, and 
is observed in the same way as in Hindustan. The festi- 
val lasts for ten days, and many buffaloes, goats, etc. 
are sacrificed. In Nepal, however, the clay image of 
Durga is not made as in Bengal On the first day of 
the festival the Brahmans sow barley at the spot where 
they worship, and sprinkle it with sacred water daily. 
On the tenth day they pull it up and present small 
bunches of it to their followers, in return for the pre- 
sents which they receive from them. 

13. Dewall 

This takes place on the 1 5th of Kartik The people 
worship Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, illuminate their 
houses, and gamble all night long. In Nepal gambling 
in public (which is illegal at other times) is permitted 
for three days and nights, and during these the streets 
in the towns are almost impassable, on account of the 
groups of gamblers squatted all over them The Nepalese 
are inveterate gamblers, and stake heavily on the dice. 
Many curious tales are told of them, such as staking 
the^r wives, etc. One man is said to have cut off his 
left hand and put it down under a cloth as his stake. 
On winning the game, he insisted on his opponent cut- 
ting off his hand, or else restoring all the money which 
he had previously won. 

14. Khicha Puja. 

This is a Newar festival, which takes place on the 
16th of Kartik. It consists in doing puja to dogs, and 


on this occasion all the dogs in the country may be seen 
with garlands of flowers round their necks 

There are also days for doing puja to bullocks, crows, 
and even frogs. 

15. Bhdi Fujd. 
On the 17th of Kartik every woman visits her 
brother's house, puts a tlka or mark on his forehead, 
and a garland round his neck, and then washes his feet, 
and gives him sweetmeats to eat In return she re- 
ceives 'a present of money, clothes and ornaments. 

16. Bald chaturdasi or Saibyu 

This takes place on the 14th of Aghan. People on 
this day go to the forest of Mngasthali (i.e , the small 
wood opposite the temple of Pashupati), and scatter 
about rice, vegetables, and sweetmeats — much to the 
delight of the monkeys who dwell there. 

17 Kartik Bilminid. 

On the first day of this month many women go to 
the temple of Pashupati, and remain there the whole 
month, fasting and drinking only the water with which 
the image is bathed Credat Judaeus It is said that 
occasionally some die, but in general they survive their 
month's fasting. On the purnima, or last day of the 
month, there are great rejoicings and an illumination of 
the temple of Pashupati, and the night is spent in singing 
and dancing On the next morning the Brahmans (as 
usual) are fed on the Kailas hill, at the base of which 
the temple of Pashupati stands; and then the women 
who have been starving return home amid the congratu- 
lations of their friends and relatives 


18 Ganesh Chauth. 

T Jhis jestival, winch is held on the 4th of Magh, is 
in honour of Ganesh, the god of wisdom Fasting and 
worship are the order of the day, — with feasting as a 
sequence at night, 

19. Bascrnt or Sripanchaml 

This takes place on the 20th of Magh, and is in 
honour of Saraswati, the goddess of learning. 

20. Holi. 

This festival takes place on the last day of Phagun. 
In Nepal a wooden post or chir, adorned with nags, 
is erected in front of the palace, and this is burned at 
night, representing the burning of the body of the old 

21. - Maghl Pumima 

Some of the young Newars bathe in the Bagmati 
every morning during Magh, and on the last day of 
the month some of the bathers are carried in procession 
from the bathing-places to the temples. They are carried 
in ornamented dolls, lying on their backs, with lighted 
chirags (lamps) on their chests, arms and legs. As most 
of them wear green spectacles, to protect their eyes from 
the sparks, the sight is rather mirth-provoking. Behind 
the dolls follow the other bathers, bearing on their heads 
earthen water-pots, perforated with innumerable straws, 
through which the water escapes. Passers-by catch a 
few drops and sprinkle them on their foreheads. 

42 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap ir 

22. Ohora Jatra. 

On the 15 th of Chait, all horses and ponies belonging 
to government servants are assembled on the grand 
parade-ground, and raced past the king and officials, 
■who are stationed on the monument in the centre of 
the ground. 

On the anniversary of the completion of the monu- 
ment just mentioned, which bore Sir Jang Bahadur's 
statue, a mela is held on the parade-ground^ all govern- 
ment officials have to pitch their tents, and gambling is 
allowed for two days and nights. The festival winds up 
with an illumination of the monument. 

As Sir Jung Bahadur's statue and the four dragons 
aave been transferred to a new temple built by him, 
/he locale of this festival has been changed this year 





! /*AlPOo:-i^ T A 



(Plate Yl) 1 The Five Buddha. s 11 The Five Taxis, their wives 

^^^^x" x^^£^ 




111 The Five B 5 dhisat-was, tlieir sorus (j 4<3 


Occupations of the people Brahmans Priests Astrologers Baids. 
Clerks Laws and punishments Castes Slavery. Trade and 
manufactures. Agriculture Live stock The army The revenue 
The roads 

As this sketch is not intended for a Gazetteer, it is 
unnecessary to enter at great length into the subject 
of the occupations of the people. 

Priests and Brahmans of course are very- numerous, 
and have much influence in a country where there are 
so many temples, and at least half the time of the 
people seems to be spent in pujas and religious holidays. 
The Raj Guru, is a -wealthy and influential person in the 
state, and has a large income from government lands, 
and also from the fines inflicted for offences against the 
rules of caste. Many other priests, Gurus and Purohits, 
have lands assigned to them, and many of the temples 
have been richly endowed by their founders. Still, a 
great many of the priests depend for their support on 
the offerings of their jajmans (clients), who pay them 
fees for the ceremonies performed at births, marriages 
and deaths. Every family has a special priest, whose 
office is hereditary. Immense sums are wasted in feeding 
Brahmans on all sorts of occasions. As an instance, it 
.may be mentioned, that, when Sir Jung Bahadur met 
with an accident at Bombay in 1875, fifteen thousand 
rupees were spent in feeding Brahmans at Kathmandu. 


Astrologers form another large class of the learned 
community Some of them are also priests, but in 
general the professions are distinct. In Nepal astrology 
must be a profitable pursuit, as no great man thmks of 
setting out on a journey, or undertaking any business 
whatever, without having an auspicious moment selected. 
Indeed the time for everything, from the taking of a 
dose of physic to the declaration of a war, is determined 
by the astrologers 

Baids, or medical men, are also numerous in Nepal, 
and all families of any pretension have at least one 
permanently attached to their service There are, how- 
ever, no public hospitals or dispensaries, nor any means 
provided for the relief of indigent sick people. 

The duties of clerks and accountants are performed 
by a special class of people, chiefly Newars 

Lawyers are not held in much estimation in Nepal 
The chief justice gets a salary of some two hundred 
rupees a month, so that the inducements for bribery 
and corruption are great 

As an appeal can always be made to the Council 
(which practically means Sir Jung Bahadur), justice is 
on the whole pretty fairly administered 

The old savage code of punishments, involving muti- 
lations, stripes, etc., etc., was abolished by Sir Jung 
Bahadur on his return from England. Treason, rebellion, 
desertion in time of war, and other offences against the 
state, are punished by death or imprisonment for life; 
bribery and peculation by government servants, by fines, 
imprisonment, and dismissal from office. 

Killing cowa and murder are punished by death ; 
maiming cows and manslaughter, by imprisonment for 
life ; and other acts of violence by imprisonment oiVfines. 


If a low caste person pretends to belong to a higher 
caste, and induces a high caste person to partake of 
food or water from his hands, he renders himself liable 
to a heavy fine, or imprisonment, or the confiscation of 
all his property, or he may even be sold into slavery. 
The victim of his deception is re-admitted to his caste 
on payment of certain fees to the priests, and the per- 
formance of certain, fasts and ceremonies (prayaschit) 

Brahmans and women are never capitally punished. 
The severest punishment for women publicly is imprison- 
ment for life with hard labour, and for Brahmans the 
same with degradation from caste. 

Slavery is one of the institutions of Nepal. Every 
person of any means has several slaves in his household, 
and the wealthy have generally a great number of both 
sexes. It is said that there are from twenty to thirty 
thousand slaves in the country. Most of these have 
been born slaves; but free men and women, with all 
their families, may he sold into slavery as a punishment 
for certain crimes, such as incest and some offences 
against caste. In a few of the wealthier households the 
female slaves are not allowed to leave the house ; but in 
general they enjoy a great deal of freedom in this respect, 
and the morals of the female slaves are very loose in 
consequence They are generally employed in domestic 
work, wood-cutting, grass-cutting, and similar labour. 
The price of slaves ranges for females from 150 to 200 
rupees, and for males from 100 to 150 rupees. They 
are usually well treated, and on the whole seem quite 
contented and happy. Should a slave have a child by 
her master, she can claim her freedom. 

All the trade and manufactures of the country may 
be said to be in the hands of the Newars and a few 

46 HISTORY OF NEPAL, [chap. 

foreigners. A few families of Kashmiris nave been settled 
at Kathmandu for generations, and they, and some Irakis, 
are the principal traders in articles of European manu- 
facture. There is a community of about 3,000 Nepalese 
established at Lhasa, where there is a Nepalese vakil 
(consul or resident), and these, who are chiefly Newars, 
carry on the trade between Nepal and Tibet Most 
of the traders in com, oil, salt, tobacco, confectionery, 
and other articles of domestic consumption, are Newars. 

The manufactures of the country are few, consisting 
chiefly of cotton and coarse woollen cloth, a peculiar 
kind of paper (made from the inner bark of several 
species of Daphne), bells, brass and iron pots, ornaments 
of silver and gold, and coarse earthenware. AH the 
mechanics of the country are Newars, except a few 
workmen from the plains of India, employed by the 
government in the public workshops and arsenals. 

The great bulk of the population is employed in 
agriculture, as almost every family holds a small piece 
of ground. The -soil of the valley cannot be said to be 
very fine, but the inhabitants certainly make the most 
of it. Every available scrap of ground is cultivated, 
the hill-sides being terraced wherever water can be 
obtained for irrigation. Indian corn and rice are the 
chief crops in the hot weather, and in the cold weather 
wheat, garlic, radishes, red pepper, ginger, potatoes, etc. 
are grown. Most lands yield two crops every year, and 
from some even three crops are obtained. The work 
of cultivation is done almost entirely by hand, though 
of late years the plough is being more extensively 

There are few cattle in the valley, as there is no grazing 
ground except at the foot of the hills. Buffaloes, sheep, 


and goats for food are all imported "What few there 
are in the valley are small and of inferior breeds. , Ducks 
and fowls are plentiful and of good quality. Much pains 
are bestowed on the rearing of ducks, as their eggs are 
greatly prized as an article of food. They are carried 
out daily to the rice fields in large baskets and allowed 
to feed there, and in the evening they are collected and 
carried home again. 

The military art of course has great attention be- 
stowed on it by the Gorkhas. In fact, most of the 
revenue of the country is wasted in playing at soldiering, 
and m manufacturing very useless rifles and cannon. 
The actual standmg army consists of about 16,000 men. 
These are divided into twenty-six regiments of from 500 
to 600 men each. Besides these, however, there is a 
large force consisting of men who have served for several 
years and taken their discharge. These men, after staying 
a few years at home, may again enter the ranks, and 
take the place of others, who in turn lie by for a year- 
or two. Thus the Nepalese could with little trouble 
raise a force of 60,000 or 70,000 men, who have been 
trained to arms. 

The regiments are formed on the British model, and 
are drilled with English words of command, or at least 
what are supposed to be so. The army is officered much 
in the same way as the English army. There is, how- 
ever, no regular system of promotion, all appointments 
being renewed annually, and greyhaired lieutenants are 
often to be seen in the same regiment with beardless 
colonels. In fact, all the higher ranks are filled up by 
the sons and relatives of Sir Jung Bahadur and his 

Practically speaking, Sir Jung Bahadur is the head 


of the army, as well as of every other department; 
but the post of Commander-in-Chief is held by his 
eldest surviving brother, General Banadip Singh, K S I. 
Of the two younger brothers, Generals Jagat Sham- 
sher and Der Shamsher, each commands a division 
of the army, at Patau and Bhatgaon respectively. 
Besides these, there are numerous generals and major- 
generals, varying from thirty down to five years of age, 
who are either sons or nephews or grandsons of Sir 
Jung Bahadur. 

The usual undress of the army is a blue cotton 
tunic, with paejamas of the same colour , and for full 
dress most regiments have red cloth tunics and dark 
trousers with a red stripe. The artillery uniform is 
blue. The headdress consists of a small tightly-rolled 
turban, on which each soldier, as a distinctive mark 
of his regiment, wears a badge of silver, the property 
of government Some of these are crescent-shaped, 
others oval, and so on. The non-commissioned officers 
wear chains on their turbans in addition to the badge, 
and the badges of the officers are jewelled and plumed 
in various ways, according to their rank. The value 
of the headdress of the officers is very great. Sir 
Jung's own is said to be worth £15,000 

The arms of the troops are very heterogeneous. 
Some regiments have still old flint muskets, others the 
percussion " brown Bess," and others Enfield rifles, 
either given to the Nepalese by the British after the 
campaign of 1858, or else manufactured at Kathmandu 1 . 
Every soldier in addition to his bayonet carries the 
national weapon, the kukhri. 

1 Many of the rifles said to be manufactured in Nepal, especially the breech- 
loaders of recent date, are undoubtedly smuggled into the country through Bombay 
by the aid of some PSrsI merchants there. 


The cavalry of the Nepal army is on a very limited 
scale, consisting of about 100 men. Indeed the country 
is not adapted for the manoeuvring of horse 

The artillery is on a larger scale ; and there is an 
attempt at horse artillery too. There are also four 
mountain batteries drawn by mules. These have been 
added to the armament of Nepal of late years, since 
it has pleased the British Commander-in-Chief to 
patronise General Babar Jung and carry him about as 
an ADC. to the camps of exercise and other places. 
There is a large number of cannon in store, and more 
are being cast and bored daily. Percussion-caps are 
also manufactured in the arsenal, with machinery im- 
ported from England, but they are by no means of 
first-rate quality. Powder of an inferior kind is like- 
wise made and stored in great quantities. 

As regards the efficiency of the army, there is no 
doubt that the material is good, and for defensive pur- 
poses, in their own hills and forests, the soldiers would 
fight well; and be formidable foes ,* but for purposes 
of aggression it is doubtful if they would be of any 
use against Europeans. The officers are in general un- 
educated and ignorant young men, and the troops, 
though daily drilled, so as to be tolerably perfect in 
their regimental exercises, have had no practical ex- 
perience of war for many years. Their weapons are 
very poor ; a commissariat department can hardly be 
said to exist , they are badly clothed, and their 
accoutrements are of the most miserable and dirty 
description 1 . 

1 Their rifles aie rusty and dirty looking outside As for the inside, I hare 
often seen a soldier sitting by the side of a ditch, busied in scouring his rifle -with a 
wisp of grass and a handful of sand ! 

W. N. 4 

50 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap hi 

To give an idea of the force which can be assem- 
bled, I may mention that the troops employed in the 
last war with Tibet, in 1854, amounted to 27,000 men, 
with 29,000 partially armed coolies and camp-followers, 
and 390,000 unaimed baggage- coolies ; leaving about 
7,000 fighting men at home. The utmost efforts, how- 
ever, -were made in this war, and the country was re- 
duced to the greatest distress, the sole result being 
that the Tibetans agreed to pay an annual tribute of 
10,000 rupees (,£1000). 

The revenue of INTepai is about 96 lakhs of rupees 
(say £96,000). It is chiefly derived from land-tax, 
custom-duties, the produce of the sal forests m the 
Terai, and various Government monopolies 

Of the roads in Nepal there is little to be said. 
The only route by which Europeans are allowed to 
enter the country has been fully described already. As 
far as Hetowra there is a rough cart-track. "From He- 
towra to Bhimphedi the road is good, and the streams 
have been bridged. Beyond Bhimphedi the road is a 
mere pag-dandl or footpath over the hills, impassable 
for laden beasts of buiden. "Within the valley there 
are only two good roads. One of these extends from 
Tankot, at the foot of the Chandragiri pass, to 33hatgaon 
The other runs from Thapatali to Balaji, and is only 
about three miles in length. On these roads the streams 
are all substantially bridged. The other roads in the 
valley are rough footpaths, quite unfit for vehicles or 
even for laden beasts of burden. The two roads to 
Tibet are mere rugged paths over the hills. 


Biief sketch of the recent history of the country, and of the intercourse 
"With the British. Colonel KLirkpatiick's mission War with the 
Butish m 1814 Appointment of a Resident Domestic mtiiguea 
and struggles for power Death of General Bhimasena Thapa. 
G-eneial Matabar Singh IPirst appearance of Jung "Bahadur His 
use to power The Kot massacre Sir Jung's visit to England. 
"War with Tibet m 1854 Tioops sent to assist the British m 1857. 
The !Nana Sahib. Sir Jung's proposed visit to England in 1875. 

Ai/thotjgh the native history of the country will be 
given in fall, it may not be amiss to insert here a short 
account of the principal events in the intercourse of the 
British with Nepal, 

The two governments first came into collision as 
early as the time of the Corkha invasion. The former 
Hajas applied to the British for assistance, and Captain 
Eanloch with a few companies of Sepoys advanced into 
the'Terai in 1765, but was repulsed by the Gorkha 

In 1791 the Gorkhas had entered into a commercial 
treaty with the British, and hence, when in difficulties 
with the Chinese in that year, they applied for assistance 
to Lord Cornwalhs. In consequence of this, a mission 
under Colonel Kirkpatrick was despatched to Nepal, and 
reached Noakot in the early part of 1792. By this time, 



however, the Gorkhaa had submitted to the Chinese, and 
British interference was unnecessary. This was the first 
occasion on which a British officer entered the^ country. 
One result of the mission was the signing of another 
commercial treaty on the 1st of March 1792 

In October 1801 a new treaty was signed by the 
British and Nepalese authorities, and Captain W. D. 
Knox was appointed British Besident at the Nepalese 
court Many obstacles were thrown in the way of this 
officer's entering the country, but at last he succeeded 
in reaching the capital, in April 1802. Little benefit, 
however, arose from his presence in Nepal. He soon 
found that nothing could be done with a people 
* e amongst whom no engagements, however solemnly 
contracted, are considered bmding, when deviation from 
them can be committed with any prospect of impunity ; " 
and in consequence of their failing to adhere to their 
engagements, he was withdrawn from the country in 
April 1803. 

In January 1804 the treaty with Nepal was formally 
dissolved by Lord WeJlesley , and though an attempt 
was made at negotiation in May 1810, the relations 
between the countries gradually became worse, till at 
length the encroachments of the Nepalese on British 
territory could no longer be endured, and on the 1st of 
November 1814 war was proclaimed by the British 

Of the progress of the war under Generals Marley, 
Wood, Gillespie, and Ochterlony, it is unnecessary here to 
give detads. At first, from ignorance of the country and 
the enemy to be encountered, the British met with several 
disasters, under Generals Wood and Marley ; and General 
Gillespie fell during the assault on a small fort named 
Kalunga. General Ochterlony was more successful, and 


the Gorkhas retired beyond the Kali river, and began to 
negotiate for peace. Inflated, however, by their tempo- 
rary successes, the Nepalese would not listen to reason; 
and again took up arms. General Ochteriony was now 
put at the head of the expedition, and under him the 
British troops soon made their way to Makwanptir, a 
town and fort in the Terai, to the south of the valley 
of Nepal, distant only thirty-five miles from the capital. 
The Gorkhas, finding themselves worsted, now submitted , 
and after much delay, and a threat on the part of General 
Ochteriony of again resuming hostilities, a treaty was at 
length signed m March 1816. By this treaty the Nepal- 
ese relinquished large portions of their newly acquired 
territory to the British Some of these were assigned 
to chiefs who had aided in the war, others were retained 
by the British, and a large part of the Terai was not 
long afterwards restored to the Nepalese. 

In fulfilment of the terms of the treaty, a British 
Resident was appointed, and Mr Gardiner was the person 
selected to fill the post. As there was some delay, how- 
ever, in his taking up the duty, Lieutenant Boileau was 
appointed to officiate for him, and this officer reached 
Katlimandu in Aprd 1816. 

The king of Nepal was at this time still a youth, and 
the reins of government were held by General Bhimasena 

Soon after the British arrived in the country, small- 
pox broke ou^, and committed great ravages among the 
people. Aniongst other victims, the king died on 
the 20th of November 1816. One of his Ranis and six 
female slaves immolated themselves as Satis along with 
him. On the 8th of December, the young Prince, Raj 
Indra Bikram Sah Bahadur Shamsher Jung, was placed 


on the throne. As the new monarch was only three 
years old, the government was still carried on by General 
Bhimasena Tbapa. 

In fche meanwhile, the Nepalese were intriguing with 
China for assistance to expel the British Resident and 
renew the war, but they failed in their designs. 

Towards the end of 1817, Dr Wallich visited Nepal, 
and carried on his botanical researches for a year. 

From this time onwards the records of Nepal furnish 
little of interest, except a history of intestinal struggles 
for power between the Thapa and Panre factions, and 
futile attempts at forming combinations with other 
states in Hindustan against the British. In 1824 the 
young king was married, and on the 5th of October 
1829 a son and heir was born. 

In 1833, the king, instigated by one of the Ranis, 
who was of an ambitious disposition, attempted to free 
himself from the rule of Bhimasena, but without success. 
The attempt, however, was renewed in 183G, and in 
1837 Bhimasena was removed from office, and imprisoned 
on the charge of having poisoned an infant son of the 
king. He was, however, released and pardoned after a 
few months' confinement, but he never regained his former 
position,* and in May 1839 he was again put in irons, 
on the old charge, and kept closely confined. His wife 
and female relatives were threatened with exposuie and 
shameful ill-treatment in public ; and preferring to die 
rather than be a witness of such disgrace, Bhimasena 
committed suicide in prison. At least so the government 
reported, though there were grave doubts at the time 
as to whether it was not a case of assassination. His 
corpse was dragged through the streets of Kathmandu, 
and flung upon a heap, of rubbish, on the other side of 


the bridge leading from tlie town acroaa the Vishnumati 
to the west. So ended the life of a gallant old ehief, 
who had ruled Nepal for five-and-twenty years. 

From this time on to 1843, the enemies of Bhimasena, 
the Kala Panre faction, continued in power, though some- 
times ousted from office for a time by other factions. 
Intrigues both within the country, and in Hindustan 
were being constantly carried on ; and there were frequent 
disputes with the British Government, which sometimes 
threatened to terminate in open hostilities. Fortunately, 
however, by the skilful management of the Resident, 
Mr Hodgson, war was averted 

In 1843 the nephew of Bhimasena, a dashing soldier 
named Matabar Singh, returned from exile 1 . He soon 
obtained favour with the Court and army, and the first 
exertion of his power was to effect the destruction of his 
enemies, the Kala Panres, who were seked and executed 
in May 1843. 

About this time mention is often made, in the reports 
of official proceedings, of a rising young soldier named 
Jung Bahadur. He was one of a band of seven brothers, 
the sons of sl Kaji, or Nepalese official. He had, as usual, 
entered the military service when young, and for a time 
had been the personal attendant of the young prince By 
this time, however, he had risen to the rank of Colonel, 
and in 1844 bis uncle, Matabar Singh, expressed some 
alarm at the increase of his influence at Court and with 
the army. 

The Resident, Sir Henry {then Major) Lawrence, 
mentions him as an intelligent young man, particularly 

1 He had Been Bern; ou an embassy to Calcutta in 1836, and subsequently to 
Ranjit Singh His conduct haying been suspicious on the latter occasion, he had 
been detained by the British under surveillance, receiving, however, an allowance of 
1000 rupees a month 


expert in all military matters, but, though young in years, 
profoundly versed in intrigue. 

He continued to ingratiate himself with one of the 
Ranis, who held the chief power in the Court, and at last, 
finding himself in a firmer position, he began to develope 
his ambitious projects On the 18th of May 1845, 
Matabar Singh, who, though prime minister, had become 
unpopular at Court, was summoned to an audience with 
the king at the palace. On entering the room where he 
expected to find the king, he was killed by a rifle-shot, 
fired from the Zenana gallery at the end of the room 
His body was then thrown out of the window, and dragged 
away by an elephant to the banks of the Bagmati at 
Pashupati Next morning Jung Bahadur reported the 
circumstance officially to the Resident, but for the time 
the king was said to have been the slayer of the prime 
minister, and the deed was acknowledged, and even 
boasted of, by the king. Subsequently, however, it ap- 
peared that Matabar Singh was killed by Jung Bahadur, 
at the instigation of the queen , and the king, who was 
little bettei than an imbecile, was made to take the credit 
of the deed 

Jung Bahadur now took a prominent part in the 
government, though not actually included m the rmmstiy, 
which consisted of a sort of coalition of various factions, 
the prime minister being Gagan Singh 

In 184G Sir Hemy Lawrence left Nepal, and was 
succeeded by Mr Colvm, who, however, was soon obliged 
to quit the country on account of ill-health, leaving Major 
Ottley in charge On the 15th of September 1846, the 
Resident was surprised by a visit at midnight from the 
king, who in much agitation informed him that a fearful 
tiagedy was being enacted in the city 


This is what is known as the Kot massacre, and as it 
is an important event in the history of Nepal, it may be 
as well to give a detailed account of It. 

The king at this time was a meie tool in the hands of 


the Bam, who, after the murder of Matabar Singh, may 
be said to have been the actual ruler of the country In 
the coalition ministry she had one especial friend named 
Gagan Smgh. This noble, on the night of the 14th of 
September, was shot in his own house, while he was m 
the act of pei forming his de\otions m a private 100m 
Who instigated this deed has iioa ei been satisfactorily 
determined, although aftei wauls a peison named All Jab, 
said to have been the murdeier, ^as executed The Hani, 
however, at once blamed hei enemies m the ministry, and 
insisted on the king assembling all the ministers and 
nobles in cotmcd to find out the assassin. Fath Jang and 
his colleagues, surprised at the untimely summons, hurried 
to the place of meeting at the Kot, a large building, some- 
what in European style, near the palace. Here, in the 
meantime, were assembled the Hani, Jung Bahadur, his 
band of brothers, and his faithful body-guard, armed with 
rifles. The queen's party was carefully arranged and 
heavily armed, whereas the members of council came as 
they were summoned, in a hurry, each from his own house, 
and with no weapons bat their swords There is no doubt 
that the whole affair was ai ranged beforehand, and that 
written orders were given by the Hani to Jung Bahadur. 
A. stormy discussion ensued, insults were fieely ex- 
changed, and when Fath Jung laid his hand on the hilt of 
his sword 1 , it seemed to be the signal for an attack by 

1 According to another story, an attempt -was made to airest Fath Jung, and Ins 
son attacked and wounded some of Jung Bahadur's Inotheis and paity with ln<? 
sword Jung Bahadur shot Path Jung with his own line, ab he was going to chaw 
his sword to cut down one of his hiother^ 


Jung Bahadur and his faithful soldiers, who in the mean- 
time had guarded the entrance of the building. In a few 
minutes thirty-two of the nobles of the country, and up- 
wards of a hundred of the lower ranks, were shot down. 
The poor king, alarmed by the noise of the struggle, 
mounted his horse and rode off to the Residency. On 
his return, within an hour, he found the gutters around 
the Kot filled with the blood of his ministers, and what 
little power he possessed in. the state was gone for ever. 

Jung Bahadur, backed by his band of brothers and the 
army, was now the most powerful man in Nepal. A few 
of the old Sardars, however, still tried to make head 
against him, but without success. On the 2nd of 
November thirteen more of the Sardars were put to death, 
and in December the king fled from the country to 

The Rani, who had hoped by means of Jung Bahadur 
to establish her own power, and to secure the succession 
to her own children, found herself bitterly disappointed, 
and was soon obliged to leave the country, and take 
refuge at Benares. 

In 1847 the king made an attempt to regain his power, 
and advanced as far as Segowk. Several plots were formed 
to assassinate Jung Bahadur, but without success, and 
the only result of them was that the agents were put to 
death, and the king declared by his conduct to have 
forfeited his right to the throne. Accordingly, on the 
1 2th of May he was deposed, and the heir-apparent placed 
on the throne. The king now determined to make one 
struggle more, and entered the Terai with a small force, 
but he was attacked and easily taken prisoner. 

From this time Jung Bahadur has been- the undisputed 
ruler of the country. The old king is a prisoner in the 


palace. The present king is kept under the strictest 
surveillance, and not allowed to exercise any power what- 
ever. The heir-apparent is also kept in a state of obscurity, 
being never permitted to take a part in any public busi- 
ness, or even to appear at the Durbars, to which the 
British Resident is invited. In fact, one may live for 
years in Nepal without either seeing or hearing of the 

The present heir-apparent was born on the 1st of 
December 1847. 

In 1848 an offer was made to the British Resident of 
eight regiments of Nepalese troops to assist in the war 
against the Sikhs This however was declined. 

In April 1849 the Rani of Lahore, the mother of 
Dhuleep Sing, took refuge in Nepal. 

Jung Bahadur, having got rid of every possible op- 
ponent, and having strengthened his position by connect- 
ing his family by marriage with every person who had any 
influence in the country, considered that he was perfectly 
secure. He therefore, in 1850, proposed to visit England, 
and started for this purpose with a large retinue on the 
1 5th of January. One of his brothers was left to act as 
prime minister in his absence. This visit had a most 
beneficial effect, as Jung Bahadur was accompanied by 
two of his brothers and several of the influential men of 
the country, who thus had an opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with the power and resources of the British. 
The whole party were much delighted with the welcome 
they received in England, and they still talk in the 
warmest terms of admiration of all the wonders they 

On the 6th of February 1851, Jung Bahadur re- 
turned to Nepal, and one of his first proceedings was to 


revise the criminal code of the country, JVLutilation, 
which used to be inflicted as a punishment for many 
crimes, was abolished, and capital punishment was re- 
stricted to cases of murder and high treason Regula- 
tions and restrictions were made for Sati, and many 
other reforms introduced In short, whatever may be said 
of the way in which Jung Bahadur obtained power, there 
is no doubt that he has always exercised it for the good 
of the country, and he is undoubtedly the greatest bene- 
factor that Nepal has ever possessed. 

Shortly after his return, Iris enemies once more began 
to conspire against Jung Bahadur, and they were sup- 
ported by some of the most orthodox and conservative of 
the nobles, who wished to make out that by his visit to 
England he had lost caste, and was unfit to hold the post 
of prime minister. Among the conspirators were the 
king's brother, one of Jung Bahadur's own brothers, and 
his cousin. These were arrested, and only saved from 
decapitation or mutilation by the British Government 
consenting to retain them as prisoners at Allahabad, 
where they were confined for several years. On some of 
the minor conspirators public degradation from caste was 
inflicted, a most disgusting ceremony. 

From this time till 1854, all went on quietly in the 
country, with the exception of two more attempts to get 
rid of Jung Bahadur, in November 1852 and June 1853. 

In 1853 a treaty for the extradition of criminals was 
proposed by the British Government, but it was not 
ratified till the 23rd of February 1855. 

In 1853 the conspirators imprisoned at Allahabad 
were leleased, at the request of the Nepalese Government, 
and allowed to return to their country, where, however, 
they were kept under surveillance. Jung's brother was 


made governor of Palpa and Butwal, a district of the 
Terai, to the westward; he died in 1873. The king's 
brother, who seems to be tainted with hereditary insanity, 
became a fakir and may still (1875) be seen wandering 
about and bathing at the various holy places, m all the 
odour (and filth) of sanctity. 

In March 1855 proposals were made for the ad- 
mission of a scientific expedition into Nepal, under the 
Schlagmtweits, but Jung Bahadur steadily refused to 
hear of such a thing. 

In 1854 the Nepalese began to have disputes with 
the Tibetans, originating in the ill-treatment experienced 
by the embassy to China, which used to take tribute and 
presents every fifth year to the emperor On the last 
occasion of the embassy passing through Tibet, it was 
plundered of merchandise and presents, and some of the 
officials were insulted. Great preparations were made by 
the ISTepalese for this war for a whole year, Stores were 
collected, and coolies employed in carrying guns, ammuni- 
tion, and food, to the frontier, and large bodies of troops 
were raised. 

The war was carried on with varying success for nearly 
two years. The Nepalese experienced great difficulty in 
conveying their guns and stores over the mountains, and 
the troops suffered greatly from the severe cold and 
scarcity of food. To alleviate the latter, Jung Bahadur is 
said to have discovered, and got the Raj Guru officially 
to corroborate the fact, that Yaks were not oxen but deer, 
and hence that they could be used as food by the 
orthodox Hindus ' 

Indeed, the obstacles met with were so great, that, 
though the Bhotias and Tibetans could not resist them in 
the open field, still the Nepalese were unable to penetrate 


beyond Junga, and the Kerong and Kutti passes The 
difficulties to be encountered, had they advanced farther, 
would have increased at every footstep, and it may be 
doubted if they would ever have succeeded m enteiing 

In November 1855, news reached Kathmandu that 
Kutti had been surprised and retaken by the Bhotiyas, 
and that Junga and Kerong were also surrounded by 
large bodies of troops. Reinforcements were at once 
hurried up , Kutti was retaken, and after some severe 
fighting Junga and Kerong were relieved. The relieving 
force at Junga, however, was besieged for twenty-nine 
days, and the troops suffered greatly from cold and want 
of food. 

The Tibetans now began to find that they could not 
contend successfully with the Nepalese, and proposals 
for peace were made The negotiations, however, lasted 
for months, as frequent references had to be made to the 
Chinese authorities at Lhasa. In the meantime six fresh 
regiments were being raised at Kathmandu, a war-tax 
was about to be levied on all officials, above the rank of 
Jamadar, of one-third of the produce of their land, and 
every pieparation was made for pushing on the war in 
the next season. Fortunately, however, terms were agreed 
on, and a treaty of peace was signed on the 25th of March 
185G. The main points of it were, that Tibet should 
pay 10,000 rupees (£1000) annually, on condition of the 
Nepalese evacuating the Tibetan territory which they had 
occupied , that the import duties on goods from Nepal 
should be remitted ; and that a Gorkha official should be 
allowed to reside at Lhasa, to protect the interests of 
Nepalese traders. Several other minor points, such as 
exchange of prisoners, pardon for Tibetan subjects who 


had assisted the Nepalese, etc , were provided for. Thus 
ended the war with Tibet, much to the satisfaction of the 
Nepalese, upon whose resources the supporting of such a 
huge expedition was a burden that could not much longer 
have been endured 

On the 1st of August 1856, Jung Bahadur resigned 
the post of prime minister in favour of his brother Bam 
Bahadur, and he himself was created Maharaja, with 
sovereignty over the two provinces of Kaski and Lamjung, 
and with power to act as adviser to the king and prime 

At the end of this year Mr Schlagintweit was permitted 
to visit the country, and to take a few observations, such 
as could be taken within the narrow limits assigned to 

In the beginning of 1857 there was an uneasy feeling 
m the Nepalese aimy, which at one time threatened to 
produce serious consequences, but fortunately the dis- 
turbances were put down without bloodshed. 

In June intelligence was received of the mutiny of 
the native army in Hindustan, and the Durbar at once 
offered to send troops to the assistance of the British 
On the 15th of June two regiments started, and three 
more were to follow at once Unfortunately, however, the 
measures adopted by the Besident, General G- Bamsay, 
were not approved of by the Governor-general, and 
the troops were recalled. Had they gone on, it is pro- 
bable that the massacre at Cawnpore would never have 

On the 26th of June, however, a telegram was received 
by the Besident, instructing him to accept the offer of 
troops, and 3000 men started on the 2nd of July, while 
1000 more followed on the 13th and 14th of August. 


At the end of June Jung Bahadur resumed the offices 
of prime minister and commander-in-chief, and shortly 
afterwaids offers were made of more troops to assist the 
British ; but it was not till the 10th of December that 
Jung Bahadur set out himself with an army of 8000 men. 
This force was joined by Colonel MacGregor, as military 
commissioner, and assisted in the campaign of 1857 and 
1858 against the rebels. 

Early in 1858 numbers of fugitive rebels took refuge 
in the Nepalese Terai , and as there were but few troops 
in that part of the country, they remained there almost 
unmolested Amongst those who came subsequently, 
were the Begum of Luc-know and her son, Brijis Kadr, the 
infamous Nana Sahib, Bala Rao, Mammu Khan, Beni 
Madho, and about fifty more of the principal leaders of 
the rebellion. The rebels suffered greatly m the Terai 
from sickness and want of provisions , and in September 
the Nana himself was said to have fallen a victim to 
malarious fever. This, however, is doubtful. The fact 
seems to have been, that the Nepalese temporised with 
the rebels till they had got all the jewels and money they 
could out of them, in the meantime throwing every 
possible obstacle in the way of attempts on the part of the 
British to arrest them. At last, at the end of 1859, the 
Nepalese organized an expedition, and, in concert with 
the British troops, swept the remainder of the mutineers 
out of the Terai. 

In February I860, the Nana/s wives took refuge in 
Nepal, where they still reside in a house close to Tha- 
patali. There are not wanting those who say that 
the Nana himself is still living in the interior of 
Nepal ; and as far as the British Resident's power of 
obtaining.. intelligence goes, he might be within twenty 


miles of the capital any day, without his ever being 
heard of. The Begam of Lucknow and her son also took 
refuge m the country, and still (1875) reside there in a 
house ., nut far from ThapatalL 

The strength of the auxiliary force supplied by the 
RTepalese in the campaign of 1857-58 was upwards of 
8000 fighting men, with more than 500 artillerymen, 
and 24 guns, and of course a number of followers All 
these, as well as the 4000 men of the earlier expedition, 
were fed and paid by the British from the day of their 
leaving Kathmandu 

In addition to the outlay thus incurred, all the troops 
employed received batta, and a large portion of the Terai 
was made over to Nepal This ground contains valuable 
sal forests, and yields a levenue of several lakhs of rupees 
yearly Besides this, General Jung Bahadur was created 
a G C B , an honour of which he is not a little pioud 

There is no doubt that it was entirely owing to the 
personal influence of Sir Jung Bahadui that troops were 
sent to assist at all , and had it not been for his repre- 
sentations of the power and resources of the British, it 
nay be doubted whether the Nepalese would not have 
leld aloof from the struggle, or, more probably, have 
Deen induced to side with the rebels. Now, however, all 
parties see the wisdom of the course adopted, and Sir 
Tung Bahadur's position has no doubt been rendered more 
secure by the benefits which the country has derived from 
ns policy. 

From the conclusion of the expedition against the 
emnants of the mutineers up to the present time, there 
s but little that is worth chronicling. 

Some alterations have been made m the treaties for 
he extradition of criminals , but all efF)rts to induce the 

66 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap iv 

Nepalese to relax their jealous rules regarding the ex- 
clusion, of foreigners have proved fruitless, and the 
country, except for fifteen miles around the capital, is as 
much a terra incognita as it "was when Colonel ELnk- 
patrick visited it nearly a hundred years ago 

In 1873-74 there were some disputes with Tibet, 
■which it was at one time feared might lead to another 
war. For the present, however, all danger of this seems 
to have passed away. 

In 1873 Sir Jung Bahadur was created a G. C.S.I. ; 
and at the same time received from the Emperor of China 
the title and insignia of Thong-lrn-pim-ma-ko-kang-vang- 

In 1874 he proposed to revisit England with several 
of his brothers, sons, and nephews, and he had got .as 
far on the way as Bombay, when he met with an accident, 
which put a stop to the intended journey. 

On 8 th of August 1875, a son was born to the Crown 
Prince, the mother being one of Sir Jung's daughters. A 
son had been born four years before this, but he was 
a sickly child and died within a month of his birth 


Remarks on the aspect of political matters m Nepal at the present time. 
Sii Jung Bahadur's influence. His numerous relatives Piospeet 
of the country" being thrown open to Europeans Tiade Charac- 
ter of the Nepalese Position of the Resident and othei Europeans 
m Nepal Means of obtaining information regarding the coimtiy. 
Amusements and employments of young men of the upper classes. 
Oojuciuding general lemarks on the countiy and its climate 

Ying now described the "Valley of Nepal,, and given 
brief sketch of its people and its history, it only re- 
mains for me to add a few remarks on the probable 
future of the country, the general condition of the people, 
the prospects of trade, and the social intercourse existing 
between the ISTepalese and Europeans. To treat of all 
these subjects fully -would increase the bulk of this 
introduction to an unreasonable extent , I shall there- 
fore be as succinct as possible 

As long as Sir Jung Bahadur retains his present 
influence in the countiy, it is extremely unlikely that 
there will be any change in the relations existing between 
the British and Nepalese He has obtained a most 
astonishing hold upon the country His word is law, 
and his power seems unlimited. Owing to the inter- 
marriages between his numerous relatives and all ranks 
of the upper classes, his family interests are interwoven 
with those of almost every other family, from that of the 
king down to the lowest officials- 


The Heir Apparent to the* throne is married to three 
of his daughters j the second son of the king to a daughter 
and niece ; his eldest son married a daughter of the king, 
and has a boy of ten years of age , the nephew of the 
king has married a daugnter; and so on through all 
grades of the higher classes As Sir Jung Bahadur has 
had upwards of a hundred children, the opportunities 
for increasing his connexions have been tolerably ex- 
tensive. Besides his own children merely, the immense 
number of his nephews and nieces must also be remem- 

"Great though his power is, there are still some matters 
in which Sir Jung Bahadur dares not interfere with the 
customs and prejudices of the people. Thus, tho 
he has restricted Sati, still he seems unable to abo 
the custom entirely, as the priests, who are a m*. 
influential body, are of course strongly opposed to such 
a course. And as regards throwing open the country 
to Europeans, I believe that he himself would not be 
unwilling to do so , but the measure would be so un- 
popular among all grades of the inhabitants, that to 
attempt it might endanger his position, if not his life 
Bhimasena's unfortunate fate is often ascribed to the 
fact of his having been a party to the admission of a 
European Resident into the country , and the Nepalese 
have a proverb somewhat to the effect that "with the 
merchant comes the musket, and with the Bible comes 
the bayonet 1 M Sir Jung Bahadur is now advanced in 
years, being about sixty. What may happen in the 
event of his becoming frail, or dying suddenly, it is 
difficult to anticipate. Most probably there will be a 
succession of struggles for power, accompanied with much 
bloodshed, amongst his relatives ; such in fact as usually 


occurs when " an Amurath an Amurath succeeds." Some 
of the officials, who have grown gray in the service of 
the State without obtaining any promotion, and who 
have seen themselves passed over by children and fa- 
vourites, are by no means well pleased or contented ; and 
some of these might be prepared to follow any influential 
leader , but it is difficult to conceive where such a 
one is to be found outside of Sir Jung Bahadur's own 

As regatds trade, I am aware that it is very generally 
believed that there is a great field for European enter- 
prise in Nepal, and through it with Tibet. I suspect, 
however, that this is an erroneous idea. The people are 
and have few wants that are not supplied by their 
country. The export trade from Nepal is very 
Snxall, and it is difficult to imagine that it could be much 
increased, as the country is a poor, rugged, mountainous 
land, just producing enough for the support of its popu- 
lation. The imports consist chiefly of cloth, and a few 
European articles used by the highest classes. The 
lower orders infinitely prefer their home-made cloth, 
botn cotton and woollen, which is far more lasting than 
that which is imported. 

One or two Europeans, who have been employed as 
tutors by Sir Jung Bahadur, have tried to develope 
trade; but beyond exporting musk, and dealing in a 
few muslins, etc. for the families of the higher classes, 
they were quite unsuccessful. 

The Nepalese, too, are a most penurious and ava- 
ricious people. They take every possible advantage of 
a foreign trader, and unhesitatingly break any bargain, 
if they think they can profit by so doing. They must 
uot be judged by the wasteful extravagance that is 


displayed by the few officials who visit Calcutta and 
the plains of India. These make a great display for a 
few months, out of a mere spirit of ostentation ; and 
these very people, when they return to their own country, 
are the most penurious and miserly in their habits 

As long as the roads between British India and 
Nepal, and between Nepal and Tibet, remain as €hey 
are at present, any trade with the last-named country 
I conceive to be impracticable, and no change will be 
made, as long as Nepal ia held by the Gorkhas. If the 
British are prepared to force a commercial intercourse 
with Nepal and Tibet, they must first annex Nepal Of 
course this could be easily done, if a few milliona of 
money, and the lives of some thousands of soldiers, 
ready to be expended ; but I doubt if the game 
be worth the candle. 

The population of Nepal, as I have already said, is 
but a poor one. Some parts of the country, such as the 
valley around the capital, are densely, too densely, 
peopled ; but most of the country, so far as we are aware, 
consists of rocky ranges of hills, and narrow, unhealthy 
valleys, where the people can barely earn enough to feed 
and clothe themselves in the poorest manner. The Terai 
is the most valuable part of the country, and that, in 
case of hostilities, the British could seize and hold with 
the greatest ease, thereby utterly mining Nepal. Though 
poor, the people in general are contented. They have 
few taxes to pay, and their customs and prejudices are 
not interfered with. Justice is fairly administered, and 
the " law's delays" are by no means so great as m 
more civilized regions. There are no legal harpies to 
foment litigation, no municipal corporations, no road- 
funds, no educational taxes, nor any of the thousand a.Dd 


one innovations that so exasperate the subjects of- the 
British in India. "Dastur," the mighty deity of the 
East, reigns paramount, Each family has a scrap of 
ground, for which they usually pay the good old es- 
tablished rent of half the produce. They cultivate this, 
and earn enough to feed themselves, to provide their 
simple clothing, and to leave a trifle for expenditure on 
the numerous high-days and holidays, which take up, 
perhaps, a third of their time. Beyond these they have 
no wants, and are contented, and enjoy life in their own 
way. " Such are natural philosophers," we may say with 
Touchstone. Foolish ones, perhaps ,* and no doubt their 
successors might be raised in the scale of humanity, — at 
cost of infinite suffering to the present generation. 

ether we have a right to force our commerce and 
civilization upon people who do not want them ; whether 
the people would really be benefited by them; and 
whether the means we should adopt for the purpose are 
the most likely to be successful; are questions that I 
eave for political economists to decide. 

The position of the Resident in Nepal is a somewhat 
»eculiar one. It differs from similarly named appoint- 
ments in the protected States of India in this, that in 
Nepal the Resident has nothing whatever to do with the 
government of the country. In fact, he merely acts as 
consul, in the same way as the British Consul at any 
European court. The Nepalese are particularly proud of 
their independence, and most jealous of any interference 
with their domestic policy. 

Social intercourse there is none. The Prime Minister 
visits the Residency ceremonially, twice a year, and the 
Resident returns the visits in like manner. Besides these 
visits, the Resident and Minister may meet a few times in 


the year, when any especially important business occurs , 
or on the occasion of a marriage in the royal family the 
Resident may be invited to look on at the procession , but 
this is all the intercourse that takes place 

There is a guard of Nepalese soldiers on the road 
leading to the Residency, and no Gorkha can enter the 
limits of the Residency without permission from Sir Jung 
Bahadur, and without being accompanied by the Vakil 

Whenever a European goes out walking, he is fol- 
lowed by a Nepalese soldier from the guard ; and I 
believe a daily report is made of everything that occurs 
at the Residency. 

Such being the state of affairs, it can be easily under- 
stood how difficult it is for the Resident, 01 any Europe 
to obtain information on any subject beyond 
actually comes under his own observation Long ago 
it used to be the custom to employ and pay what may 
be called spies, — :f secret intelligence department" was 
the polite phrase, — and much money was expended in 
this way. It turned out, however, that when the Resident 
gave fifty rupees, the Duibai gave a hundred , and of 
course the information obtained was most valuable J One 
unfortunate man, who was employed to explore the 
country, disappeared , and long after waids, when a change 
of mmistiy had taken place, it was ascertained that 
the poor fellow had been suspected, and m consequence 
murdered. In extradition cases, unless the Nepalese are 
utterly indifferent m the matter, it is almost impossible 
to obtain the airest of a criminal. In short, Nepal is the 
Aisatia of Northern India, and the Nepalese pride them 
selves on never sin rendering a fugitive, provided, that is 
that he is a Brahman, or likely to be useful to them in 
any way. 


Personally, the higher classes are overpoweringly 
polite and affable to European officials, or to any one 
who is likely to be able to benefit them Otherwise their 
bearing is rude and insolent m the highest degree In 
fact, they seem to thmk rudeness a proof of manly in- 
dependence. They are always ready to ask for favours, 
either public or private , but when any return is ex- 
pected, the less that is looked for from them the better. 
A royal Duke, or a Governor-general, or even a Resident, 
will meet witli a great show of friendliness when he goes 
on a hunting expedition in the Terai ; but in the valley 
of Nepal a spoitsman generally finds infinite pains taken 
to spoil his spoit 

Owing to our mistaken policy of always giving way to 
demands, and lavishly bestowing honours and titles, 
believe that the younger and more foolish portion of 
the community firmly believe that the British are afraid 
of them, and that their army is quite a match for any 
force that could be brought agamst it. It -is strange that 
such should be the case, as many of these young men 
have lived for years at Calcutta, and have been present 
at various camps of exercise ; but the Gorkhas are so 
arrogant and self-conceited, that I believe nothing will 
ever convince them of then* inferiority, till they meet 
with some severe disaster. It is most unfortunate that 
Sir Jung Bahadur's project of visitmg England in 1875 
was not carried out, as it would have been highly bene- 
ficial to the conceited young gentlemen who would have 
accompanied him 

How the Gorkhas occupy and amuse themselves is as 
yet an unfathomed mystery to me. They have no busi- 
ness, except playing at soldiering , they have no out-of- 
dooi games ; tlioy never shoot, except when they go to 


the Terai ; and they have no literature to occupy them in 
their houses. In short, they seem to have nothing to fill 
up their leisure hours, which must be numerous ; and in 
consequence they are given up to gossipping, gambling, 
and debauchery of all sorts. Attempts have been made 
at various times by their tutors to get the young men to 
play at cricket and other games, but such amusements 
are thought degrading Even to walk is beneath their 
dignity, and when moving about in their own houses and 
grounds, they are generally carried pick-a-back by a slave 
or attendant. I have often seen boys of from eight to 
fifteen years of age thus riding to their tutor's house of 
a morning, a distance of, perhaps* two hundred yards. 

I may be thought harsh in my statements regard 
the Nepalese. All I can say is, they are true , and I 
no good purpose to be served by praising and saying 
fine things of people who do not deserve it. Of course 
I do not say that there are no exceptions. Sir Jung 
Bahadur himself is always most kind and courteous in 
his demeanour, and whatever may be his failings, he 
always bears himself as a gentleman. He is undoubtedly 
also a most acute and talented man, and it would be well 
for Nepal, if there were a few more amongst the rising 
generation fit to be compared to him. Some of the 
young men also are pleasant and gentlemanly in their 
manners, but I am afraid that what I have previously 
stated is true with regard to most of them. 

As for the country of Nepal, it would take the pen of 
a Buskin and the pencil of a Turner or a Claude to do 
justice to its beauties. , The road through the Terai, and 
the Noakot valley, are most lovely; and the views of 
the snowy range obtainable in the cold season from the 
Valley, and from the hills on the northern side, are, I 


believe, unrivalled for extent and magnificence. The 
climate is delicious. In winter the air is clear and 
bracing, and there are frequently hoar-frost and ice in 
the mornings. I have seen the thermometer as low as 
20°, when exposed in the open air at night. The sum- 
mer is not very hot, and the thermometer indoors, with 
all the windows open, seldom ranges above 80°. The 
average mean temperature for the year is 60°, and the 
average rainfall 60 inches. "What a magnificent sana- 
torium the "Valley would he for the inhabitants of 
Calcutta * 



My thological period of the history, extending through the Satya, Treta, 
and Dwapar Yugas or ages It contains numerous curious legends 
legardmg the temples, towns and holy places of the country. 

TfeEEi valley on the southern side of the snowy range, 
which is within Sumeru (the Himalaya), which was 
created by Ishwar (who emanated from the great 
Ishwar, the first Buddh, who in his turn sprang fiom 
Sachchit Buddh, who was the first of all), was formerly 
known as Nag Hrad, i e., the tank of the serpent. 

In Satya "Yuga, Bipaswl Buddh came from a city 
known by the name of BandhumatI ; and, having taken 
up his abode on the mountain to the west of Nag Hrad, 
sowed a lotus-seed in the tank, on. the day of the full 
moon m the month of Chait. Having named the moun- 
tain on -which he dwelt, Jat Matrochcha 1 , he returned 
to his former abode, leaving on the spot his disciples, 
to whom he foretold future events. In honour of this 
circumstance, a Mela (or fair) is held on the mountain 
on the day of the full moon in the month of Chait. 

In the same Yuga, the lotus-seed that had been 

1 Now called Nogaijun 


sown brought forth, a lotus-flower, iu the middle of 
which Swayambhti (who had come from Aknisht Bhuban) 
appeared in the form of light, on the day of the full 
moon in Aswin, Having heard of this, Sikhi Buddh 
came from Arunpuri, and after much meditation and 
observation of the Swayambhu-light from a mountain, 
he uttered prophecies, and then incorporated himself 
with the light on the Mesh Sankranti day 1 . From this 
time the mountain was called Dhyanochcha 2 , and a Mela 
is held there on the anniversary of that day. 

After this, in the Treta Yuga, Biswa-bhu-buddh came 
from a country called Anupam, and having seen the 
Swayambhti Buddh from a mountain, and made an offer- 
ing of a lakh of flowers, which had fallen from the trees 
on the mountain, to Swayambhti, he declared that the 
mountain should in future be called Phulochcha 3 . Then, 
having shown to his disciples the place through which 
the water of the Nag Hrad should be made to run out, 
he returned to his former abode. 

After this, in the same Treta Yuga, Bodhisatwa 
Manjusil came from Mahachin (China), and stayed on 
Mahamandap 4 for three nights, and saw the Swayambhu- 
light. He then thought of cuttmg a passage through 
the mountains to drain the Nag Hrad. For this purpose 
he went to the low hills on the southern side, and 
placed his two goddesses, named Barda, and Mokshada, 
one on Phulochcha and the other on Dhyanochcha, 
himself remaining in the middle. He then cut through 
the mountain, which he called Kotwal 5 , and let the 

1 The day on which the Sun enters Aries. 

a Now called Champadevi, east of Chandragin and south of K&thmandu, 

8 Now called Plralchok, above G-odavari, 9720 feet high. 

* A small hill one mile east of Bhatgaon, also called Manjusri Than, because 
there is a chaitya there dedicated to Manjuerl. 

* Or Kotwuldar, the place where the BfigmatI passes out of the valley 


water run out. As the water escaped, several Nags 
and other animals living m it went out, but he per- 
suaded Karkotak, king of the Nags, to remain ; and on 
the Mesh Sankranti day, having pointed out to him a 
large tank to live in 1 , he gave him power over all the 
wealth of the valley. 

He then saw Swayambhu, in the form of Biswaitipa, 
on the day of the full moon in Kartik. He also dis- 
covered Guhjeswari, and saw her in the form of 
Biswarupa, on the night of the 9th of Pus Knshn 
He then became absorbed in meditation, and worshipped 
Swayambhti in the centre of the lotus-flower, whose 
root was at Guhjeswarl 2 . He next made the hill 
Padma 3 , from which place to Guhjeswarl he built a 
town called Manju Pattan He planted trees near 
Guhjeswarl, and peopled the town with those of his 
disciples who wished to live as Grihasths, or house- 
holders. To those of them who wished to live as 
Bhikshus, or religious mendicants, he allotted a -bihar 4 . 
He then installed a king, by name Dharmakar, and 
himself returned to China. 

Sometime after this, some disciples of Manjtisri built 
the Manjtisri Chaitya, or Buddhist mound, near Swa- 
yambhti 5 , to worship Manjtisri m connection with Swa- 
yambhti. This took place on the 5th of Magh Sudi. 
Therefore 6 , from that time, the tank appointed as the 
dwelling-place of the Nag was called Tau-dahan (or 

1 The tank called Taudah, of -which more hereafter 

2 About a quarter of a mile above Pashupati temple, on the left hank of the 
Bngmatl, and on the north of the Pashupati wood 

a The same as Swayamhhu hill 

* A. square of houses, with a shrine inside, used in former times as a monastery, 
but nowadays occupied by BSnras and their families 

1 This temple is on the western peak of Swayambhu bill 
8 There seems to bo some confusion heie m the MS 


Taudah), i e , the large tank, and people batlie tliere on 
the Mesh Sankranti, and worship Swayambhu Chaitya 1 
on the day of the full moon m Kartik, when also a 
Mela is held. A great ceremony also takes place at 
Guhjeswari on the 9th of Aghan, on which day the 
goddess revealed herself , and likewise at Manjusri 
Chaitya on Sri-panchami, or the 5 th of Magh Sudi, the 
anniversary of its building 

Afber this, in the same Treta Yuga, Krakuchhand 
Buddh came from Kshemavati, and saw Guhjeswari m 
the form of the Swayambhu-light, which led him to 
think of consecrating a mountain, after the example of 
the other Buddhs, who had formerly visited the place 
With this intention he ascended the high mountain to 
the north, and fixed his abode there. He then explained 
the merits of Swayambhu and Guhjeswari to his fol- 
lowers, and instructed them in the ways and doctrines 
of Grihasths and Bhikshus, He then permitted seven 
hundred of his disciples, of the Brahman caste of 
Gundhwaj and the Chhetn caste of Abhayandad, to live 
as Bhikshus , but finding no water on the mountain, 
with which to perform the Abhishek 2 on them, he 
called on Swayambhu and Guhjeswari, and said, "Let 
water run out of this mountain." At the same time 
he thrust his thumb into the mountain, and made a 
hole, through which Ganga Devi appeared in corporeal 
form, and offered Argh 3 to the Buddh, and then, changing 

1 A chaitya is a Buddhist temple, in its primitive form, a mere mound of earth, 
like a lmirow, aitei wards built of brick or stone in vaiious shapes, with imageB, 
etc , as shown m the plate 

2 A person is fcathed, then mantras are recited, and holy- water (from the 
Ganges, or from different tirthas mixed) is sprinkled upon hjm 

3 Water is taken in the sacrificial vessel called argha, and rice, flotir and pow- 
dered sandalwood are put into the water, which is then poured at the feet of an 
image or on a shrine 


tier form into water, ran out of the mountain on the 
Mesh Sankranti day, and became known as Bagmatl. 
With this water Krakuchhand performed Abbishek. Half * 
the hair cut from his disciples' heads on the mountain 
he buried under a mound, and the other half he threw 
up into the air. Wherever the hair fell, a stream was 
formed, which was called Kesavati, from kC'S (hair) 1 . 
Hence, on the Mesh Sankranti day, people go to this 
mountain to bathe in the river, because of its smctity 
in having been bi ought forth by the command of Kra- 
kuchhand, whence also the place was named Bagdwar 
People also visit the hair-chaitya, and bath? at the 
source of the Kesavati river on the same clay After 
this, Krakuchhand taught the four castes (i e Hindus) 
the way of living as Grihasths and Bhikshus, worshipping 
Swayambhu and Guhjeswari. Then naming the moun- 
tain Phulochcha, he went to Guhjeswari, and saw in the 
wood planted by Manjusri the three gods Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Manes wara (Siva), m the form of deer 
He pointed these out to his disciples as worshippers 
of Swayambhu and Guhjeswari and protectors of the 
people. He said also that they had come as prophesied 
by Padma-pam-Bodhisatwa-Lokeswara, to whom they 
had given their promise to that effect, and had foretold 
that, in Kah Yuga, Umeswar Pashupati would be a very 
celebrated name. He then called the place Mngasthali, 
after the three deities who appeared m the form of deer 2 
He -chen permitted those of his disciples who wished to 
live as Grihasths to inhabit Manju Pattan; and to those 
who wished to live as Bhikshus he allotted bihars and 

1 KehavatI is another name for the Vishrmmatl, which is formed by the junction 
of several streams at the N W corner of the valley. 

2 The -wood on the left bank of the Bagmatl, opposite Pashupati temples 

W N 6 


temples. Having done all this, he returned to Ins former 

After this, Maheswara, in the shape of a deer, dis- 
closed himself in the form of light, which peivaded the 
seven fiimaments above Blrulok (the earth) and also the 
seven firmaments below Basatal (Hadey) On seeing 
this, Brahma went upwards to see how far the light 
extended, and "Vishnu went downwards for the same 
purpose. The place whence Vishnu departed is called 
Vishnu- Gupt, and the Mahadeva was called Pashupati. 
From there being many Sloshmantak (Lapsi) trees, the 
forest was called Sleshmantak-han. Some inspired de- 
votees say that this ban was called Sloshmantak because 
Mahadeva, having come from Badii Keclfti, showed him- 
self in it, at the time when three hundred yeais of the 
Treta Yuga remained to be completed Biahma and 
Vishnu, having returned from their journeys to see how 
far the light of Mahadeva extended, met at the place 
where Sesh Narayana 1 is; and on comparing notes, 
Vishnu said that he was not able to find the limit to 
which the hght extended, whilst Brahma declared that 
he had gone beyond it. Vishnu then called for witnesses, 
and Brahma produced Kamdhenu (the celestial cow), 
who, on being asked to declaie the truth, corroborated 
Brahma s assertion with her mouth, whilst she shook her 
tail by way of denying it Vishnu then, seeing what 
was the truth, uttered a curse on Biahma, to the effect 
that his image should nowhere be worshipped, and on 
Kamdhenu, that her mouth should be impure, but her 
tail sacred. Having done this, he remained in that place 
with the Sesh and cow, but Brahma disappeared. 

Dharmakar Kaja, who was made king by Manjusri, 

1 A place near Phnrphing, a village on the lull south of Kafclimartdu 


having no issue, appointed as Ms successor Dharmapal, 
who had come with Krakuchhand and resided in Manju 
Pattan. He then died, having obtained salvation through 
the worship of Swayambhu. In the same manner many 
other persons came, and having gone through a course 
of austerities discovered holy places and deities 

In the reign of Raja Sudhanwa, a descendant of Raja 
Dharmapal, the Tieta Yuga ended, one-fourth part of 
sin having thus displaced the same quantity of vutue 
He was displeased viith his palace m MaiijU Pattan,* 
and therefore changed his residence to a new one, built 
m a town which he founded on the banks of the river 
IkshumatI 1 , and named Sankasya-nagarl From this 
place he went to Janakpur, where feats of strength 
were to be pei formed by Rajas for the hand of Sit a, 
the daughter of Raja Janak Janak, for some reason 
which is nob known, put Sndhanwa to death, and sent 
his own brother Kusdhwaj to reign in his stead at 
Sankasya Kusdhwaj's descendants ruled the country 
for some years, after which the dynasty became extinct 

In the Dwapai Yuga, Kanak Mum Ruddh came from 
the city of Sobhavati, and, after visiting the shrines of 
Swayambhu and Guhjeswari, ascended into heaven, where 
he caused Indra, the king of the gods, to practise virtue 
(dhann), and then returned to his bihar After him 
Kasyapa Buddh came from Benares, and, after visiting 
the shrines of Swayambhu and Guhjeswari, preached 
to the people Then he proceeded to the Gaur conn Dry 
(Bengal), the king of which, by name Prachand Deva, 
gave him a Pindpatra (sacrificial vessel). The Buddh 
then directed Prachand Deva to go to Swayambhu 

1 Now called Tukhucha, a small stream to the east of the British Residency It 
runs into the Bagmatl between Thapatall and Kathmandu 


84 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

Chhefcra (Nepal), and become the disciple of Gunakar 
Bhikshu, a follower of Manjusri. There he was to live, 
a life of celibacy and beggary, till he had read all the 
Shastras, on the completion of which task he was to 
forsake that mode of life, become a teacher, and live 
for ever. Having given these directions, the Buddh 
returned to his abode, and Prachand Deva Raja obeyed 
his instructions, abdicated in favour of his son Shakti 
JDeva, went to Nepal, and lived as a beggar, under the 
name of Santikar. In due course he became an Aeharya 
(teacher), and changed his name to San^sri. He then 
thought that the Kali Yuga, in which mankind would 
be utterly sinful, was approaching. He therefore covered 
the ' Swayambhu light with a stone, and built a chaitya 
and temple over it. He then built five rooms named 
Basupur, Agnipur, Bayupur, Nagpur, and Santipur 1 , in the 
last of which he lived, absorbed in devout meditation. 

Once upon a time a certain Pandit, of Vikram Sil 
Bihar in Benares, named Dharma Sri Mitra, was reciting 
some moral traditions from a book, when he came to the 
mantra of twelve letters, which he could not explain. 
Ascribing this inability to his not having visited Man- 
jusri, he determined to go to see him, and for this pur- 
pose went to Swayambhu. Manjusri, having become 
aware of this through meditation, also went to Nepal, 
and began to plough a field, having yoked for that 
purpose a lion and a sardul {griffin). Seeing this strange 
sight, Dharma Sri M£ra went up to Manjusri, and asked 
the way to China. 'Manjusri replied that it was too 
late that day to commence his journey, and took him 

1 These urocms are said etill to exist round the S^ayambhO. temple, and a 
blukahu lives in on©, of them In Ssntipor it is said that there is a passage leading 
to a subterranean room under the mound* in which SSntikar died 


to Ms house, where lie instantly caused a good bihar 
'to spring up, in which he lodged his guest. During the 
night Dharma Sri Mitra overheard some conversation 
between Manjusrl and his wife, which made known to 
him the disguised Manjusrl, and he slept at the threshold 
of his room. In the morning Manjusrl made him his 
disciple, and told him the meaning of the mantra The 
bihar, in which he lodged, he called Yikram Sil Bihar, 
and the field which he was ploughing, when met by 
Dharma Sri Mitra, he called Sawa Bhami; and to this 
day this is the field in which rice is planted before all 
the other fields m the valley 1 . 

Hearing that there was no Haja in this country, 
a descendant of Haja Sakti Deva came from Gaur. 
One of his descendants, Gunkamdeva, having committed 
incest, the gods were displeased, and sent a drought 
and famine on the country. He then, having been 
initiated in the mysteries by Santikar Acharya, who 
lived concealed in the Santipur of SwayambhQ, brought 
the nine Nags under his control, and caused them to 
give a plentiful rain. When he was performing the 
ceremonies to summon -the Nags, Karkotak, who lived 
in the Nag-dah, did not come, but the other eight did. 
Upon this Santikar Acharya gave Gunkamdeva some 
dub L gmas and &imc?-nowers, through the virtue of which 
he jumped into the tank, and catching hold of Kaikotak, 
made him a prisoner. On his way home he became 
tn-ed, and sat dewn to rest at the foot of the Swa- 
yambhu mount. This place is still marked by an image 
of Karkotak, at the south-east corner of the mount, 

1 Vikram Sil Bihar is now Thambahd (vulgarly Thamel), a suburb on the north 
side of Eathmandu SawS Bhttml is now called Bhagwan's Khet, a field about a 
quarter of a mile south-west of the Besideney It belongs to the priests of Thamel 
and is the first spot planted with nee every year. 


called Nagsda 1 . Tlie road by which he brought the 
Nag was called Nagbata When Gunkamdeva brought 
Karkotak before Santikar Acharya, his spiritual guide, 
all the Nags woi shipped him, and they each gave him 
a likeness of themselves, drawn with their own blood, 
and declaied that, whenever there was a drought heie- 
after, plentiful rain would fall as soon as these pictuics 
were worshipped 2 * 

Dmmg the reign of Smha ELctu, a descendant of 
Gunkamdova, there was a virtuous merchant by name 
Suihal. On a certain occasion he took five bundled 
Bamyas and proceeded northwaids 3 to Smhal Dwip 
(Ceylon). On the way they saw a golden chatty a, and, 
in. spite of Smhal's warning, the Bamyas took away gold 
fiom it. After ciossing with gieat difficulty the arm 
of the ocean, m the passage of which the power of 
Smhal alone saved them, they wcie met by five bundled 
and one lUkshasis (ogresses), who, m the fonn of lovely 
damsels, enchanted them, and each took one as a com- 
panion. The Lokeswara Aryavalokiteswaia, taking pity 
on Smhal, appeared m the wick of his lamp, and told 
him. what these damsels were, and that some day they 
would devour his followeis. He added that, if he 
doubted him, he should go to Ash ay a Kot, and, if he 
wanted to be saved, he should go to the sea-shore, wheie 
on the fourth day he would meet a horse, which, after 
making obeisance, he should mount and cross the sea 
Smhal went to Ashaya (or Ayasa) Kot in the mornmg, 
where he saw all sorts of persons who had lost their 
limbs, which convinced him of the truth of what he 

1 SUll laicrwn "by tins name 

J These pictmes ol the Kl»s tue still woi whipped Tvken tlieie iu a drought, and 
Kiiull ones aie pasted on the wall", of houses 

It tui^ht to fcc scitthi' dith 


had been told. He then collected his five hundred 
companions, and went to the sea-shore, where they 
mounted the horse Balah, which took them across the 
ocean. Their mistresses the Bakshasis pursued them, 
calling them by name. The Baniyas, in spite of the 
warning of Atyavalokiteswara, looked back, fell from 
the hoise, and were devoured by their mistresses. Sinhal 
was the only one who ariived safely at home, followed 
by his BakshasT, who remained outside his house, with- 
out any notice being taken of her by Smhal A rumour 
regarding a beautiful damsel having reached the ears 
of the Raja of Sankasya-nagari, he sent for her, and 
kept her in his palace. One day the BakshasI flew 
away to the sky, and summoned her sister Bakshasis, 
who came and destroyed the PuXja and all his family. 
Sinhal, having heard of this, went to the Raja's durbar, 
and, reciting the mantras of Aryavalokiteswara, flourished 
his sword and drove away the Bakshasis. The people 
then elected him to be their king, and he ruled for a 
long time. He pulled down his own house, and built 
a bihar, and consecrated an image of Bodhisatwa. In 
consideration of the RakshasI, who followed him fiom 
Ceylon, having been his mistress, he raised a temple for 
her woiship, and assigned land for its support He 
haying no issue, the dynasty became extinct on his 
death. To the bihar which he built he gave the same 
name that Manjusrl gave to the one which he caused to 
spring up for Dharma S11 Mitra, viz Yikram Sil Bihar. 

In the Satya Yuga there was a city named Dipavati 
(from Dlpankar Buddh, who had an image there), in which 
lived a virtuous Raja, whose name was Sarbanand, who 
was considered to be an incarnation (of Buddh). When 
visiting GuhjeswarL, he was pleased with the place, and 


built a durbar and fixed his abode there. This Raja, 
being very virtuous, built a bihar adjacent to his palace, 
and gave it as a residence for bhikshus. He also built 
a ehaitya in front of his palace, and appointed a day 
for fasting in honour of it Once upon a time he wished 
to give presents and alms to beggars, and fixed days 
fur that purpose on the anmversanes of the beginning 
of the Yugas 1 . At this time there was an old woman 
who also gave alms, and Dipankar Buddh appeared in 
corporeal form and took her alms before those of the 
Raja The Raja upon this asked him why he preferred 
to take the old woman's alms first, and he answered 
that the giain given by her had been collected with much 
greater labour than the Raja's gold. This set the Raja 
thinking, and seeing a blacksmith working hard with 
his hammer, so that he was all covered with sweat, he 
went to work along; with him. He remained working 
heie for two months, and brought good luck to his host 
The money which he earned he spent m purchasing 
gifts for the beggars, and fixed the 8th of Sawan Sukla 
as the day for distributing them Dipankar Buddh again 
appeared, and, after taking his alms, blessed him, and 
said that the fame of this meritorious act would last 
to the end of the world, and that in Kali Yuga salvation 
would be obtained only through Buddh. The Raja, then 
placed an image of Dipankar in his durbar. The bihar 
winch he had built previously to this, in front of which 
he had made a chaitya, became known by the name 
of Dlpiivatl, and people celebrate the anniversary of 
thy 8th of Slwan Sukla by worshipping Buddh 2 . 

1 Namely, D^apar Yuga on the 3rd of BaisKkh sudi, Satya Yuga on the 9th of 
lw ttli. such , Tula Yuga on the full moon of M,lgh, and Kali Yuga on the 13th of 
i 1 llivn liadi 

I i ig is a hiLai at I\ikn called Dipavati Bihar, wheio fchi^ fo&tiud i«, &IU1 


After this, many Rajas, such, as Manichur, and many 
Hishis (ascetics), and many gods and goddesses, such, as 
Mahadeva and ParvatI, came to practise austerities here. 
Some discovered holy places, some returned to their former 
abodes , and some remained and took up their residence 

The great Rishi, however, from -whom Nepal derives 
its name, was a devotee named Ne. He performed his 
devotions at the junction of the Bagmati and Kesavati, 
and, by the blessing of Swayamblm and Bajra Jogini, he 
instructed the people in the true path of religion. He 
also ruled over the country. 

Once upon a time, when sixteen thousand years of the 
Bwapar Yuga remained, there being no Haja to rule 
over the country, the Kiratis, who dwelt originally to the 
eastward, hut had removed to the city of Suprabha 1 , west 
of Nepal, came here and ruled over the country. After 
a thousand years of their dynasty had elapsed, in the 
reign of Sanku, a prince named Dharma Datta was born 
in Kanchi 2 One day he met a devotee in Kasi (Benares), 
who spoke much about the holiness of this place, saying 
"that Swayambhu and Guhjeswarl had appeared here 
in the form of light , that Brahma and other gods bad 
come to protect and maintain the followers of ManjusrI 
Mahadeva appeared m this holy place in the form of a 
deer (Everything is contained within him, for the sky 
is his Lingand the earth his Bithika ) By the direction 
of Buddh he changed his form, and settled down in the 
form of light called Pashupati. Xarkotak Nag hved 
there, and had control over all the wealth of the country. 
There there were the Bagmati, Kesavati, and Rudramati 3 

1 Now TLSnkot 2 Kancbiptir, or Cortjeveram, near Madras 

3 The Eudiamatl is a tributary of the Bagmati, between Pa&lrupati and Ka'h- 
ra.lnilu, now called Dhobn akhola 


rivers There also was the Manmati 1 , which was brought 
foith by BandevI, to whom Pwlja Monichur gave the 
jewel from his head, for cleansing the blood from which 
the irver was pioduced. Tlieie there were the four 
Kholas (small streams in nairow valleys), Pi abhavatl, 
Hanumati, Dana-vati, and Ikyhumati 2 There tlieie were 
the following holy places on the banks of the Bagmati, 
where people obtain salvation , viz , Punya, Sant, San- 
kara, Kaja, Manor atha, Nmnala, Nidhi, Gy ana, Chmta- 
inam, Pramoda, Sulakshan, Jaya, and otheis 3 There 
there were Mam Lmgoswara. Gokarneswaia, Kileawaia, 
Sarheswara, Gandheswara, Phamkeswara, Gatteswaia, 
and Vikraineswara 4 Theie there weie the four Joginls , 
Mani Jogim, who appeared J for Raj it Mamchur, Rajra 
Jogim, who appeared for Aiyachaiya, Bidyadhaii Jogim, 
who appeared for Apjasi Pandit, and lastly Hlngii 
Jogim 5 . There there were sixty-four lingas, consecrated 

1 Now called Manohaiakhola, a tubutaij of tlioEngmatl, west of Pa<;bupaii 

2 The riabkSvati or NahkukhoLi runs fiom rkulchok south of Patau and falls 
into the Bagmati above C'haubahal The Hanumati is a mulct between the 
II bhmnati and the Rudi amatl The Dmiivuti is a bm.tll western tubutary of tho 
Bagmati, below the junction of the Yibhnmnatl The Ikslmmatl is a braail btream 
to the eabt of the Re&ideney, on the bank of which is a mound with on image of 
Saiaswatl, said to be the only lenmam; of S uikr^ja. Nagail 

3 Punjais, neai Gokarna, at the junction of a small fotieam with the Bn,gmatl 
Sant lies where a nullah joins the Bagmati neai GuhjCswail Sankaia is now 
called Sankhanmla, noith of Pafcan on the left bank of the Bagmati Eaja lies on 
the light batik of the Bagmati at the junction of the BudiamatI Manuiatha is on 
the Vishnumatl neai Mauumaiju Nnmala is on the Vishnumati near tho burnmg- 
ghat oppobite Swajambhu Nidhi is iust below the junction of the Vishnumati with 
the E^gmatl Gjana is at the junction of tho Dana\ati and Bagmati Ohxnta- 
mamis a little below Nidhi, Piamfida a httlo lower down, where the Balka joim 
the Blgmatt fiom the we&t Sulakshan i«d fctill lowei down, at the junction of 
another -western affluent, and Jaya fctill lowm, at the junction of die Nakku with 
the Bagmati 

4 The &hime of Mani Lmgevwara is on Maniehur mountain, on the north of the 
valley Gokameswara is about two miles N E of TWuwati, on the Bagmati 
Kite&wara is at a place called Chungim3ijyana SarbCswara is m Patau. Gamlkii- 
swara w at Chaubahal Phamke^wara i<s at Pkuxphmg GartCswaia and Vikiamo- 
swara are not known to the tianslators 

"> Mam Jcsgmi & &hime is at Sankhti, Bajia Jogml's at Sankhu aud at Phurphmg , 

i] D HARM A DAT TV 91 

by different gods. From this day that place was made 
as Mahapitha,, because it contains the four most sacied 
shiines 121 the world, viz, Swayambhu Chaitya, Guhje- 
swail Pltha, Siva Ling Pashujoati, and Kaibl Smashfm 1 . 
Many yeans aftei No Mum, a sinner named Biiupakska 
went theie Some .say that he was a Daitya (demon), 
some that he was a Biakman, others that he was a 
ChLetil Ihlja. The follow mg is lily histoiy BnnpaLsha, 
when twelve yeais of age, saw it wntten 111 his hoiobcopo 
that he would commit incest with Ins mothei He was 
so disgunted at this that he left his home and became a 
devotee. His mother, lamevei, did the same, and aftei 
seveial years they met. without knowing each othei, and 
the incest was committed AUeiwaids Buupaksha, be- 
coming aw ai e of his sm, went to Sna to en'pine how be 
was to pmify himself Simi told him to dunk twehe 
loads of melted copper Seeing that he would lose his 
life by following this advice, he next went to a bhikvhu, 
who gave him a losaiy, and told him to lecite ceitam 
holy names wdnle counting it, and that when the thi ead 
of it was woi n cut he would be pm e Bn npaksha f< n a time 
folio w r eo! this advice, but, finding the occupation veiy 
tiresome, he gave it up and went to travel Dming lny 
journey, he saw a man cutting down a tiee witli a needle, 
and on asking why he did not cut it with a hatchet, the 
man leplied that that would be too labouous a woik. 
This brought him to his senses, and he letumed to his 
losary, but soon left it again. Then he saw a bud taking 
water with its bill from a tank full of watei, and chopping 
it into an empty one to fill it. This again bi ought him 

Bicljadliaii Jogml's below Swiyarabku, and Hlugu Jogml's &outh of TlapaUh 
And also west of Pritan 

J Xaibi 01 Kailm Smafalnln is on the Vi4mumati, S W uf K.nhmanda 


to his senses, and he returned to his rosary. Once more, 
however, he forsook it, but on seeing a man attempting 
to make a mountain and a plain level with a few hand- 
fuls of dust, he returned to his rosary and completed 
his task. After this he saw an emblem of Siva (the 
Linga), and saying, 'It was you who advised me to lose 
my hfe/ he began to break every emblem of Siva he 
met with. At last he came to Pashupati, who prayed 
to Buddh to save him, and through his blessing, and being 
provided with a head-dress of Buddh, Birtipaksha, instead 
of breaking, worshipped him 1 . For this reason every 
emblem of Siva is a little bent to one side, except the 
one at Pashupati. Then, as Buddhists do not eat when 
the sun is gone down 2 , he requested the sun, whom he 
caught hold of with one hand, not to set until he 
had taken his meal; and in this posture he died at 

Having heard all these praises of the country from 
the devotee, Baja Dharma Datta made over the charge 
of his city Kanchi to Balketu, one of his ten sons, and 
went to the country of Pashupati, with the rest of his 
sons, and his minister Buddhikshem. He then prayed 
to Bagmati at the Sundara Tirtha, who gave him a 
blessing, by virtue of which he subdued the Kirati Baja 
Sanku, and took possession of the country. He then 
built a town, extending from Buddha Nilkantha to 
Kotwal, which he named Bisalnagara, and peopled with 
the four castes (i e. Hindus). He reigned a thousand 
years, and with great rites and ceremonies he built the 

1 In commemoration of this, once a year, on the 8th of Kartik such, the image 
of Pashupati is decorated with a head-diess like that of the images of Buddha, and 

2 This is not now the custom in Nepal, where the Bauddhamargls always eat 
after <buuset. 

i ] DANASUR. 93 

temple of Pashupati, and presented much -wealth and 
many valuable articles to the shrine. He also made a 
chaitya at the north-west corner of Pashupati, which he 
named after himself, Dharma Datta Chaitya. He lived 
a virtuous life, and was blessed with a numerous family 
and many subjects. 

One thousand years after the death of Dharma Datta, 
an Asur (demon) named Danasur, coming to the city of 
Suprabha, reigned there a thousand years. Notwith- 
standing his wife's advice to the contrary, he began to 
practise austerities on the banks of the Bagmati river, 
with the object of getting possession of the wealth of 
Indra, the king of the gods. He continued doing this 
for twelve years, and then Bhakti Basag Tirtha in- 
formed him that for thirty-four years he would have 
possession of the one-hundredth part of the wealth of 
Indra. Danasur thus, like a thief, stole Indra's wealth ; 
and with the intention of increasing it, he spent none 
of it in charity, nor did he feed any poor people, but 
he hoarded it up and buried it in the ground. "When 
Indra sat in his Sudharma council, and came to know 
the fate of his wealth, he ordered Karkotak Nag to 
take back his riches, keeping one-fourth for himself, and 
floating the remaining three-fourths down a river. Kar- 
kotak kept one-fourth in his tank (Taudah), and floated 
the other three-fourths down a river, which he created 
for the purpose, and named Hatnavati 1 . By this means 
the riches were brought into the Bagmati. The place 
where Danasur buried his wealth is named Danagar 2 , 
and the junction of the Batnavati with the Bagmati is 

1 Another name for the Balka, a right-hand tributary of the Bagmati 
E The name of 'Danagar is also given to a tributary of the Bagmati, -which rtma 
past Kirtlpur 


named Pramoda Tirtha, because Danasur observed aus- 
terities there and gamed Ms object, and Indra prayed 
there for the restoration of Ms wealth and also had his 
desires fulfilled 

One day the wife of Danasur, having quarrelled with 
her husband; bathed in the Bagmati, and prayed to 
Basundhara Devi, who, being pleased, caused a daugkter 
to be born to her, who was named Prabhavati, and who 
appeared m the form of a river, springing from a moun- 
tain near Phulchauk, and came to join the Bagmati 
at the place where the wife of the Asur had bathed 1 
The spot is named Jaya Tlrtha, from the wife of Danasur 
having obtained victory (jaya) there. Danasur, in oider 
to make a pond for his daughter Prabhavati to play 
in, filled up the passage for the water out of the valley 
at Chaubahar, and the valley became a vast expanse 
of water. The Gosring 3 and Mamchur mountains were 
not submerged, on account of their being Swayambhu 

Foimerly, when the valley was a lake, the abode of 
Nags, Manjusri let out the water, and every animal 
went out, including Kuhk Nag This Nag, seeing the 
valley now full again, came to live m it. Aryavaloki- 
teswara-padma-pani-bodhisatwa, seeing that this Kuhk 
Nag was spoiling the memorial of Manjusri, sent Samant- 
bhadra-bodhisatwa to make him immovable He went 
and sat on the Nag's back, and became a mountain, 
called Klleswara 3 , on which he left a portion of his spirit 
and then disappeared. 

After this, Takshak Nag, who was also formerly com- 

1 Prabhavati is another name for the Nakktl 

3 Goarxng is another name for the hill of Swayamhhll 

3 The lull on- which CMngu Nsrajan stand-* 


pelled by Manjusii to leave the valley, became angry, 
when it was again under water, and began to bite people 
without any provocation. This sin produced lepiosy in 
his body , and, to expiate his offence against Manjusri, 
he came to Nepal, and began to practise austerities at 
Gokarn, where the pimce Gokam had obtained salva- 
tion. Gaiud, seeing him, came to catch him, but he, 
being more poweiful than Gaiud, on account of the 
austenties he had practised^ caught hold of Gaiud, and 
kept his head under water. Gaiud invoked the aid of 
his master Vishnu, who came, and was going to strike 
Takshak with his chakra , but m the meantime Aiyava- 
lokiteswara-padma-pam-bodhisatwa, seeing that a Nag 
observing austerities was bemg killed, came fiom Su- 
kkavati Bliuvan (heaven) to protect him. Vishnu then 
took him on his shoulders, and the Lokeswaia caused 
friendship to be established between Garud and Takshak, 
and put the lattei round Garud's neck. Then Garud 
lifted up Vishnu ; and the lion, which had been ridden 
by the Lokeswaia, lifted up Garud, and, flying up into 
the air, alighted on a mountain, which was named Hari 
Hari B&han 1 , where the Lokeswara disappeared. This 
mountain was in consequence named Charu, but since 
then it has been corrupted into Changu. This moun- 
tain also was not submerged, when the valley was flooded 
by Danasur Pkulchauk, Dakshm Kali, and Kachhapal 
mountains were also above water , and the light named 
Pashupati was also not extinguished 2 

Nagarj unpad had made a cave on the Jat Matroclicha 

1 Another name for the hill of Changu SfSrayan, five miles east of KathmSndu 
Here there is a composite image, lepiesentmg LoLeswaia upon Vishnu, upon 
Garud, upon a lion The Munshl supposes that the object of this is to degrade the 
Hindu religion m the eyes of Buddhist? 

2 Dakshm Kali is the hill on which Phm-plimg stand's, and Kaehhap^li'S another 
name for the hill of Chatibahru oi Chaubahll 


mountain, where he had placed an image of Akshobhya 
Buddh, to worship Swayambhu 1 . As the water filled the 
valley, it rose up to the navel of this image, whereupon 
Nagarjun caught the Nag that was playing m the water 
and making it rise, and confined him in the cave. What- 
ever water "is required m tins cave is supplied by this 
Nag to the present day, and for this reason the Nag is 
called Jalpurit 2 This Nagarj unpad Acharya made an 
earthen chaitya, and composed or compiled many tan- 
trashastras, and discovered many gods. He died in the 
cave. The mountain then became known as Nagarjun, 
and it is considered very sacred. People who are anxious 
to obtain salvation leave orders with their relatives to 
send their skull-bone (the "frontal bone") to this moun- 
tain, where it is thrown high into the air, then buried, 
and a chaitya built over it. 

The valley continuing to be a lake, some say that 
Bhimsen (one of the Pandavas of the Mahabharatha) 
came from Dolkha and used to amuse himself on it in 
a stone boat. The daughter of Danasur, seeing Bhimsen, 
ran away. After this Vishnu came, and, having killed 
Danasur, opened a passage for the water through the 
Chaubahar or Kachhapal mountain, and carried off Pra- 

After Vishnu returned to his Baikunth (paradise), 
and the other gods to their respective abodes, this valley 
of Nepal again became inaccessible. When the valley 
was changed into a lake by Danasur, some inhabitants 
of Manju-pattan, Sankasya-nagara, and Bisal-nagara, 
saved their lives by fleeing to other places, and some 

1 This hill is now called Nagarjnn, and on its northern side are numerous caves, 
Bome of which contain images One of these is said to Ibe the identical eave men- 
tioned in the text. 

2 Liteially, making full of water. 


were drowned. Some bhikshus saved themselves by 
going to Swayambhu mount After the waters ran out 
and the valley remained inaccessible; the city of Suprabha 
was depopulated 

One thousand years having elapsed after this, 
Brahma, Yishnu and Maheswara came here, and took 
the forms of Bhat-bhatyam. They appeared as father, 
mother and child 1 . They founded a city extending 
from Sankha-mtila 2 to Jalasayana Narayana (t e. Narayana 
sleeping on the water) or Buddha Nll-kantha, and put it 
under the charge of a Chhetri Raja named Swayambrata, 
a son of a Rishi or devotee. This Raja used to pro- 
pitiate the goddess Ham Jogini, and obtaining much 
riches from her, distributed them daily to beggars and 
poor people. At this time a hero was born in iJindustan, 
who, having received directions in a dream, came and 
entered the Raja's service When asked his name, and 
what work he could do, he replied that his name was 
Bir Vikramajit, and that he could do anything the 
Raja ordered. The Raja always kept him m his own 
company, and thus he at last became aware of the way 
in which the Raja daily procured the riches which he 
gave away in charity Having found this out, one 
night Yikramajit anointed his body with spices and 
fried himself in the pan (used by the Raja) 3 The 
Jogini then devoured him, and being much pleased 
with the spiced meat, restored him to life and gave 
him the tree of riches He then overturned the pan 
and returned to his home The Raja, when he next 

1 The temple of Bhat-bhatyam is to the east of the British BesiJency, ana con- 
tains the images of a man and a woman with a child between them Persona afflicted 
with paralysis are supposed to have incurred the displeasure of these deities 

2 1 e , Sankhu 

3 This pan is still exhibited to the ciedulous ' 

W N 7 


went to the place, findirg the pan overturned, began to 
lament ; and the Jogini told him that his servant 
Vikramajit had got the tree of riches. The Raja re- 
turned to his palace, and after praising the heroism of 
Vikramajit, abdicated in his favour. Thus Vikramajit 
became the Raja of Bisal-nagara 

In his reign, Basundhara Devi of Phulochcha "moun- 
tain discovered Godavarl on the Sinha Sankranti (i. e. 
on the day when the sun enters Leo), and at that time 
the planet Guru (Jupiter) was also in Leo. For this 
reason (i. e. because she discovered Godavarl) any one 
who digs a well, or builds a dhdrd or huhi\ first worships 
Basundhara Devi. 

After this, considering Nepal to be a place of great 
sanctity, the Trisul Ganga river discovered itself at the 
foot of the Jat Matrochcha mountain 5 , on the day of 
the full moon in Chait. 

There are two places which face each other diagonally, 
one being at the south-east, the other at the north-west 
corner of the valley* At the time when Raja Dharma- 
datta founded the city of Bisal-nagara, an inspired 
devotee had built, at a spot at the foot of the Satarudra 
mountain 3 , the shrine of Jalasayana Narayana, or Buddha 
Nil-kantha. The Raja Vikramajit visited this shrine 
every day, and, having obtained the permission of the 
deity, he made a stone image of the JSTarayana, with 
four arms, and two dharas to feed the tank. One of 
these fountains brings forth a Jcund-ftower every year, 

1 A ftiM l ib a fountain with a spout carved as a dragon's head or the like A 
lathi is a small well or spring, buxlt round wxth massomy, as a resting-place foi 

2 Another name for Nsgarjun These springs, at the place now called BiilSji, 
are said to he in connection with the Trisul Gangs. 

3 Now called Snai tol (oi Shupiui), on the north of the valley. 


and he who is fortunate enough to get possession of this 
becomes wealthy and prosperous, 

After this, Vikramajit caused a great temple to be 
built, to the south of which he erected a summer-house 
over the spot where he had buried a Sinhasana (throne), 
named Devi-datta-sinhasana, which possessed the thirty- 
two attributes. He used to sit there daily and admi- 
nister justice to his subjects. He ruled one thousand 
years, and his glory and fame were great. Having in- 
stalled his son Vikrama-Kesarl on the throne, he died 
at Mani Joginii. 

This Raja was also very punctual in observing, and 
much devoted to, the rules and ceremonies of his religion. 
He built a durbar nine stories high, and surrounded the 
city with gardens and a wide ditch, He also appointed 
a day for his subjects to observe the Dewali Puja. 
Some time after this, he was much grieved at seeing the 
memorial of his forefathers, the Narayana fountain, be- 
come dry ; and he therefore went to Buddha Nil-kantha 
for advice. The deity told him to consult the astrologers. 
He did so, and afber some deliberation they said that 
it required a sacrifice of a human being possessed of the 
thirty-two attributes. The Raja resolved to obey these 
directions ; but, thinking that to sacrifice a subject would 
be a sin, and to kill his own son, who possessed all 
the requisite attributes, would be cruel, he determined 
to be himself the victim. He therefore called his son 
Bhup-Kesari, and ordered him to kill, without looking 
at his face, a certain man, whom, on the fourth day 
after that, he should find lying covered over on the 
fountain. The prince, going there on the appointed day, 
in accordance with his father's commands, and not know- 
ing who the person was, cut off his head. Blood rushed 



out of tlie dh&ra, and the crocodile on the fountain 
turned back his head that he might not see a parricide. 
The son then went to wash his hands in the Ikshumati 
river, and was surprised to see swarms of worms floating 
in the water. On returning to his house, he heard a 
great noise of people shouting out that the prince had 
killed his father. The prince then silently performed 
his father's funeral ceremonies, and making over charge 
of the government to his mother, he went to Mani 
Jogini to expiate the sin of parricide. Seeing him very 
forlorn, the Jogini informed him that he could expiate 
his crime by building a large Buddhist temple, two miles 
in circumference, and having four circles of gods The 
spot for the temple would be indicated by the perching 
of a Jculcmg (crane), which would take its flight from that 
mountain The bird accordingly alighted, the spot for 
the temple was marked out, and the work was begun 

Another version of the story is, that it was Iiaja 
TikmantI who was sacrificed, and that his son Mandeva 
was the parricide The parricide, not being able to dis- 
engage his hand, to which the severed head attached 
itself, went to Mani Jogini, by whose advice he built 
the Buddhist temple, and then the head became detached, 
which head (i e. an image of it) is seen to the present 
day at Mani Jogini 

When Mandeva began the work of building the 
temple, there was a great drought, so that the workmen 
making the bricks could only get water by soaking 
cloths (in the beds of the streams) and wringing out 
the moisture. When the bricks were being made, 
Baraht Devi, to test their strength, came in the shape 
of a sow and .trod on them. This visit being repeated, 
the Raja inquired who she nm> *nd the Devi, acceding 


to his prayer, disclosed herself in her true form. The 
Baja, to show his gratitude, placed her image at the 
entrance of the Buddhist temple which contained all the 
deities. The prince Mandeva on this occasion composed 
a special prayer, which is repeated by every Buddhist 
when performing puja in holy places. 

The Prayer. 

Reverence to lUtna tiayaya. 

I bow to thy lotus-like feet, O Lord' 

Thou ait Buddh — thine asylum I seek. 

There are countless ments m ■worshipping Budih, 

Thou ait the master of religion, etc. 1 

According to Bhotiya (i e. Tibetan) tradition, the 
Lama of Bhot, having died, became incarnate, and lived 
again as the Baja of Nepal, who built the Buddhist 
temple ; and for this reason the Bhqtiyas hold it in great 
veneration 2 . 

After finishing the temple, the Prince presented 
himself before Mani JoginL She was well pleased with 
him for having punctually carried out the directions 
which she had given for building the temple, and said : 
" You have been cleansed from sin, and your grandfather, 
who got the tree of riches and expended them in charity, 
will again appear in the world, when three thousand 
years of the Kali Yuga have passed away, and he will 
change the era, which will then be known as Yikram 
Sambat, or the era of Vikramaditya." Having heard these 
words, the prince returned to his palace. His mother 
had meanwhile ruled the people with great justice, 

i The whole of the prayet is given In the original manuscript. 
2 This temple still exists, and is now called Bodhnath. It is only 300 yards in 
cueumference, but of course it is the identical temple built by MandSva! 


so that they were full of her praises. She built many 
monuments, and at last consecrated an image of Nava- 
Sagara Bhagavati. This image, that of Bhagavati of 
Palanchauk, and that of Sobha Bhagavati, were all made 
by the same artist 1 . 

After her death, there came to Bisal-nagara, as its 
Raja, a certain Raja Bhoj. Being told of the fame of 
Tikramajit, he boasted that he would also achieve as 
great exploits, and said that he intended to sit on his 
throne. As he was about to seat himself on it, each of 
the thirty-two attributes of the throne assumed the 
form of an image, and after reciting the great deeds of 
Vikra-majit, they disappeared. Bhoj still persisted in 
mtranting the throne, whereupon it arose and flew away. 

This Raja being haughty, Nava-Sagara Bhagavati 
took offence, and sending forth fire from a well in front 
of her temple, consumed the city and its inhabitants. 
Thus Bisal-nagara was destroyed, and only small ham- 
lets now occupy its place. The people who were spared 
scattered themselves in different directions. Some oi 
these* people of the four castes (Hindus), went and fixed 
their abode beyond the Manohara, Others went south, 
across ^the Bagmati, and founding a city called Mat- 
rajya, resided there. Others, being jealous of the 
founders of Matrajya, went elsewhere, and founded 
another city called Irkharajya. Some bhikshus went 
to live in the Swayambhu mountain, where Gunakai 
formerly resided; and others went to live at Ka- 
chhapagiri 2 . 

Long ago, when Odiyacharya invited all the gods on 

3 Palanchauk is a village east of Ban&pa, which is in another valley to the easi 
of the valley of Ksthm&ndtt ^he image of Sobha Bhagavati is still shown at tht 
burning-ghat on the^agmati. Witoheu are said to worship these deities 

J Another name for Kachhap&l or Chaubahsl. 


the mountain, except Ganesha, the latter took offence at 
this alight and began to molest him. Lokeswara-padma- 
pani then sent Kshiti-garbha Bodhisatwa, who created 
the god Bighnantaka to -protect him from Ganesha's at- 
tacks. Ganesha, being foiled in his attempts, submitted 
to Bighnantaka, who in return said, that from that day 
any one commencing a work should first worship Ganesha, 
in order to prevent any interruption. For this reason 
Ganesha is first propitiated before any work is under- 
taken. After this, Kshiti-garbha went away, leaving 
his spirit in the chhatra established by Odiyacharya, 
and this chhatra became known as Gandheswara. The 
people who went to live there erected an image of 
Lokeswara, naming it Anandadilokeswara, or the Giver 
of happiness to the people of the world 1 . Some bhikshus 
went to live there as beggars, in accordance with their 
customs, and those who lived as householders paid their 
recluse brethren money for performing the Lokeswara jatra. 

There was a chaitya in Bisal-nagara, which was not 
destroyed by the flood caused by Danasur. Its votaries, 
not being able to support themselves when Bisal-nagara 
was destroyed, thought of removing. One night they 
were told in a vision that they were to remove to a 
place which would be indicated by a bird flying from 
the chaitya. In the morning they saw a kite perched 
on the top of the chaitya, which on their approach flew 
away, and alighted again at a spot where they raised 
another chaitya, and named it Jmado, from Ima, (t & 
kite" (inNewari) 2 . 

Some bhikshus went to live at Manichur, where 
Raja Manichur, formerly the king of Saketa-nagara, 

1 This image is shown at Chaubahal 

» A mound-chaitya about half a mile to the east of Patau 


performed penance and the ceremony of Nirguna 1 yagya ; 
and where, on account of his giving away as alms the 
Mam (jewel) on his forehead, ten things sprang up, viz , 
Manichfiragm, Mamlinga, Manirohinl, Manitalava, Mani- 
jogmi, Mamchaitya, Manidhara, Maniganesha, Mani- 
mahakala, and Manohara Some Bauddhamargi house- 
holders followed them, and lived as votaries of Mani- 
jogmi. Some four-caste people (Hindus) also accompanied 
them, and settled at Padmakashthagiri 2 , at the south- 
west corner of the valley They first peopled the spot 
with cowherds. Of Bisal-nagara not a vestige remained 
Small hamlets sprang up on its rums 

A city was founded where the Rudramati flows, 
between Santeswari and Gyaneswara. This town also 
was destroyed. A thief, having heaid that there was 
the Sparsa Mani (philosopher's stone) in Gyaneswara, 
began to cleave the lmga there with a hatchet , where- 
upon the Mani fled, and took refuge in the Prabhavati 
A certain Raja, having heaid that the Sparsa Mani 
was in the Prabhavati, went to search for it, and tried 
to discover it by bringing metal in contact with the 
pebbles in the bed of the river He failed however m 
his attempt, although the metal all became gold. 

One thousand years after this, a certain Rani of the 
Marwara country, by name Pmgala, having been dis- 
graced by her husband, came to Guhjeswari, to which 
-Aie was directed m a vision Here she performed 
penance by fasting, and the goddess, being propitiated, 
told her to build a house and live there, and to apply 
to her eyes a ceitam anjana (black ointment), which 
would enchant the Raja her husband The Ram did 

1 In tlio outfinal apppiontly Xiiaufada 

■ TIk' knttpiir hill, so called because mam prttlma cu cheuj-tieo 4 - glow tlioie 


as she was told, and placed images of gods and goddesses 
in the Bahala Kot, which she built and named Pingala 
Bahala 1 . Through the effects of her great penance, the 
mind of Sudaita, Raja of Marwara, became uneasy, and 
he came here in search of his wife While he was pay- 
ing a visit to Guhjeswari, the Rani was also there, and 
some of the gods tried to catch hold of her, She in 
terror called out to the goddess that she was Pingala 
The Raja, hearing this, looked at her attentively, and 
recognised some traces of his former love, although she 
was now changed to a perfect beauty. He accordingly 
claimed her, whereupon a quairel ensued, which was 
terminated by the intercession of the goddess, who 
reconcded the Raja and Rani, and peisuaded the gods 
not to interfere The royal couple, having appointed 
Bauddhamargl priests to take care of the Pingala Bahala 
Kot, returned to their own country 

After this, knowing that the influence of the gods was 
great m Nepal, the four Bhairavas, Nuwakot, fthaktpiir, 
Sanga and Panchlmga, came here ; and finding that 
they could not get blood to drink, as there were no 
Rajas, they determined to appoint them Then Indian! 
also came and settled here, taking as her name Man a 
MaijuA Next came the Kumaiis, viz , Bal Kurnarl of 
Therm, in the east , Kwatha Kshe Bal Kurnarl m the 
south; Maiti Devi Kumaxi in the west, near Gyane- 
swara ; Mangalapur Kumail 111 the north, formerly in 
Bisal-nagara, near Bhasmeswara These deities had power 
during the Dwapar Yuga. 

1 Only lums of tins building remain, at a place south, of Pashupati, ^lioie a new 
temple and house have been built by Colonel Sanai-smgh, a brothei -in-law of Sn 
Jung Bahadur 

3 A place on the Vifehnuniatl, about foui miles aho^e 


Satya Yuga lasted 1,728,000 years. In this Yuga 
men lived 10,000 years, and practised virtue. Pran 
Yayu, or the principle of life, existed in the spinal 
marrow. The abode of men was white. 

Treta Yuga lasted 1,296,000 years. Men lived in 
this Yuga for 5,000 years. Pran "Vayu existed in the 

Dwapar Yuga lasted 834,000 years. Men in this 
Yuga lived for 1,000 years. Pran Vayu existed in the 
blood, flesh, and skin. 

Kali Yuga will last for 432,000 years. In its first 
quarter, Pran Vayu exists in food. In the second 
quarter, great eaters will live for 50 years. In the third 
quarter, men will live 16 years, feeding on vegetables, 
fruit, and flowers. In the middle of Kali Yuga, a Haja, 
by name Vijayabhinandana, will bring all kings under 
his rule, and he will live 1,000 years. At the end of 
Kali Yuga the incarnation of Yishnu as Kalaki will 
take place. 

The Kiratls came into Nepal at the 15,000th year 
of the Dwapar Yuga, and they ruled over the country 
for 10,000 years. The gods came into the country after 
the Kiratls. Dharmadatta Haja reigned 1,000 years. 
After this the country remained without a king for one 
thousand years. Bisai-nagara existed for 2,000 years. 
Pingala's adventures extended over fifty years. When 
950 years of the Dwapar Yuga still remained, the gods 
came to the decision that it was necessary to appoint 
a Raja. After this the Kali Yuga commenced. 


Founding of tke Gupta dynasty by N© Muni Discovery of Pashupati 
in Bhuktam ana's leign Ahlr dynasty from Hindustan. Eirati 
dynasty Commencement of Kali Yuga. Sakya Sinha Buddha cornea 
to Nepal. Asoka visits Nepal Somabansi Rajputs invade the 
country and seize the throne Suryabansi Hajpu.t dynasty. SunayasrI 
Misra Introduction of cultivation into Nepal. Shankaracharya 
visits Nepal and overthrows the Buddhist religion Religious perse- 
cutions. "Vikiamaditya visits Nepal and introduces his era. 

The ancient temple of Pashupati having fallen down, the 
light was huried under the ruins. Some cowherds came 
into the country in the train of Sri Krishna, who came 
from Dwarika to help his grandson in letting out the 
water from the valley through a passage, which he made 
at Chaubahal, and in carrying on? the daughter of 
Danasur, who had stopped the outflow of the water. 
These men settled down at Padmakashthagiri, and built 
cowsheds. One of their cows, by name ISTe, was a milch 
cow, but gave no milk. Every day at a certain time she 
went running to a certain place* One day the chief 
cowherd followed her, and saw milk issuing from her 
udder, and saturating the spot on which she stood. His 
curiosity was excited to know what was under the spot, 
and on removing some earth he discovered the light, 
which however consumed him. 

Ne Muni, from whom Nepal derives its name, then 
came, and having persuaded the people that there would 


be no Chhetrl Kajas in the Kali Yuga, he installed as 
king the son of the cowherd who had been consumed by 
the light 

1. This Raja, by name Bhuktamana, reigned 88 
years, and Pashupati was discovered in his reign. He 
used to play at a game called Kilatari 1 in the Slesh- 

2. His son Jaya Gupta reigned 72 years. 

3 His son Paiama Gupta reigned 80 years. 

4. His son Bhim. Gupta reigned 93 years. 

5. His son Bhim. Gupta reigned 38 years. 
G. His son Mam Gupta reigned 3/ years. 

7. His son Vishnu Gupta reigned 42 years, 

8. His son Yaksha Gupta reigned 7\ years. 

These Hajas had their residence near Mata Tirtha 2 , 
and used to tend Brahmans' cows. These eight Rajas 
were descended from the cowherd, who was installed as 
king by No Muni. 

The origin of Mata* Tirtha is thus described. In the 
time of Ne Mum, one of his cowherds, being much dis- 
tressed by the death of his mother, went into the jungle 
neai his house on the 1 5th day of Baisakh, and offered a 
ball of boiled rice to her in the tank, into which water 
was collected from the mountain His mother's face and 
hand appeared in the tank, and the hand accepted the 
offering. For this reason, Ne Muni called the place Mata 
Tirtha, and to the present day people resort there, on 
that date, to offer balls of boiled rice to their deceased 

The cowherds reigned through eight generations, ex- 
tending over 521 years Yaksha Gupta, having no issue, 

1 A military game, a sort of sliam fight. 

a At the foot of the MI to the south of Klitlpflr. 


an Ahir, from tlie plains of Hindustan, came and ruled 
over the country. His name was (l) Bara Sinha. His 
son (2) Jayamati Sinha succeeded him ; and he was 
followed by his son (3) Bhuvana Sinha. This Raja was 
conquered by the Kiratis, who came from the east. 

The Rajas of the Kiratl dynasty were . — ■ 

1. Yalambar, who reigned 13 years. 

2 His son Pabi, in whose reign the astrologers 
announced that the Kali Yuga had entirely overspread 
the earth, and that mankind were bent on sin. The 
gods' period of Dwapara ended, and the first quarter of 
Kali Yuga commenced. 

3. His son Skandhara 

4. His son Balamba. 
5 His son Hnti 

6. His son Humati. 

In this reign the Pandavas were destined to reside 
in forests, and one of them, named Arjuna, fought with 
Mahadeva, who was in the form of a Kirati, and pleased 
him by his skill m archery. 

7. Humati's son Jitedasti. 

This Raja, by the order of Arjuna, went to Kuru- 
kshetra 1 , to fight against his enemies the Kauravas, men- 
tioned in the Mahabharata During this reign Sakya 
Sinha Buddha came into Nepal, from a city named Kapila- 
bastu 2 , and having visited Swayambhu Chaitya and 
Manjusri Chaitya, fixed his abode at Puchhagra Chaitya 3 
"While there, he accepted the worship and offerings of 
Chtida, a female bhikshu, and made 1350 proselytes, viz , 
Saliputra, Maudgalyayana, Ananda, &c, from the Brahman 
and Chhetii castes. To several Bodhisatwas, such as 

1 Near Panipat s Said to be m the Tersi 

8 To the -wesf of Swayatiablm Ml 


Maitreya, and gods, such as Brahma, who came to Nepal 
expressly to see him, Sakya described the glory o£ Swa- 
yambhti. He then visited Gubjeswari, and after that the 
Namobuddha mountain a . Here h e discovered, and showed 
to his disciples, certain ornaments belonging to himself, 
buried under a chaitya, When he formerly existed as 
a prince named Mahasatwa (the son of Maharatha of 
Panavati 2 , formerly called Panchala), he had buried these 
ornaments, after destroying himself by giving his flesh 
to a tiger to eat. He replaced them as they were, and 
repaired the chaitya. He next ascended into heaven, 
and returned after visiting his mother, who had died on 
the seventh day after his birth. Then, after preaching 
his doctrines to the people, he saw that the time of his 
death was approaching, and went to a city called Kusi 3 . 
Here, while he was preaching to an assembly of gods 
(such as Brahma) and bhikshus (such as Ananda), he 
disappeared. Some of his followers remained in Nepal 
and professed his religion. 

As Raja Jitedasti did not return from the wars re- 
counted in the Mahabharata, 

8. His son Gali ascended the throne. 

9. His son Pushka. 

10. His son Suyarma. 

11. His son Parba. 
12 Hia son Bunka. 

13. His son Swananda. 

14. His son Sthunko. 

In the reign of this Raja, Asoka, the Raja of Patali- 
putra (Patna), having heard of the fame of Nepal as a 

1 About twelve miles east of BhRtgSon. 

8 A Tillage in a valley about eight miles south-east of BhatgSon. 

8 Or Kosmsr The river K&bi or Kosi is well known. 


sacred place, and having obtained the permission of his 
spiritual guide, Upagupta Bhikshu, came on a pilgrimage 
to Nepal, accompanied by his family, and followed by 
a large number of his subjects. He visited every holy 
place, and bathed in every sacred water, and went to 
Swayambhu, G-uhjeswarl and eight Buddha bitaragas or 
chaityas He also built several chaityas. His daughter 
Charumati, while playing one day, saw an iron arrowhead 
turned into stone by a god, and determined to remain in 
Nepal, having concluded from this that it was a land of 
miracles wrought by the gods The Raja, therefore, gave 
her in marriage to a descendant of a Chhetii, named 
Devapala ; gave them 3,600 ropnls of land, and every- 
thing else requisite; and then returned to his own country. 
On the way back, his Rani, Tikhya Lakshmi, gave 
birth to a son, and suckled him on the ground ; whence 
the spot and the child were both named Mahipana. 
After this, Charumati and her husband Devapala founded 
and peopled Deva Patan 1 . They were then -blessed 
with a numerous family, and becoming aged, they 
determined to pass the rest of their lives m retirement 
They therefore resolved each to build a bihar. That of 
Charumati was first completed, and she died in it, after 
living the life of a bhikshuni 2 . Devapala died in great 
distress, from not being able to complete his bihar before 
his death. All this happened in the reign of the Kirati 
Raja Sthunko. 

15. His son Gighri. 

16. His son Nane 

17. His son Luk. 

. a A town west of and adjacent to Pashnpati temple. 
= Charumati BiMr still exists at Chabshil, a village north of and close to Dsva 


18. His son Thor. 

19. His son Thoko 

20. His son Banna. 

21. His son Guja» 

22. His son Pushka. 

23. His son Kesti. 

24. His son Suga. 

25. His son Sansa. 

26. His son Gunan. 

27. His son Khimbu, 

These Kirati Bajas lived in an inaccessible durbar, 
built in the jungles of Gokarna. The Kiratis began to 
kill the jackals which infested the place, and these animals 
took refuge at Gupteswara„ on the banks of the Bagmati , 
they raised a small mound, which was called Jambuka 
Dobhani, or the Hillock of Jackals 1 . 

28. His son Patuka 

This Haja was attacked by Somabansi Rajputs, from 
the west, and, leaving the durbar at Gokama, removed 
to a distance of four kos to the south, across the Sankha 
Mula Tirtha, where he built another durbar 

29 His son Gasti. 

He, being hard pressed by the Somabansis, fled from 
the new durbar. Then the Somabansis, having subdued 
the Kiratis, built a durbar near Godavari, at the foot of 
the Phulochcha mountain 

1 The first Somabansi Raja was Nimikha. 

In his reign, an inspired devotee found at Godavari 
his rosary, club, bag, gourd, tiger's skin, and ball of ashes, 
all of which had been washed away in the river Godavari 
(in Madras). This gave rise to the Mela which is held 
every twelfth year at Godavari, when Jupiter is in Leo. 

1 A hillock near Gtokarn, between it and Paslnipati 


2 His son Mataksha 

3. His son Kaka-barma, 

4. His son Pashuprekhadeva. 

This Raja peopled his coimtry with people of the four 
castes (Hindus), and rebuilt the temple of Pashupati, 
which had become dilapidated, roofing- it with golden 
plates, and finishing it with a Qajura on the top The 
temple, being thus higher than before, was now seen from 
a distance. This happened in the 1234th year of the 
Kali Yuga. 

5. His son Bhaskara-barnia. 

Tliis Raja went with a large army to the four quaiters 
of the world, and up to the ocean, 1 e. Setubandha Rame- 
swara 1 . By the assistance of Pashupati mantras he 
subdued many countries, and brought back much gold, 
which he dedicated to Pashupati. He also caused Pashu- 
pati to be bathed with water containing gold, which ran 
down to the Bagmati He enlarged into a town the 
village of JDeva Patau, winch was founded by Devapala, 
a Rajbansi Chhetri, who was a follower of Asoka Raja 
This town he named Subarna-purl, 01 the golden town 
He entrusted the daily worship, and the ceremonies ac- 
companying it, to Bauddhamargi householder Acharyas 

The rules and ceremonies to be observed lie caused to 
be engraved on a copper-plate, which he lodged with the 
bhikshus of Charumati Bihar He dedicated Subarna- 
puri to Pashupati, and prayed to Pashupati that he 
might have no children He therefore appoint 3d as his 
successor one Bhumi-barma, a Chhetri of the solar race 
of Rajputs, of the Gautama gotia, who had been one of 
the followers of Sakya Smha Buddha of Kapiiabastu, and 

1 The extreme south of Indm, vheie Kama Irailt the budge between the main- 
land and Ceylon 

w x 8 

114 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

had remained in Nepal after his departure. Shortly after 
tins Bhaskara-barma died. 

Of the new solar dynasty the first Raja was 

1. Bkumi-barma, who was crowned m the Kaligata 
year 1389. He quitted the Durbar at Godavari, aod 
established his court at Baneswara. 

2. His son Chandra-barma. 

3. His son Chandra-barma 
4 His son Barkha-barma. 
5. His son Sarba-barma. 

6 His son Prithwi-barma 

7 His son Jyeshtha-barma. 

8. His son Han-barma. 

9. His son Ktibera-barma 

10. His son Siddhi-barma 

1 1. His son Haridatta-barma. 

This Raja was in the habit of paying a daily visit to 
the four ISTarayanas, viz., Changu, Chamju, Ichangu, and 
Sikhara Narayana, who m Dwapar Yuga disclosed them- 
selves to an inspired devotee. One night Jalasayana 
ISTarayana appeared to this Raja in a dream, and said 
that he was the original of the four Narayanas, and that 
he was buried under earth and stones, washed down by 
the Rudramati from the Satarudra mountain. He told 
him to remove the earth and stones, and uncover him, 
which the Raja did , but whde doing so, he struck the 
Narayana on the nose with the spade, and broke it 
To the present day the nose remains in this mutilated 
condition The Raja then made a tank for the Narayana, 
and called him Nilakantha, and built a temple for him 1 . 

12. His son Basudatta-barma. 

3 Tin 1 ? god -with the l)i olven nose is still to be seen at Buddha Nflkantha, a place 
nt the loot of t' c Sn .1411111 Lull, foui milo& 1101th of the lU'vulencs 


13. His son Pati-barma. 

14 His sou Sivabiiddhi-barmiL 

15. His son Basanta-barma. 

16. His son Siva-barma. 

17 His son Rudradeva-barma. 

In this reign a certain Sunayasri Misra Biahmana, 
from Kapilabastuka, arrived here, and took up his abode 
near Sarbeswaia 1 , who bad appeared to Sarbapadacharya 
from a jar of water, when be was worshipping. Being 
in search of a spiritual guide, to ensure his salvation 
(which ought to be sought after by every man who 
distinguishes between right and wrong, and without 
which a man has to be reborn several times), and 
finding no one to answer his purpose, Sunayasri Misra 
went to Lhasa, to take as his spiritual guide the inspired 
Patla (or Bhikshu) Lama, one of the three sacred Lamas, 
the other two being named Grihastha and Sravaka. This 
Lama was in the possession of the six essential attri- 
butes ; viz the power of flying in the air , of hearing 
sounds from the distance of thousands of miles; of 
seeing for thousands of miles , the knowledge of what 
is in the minds of others; the knowledge of all past 
events , and freedom from sensual and worldly desires. 
Besides these, he possessed power to live and die at 
his own pleasure, and to be reborn when he pleased 
He could also tell the events of present, past, and future 
times. These powers he had acquired by conducting 
himself accordmg to the rules, and performing the 
penances imposed on him by Sakya Sinha Buddha. Su- 
nayasri Misra made the Lama his spuitual guide, and 
received instruction in the various matters connected 
with, religion. He then returned to Nepal, with the 

1 A. temple m Patan, also called KumWiCsvt a^a 

X— 2 


intention of fixing" on a place of residence, and building 
a bihar; but for a long time lie could not select a spot. 
At last lie fixed on one of the four chaityas built by 
Raja Asoka of Patna, during bis visit to Nepal, each 
of which was founded on the anniversary of the com- 
mencement of one of the four Yugas, He examined the 
ground occupied by each, and at last his choice fell on 
the one built on the anniversary of the commencement of 
Kali Yuga 1 . He then presented a bidol (crystal) jewel 
to Raja Rudradeva-barma ; and having bought the 
ground, he built a bihar and fixed his abode there. 
Having received directions in several dreams, he put 
a 'bidol jewel m one of the four great Asoka chaityas, 
and repaired them all 2 . His disciples, Govardhana Misra 
and Kasyapa Misra, came from Kapilabastuka to Nepal, 
in search of their Guru; and having found him, they 
became converted and lived here, each in separate bihars, 
which were built by their Guru and named Dunta Bihar 
and Lalibana Bihar. 

Not having heard anything of Sunayasri Misra, nor 
of the two disciples who had been sent in search of him, 
his mother and sons came and found him here. He built 
for them a house called Choka, near his own bihar. 
When a grandson was born, he made his son become 
a bhikshu also. His wife placed an image of Kuliseswari 
to the south of the bihar. He made it 'a rule for his 
descendants, that, on the birth of a son, they were to 

1 This bihar is 111 Patau, and the descendants of Sunayasri Misra still live 
there I bought a copy of the Asokavadana from one of them 

a These are (1) Sunayasri Misra' s in Patau , (2) the large mound on the parade- 
ground, south of Patan, founded on the anniversary of the commencement of the 
Satya Yuga; (3) the mound opposite Thapatali, west of Patan, founded on the anni- 
versary of the commencement of the Dwapar Yuga, and (4) the mound to the east 
of Patan, south of Im5,do Ohaitya, founded on the anniversary of the commence- 
ment of the Treta Yuga 










leave their homes and live a life of celibacy in the bihar. 
Sunayasrfs bihar is now called Yampi Bihar, and those 
of his disciples are called Kontibahl Bihar and Pinta 
Bihar. In Pmta Bihar there are still preserved specimens 
of a large rice -without husk, and of rice with husk, such 
as grew in former ages 1 . 

18. Hudradeva-barma was succeeded by his son 

This Baja was very pious. He daily fed Bajra Jogini, 
before taking his own meals- He repaired the chaitya, 
built by Dharmadatta, and built several bihars for 
bhikahus to live in. He went one day to visit that 
one of the four large chaityas which was built on the 
anniversary of the commencement of the Satya Yuga, 
and being attacked by a severe illness, he died there. 

The servants of Yama took him to their master's 
kingdom ; bat Yama, when he saw him, chided them 
for having brought such a virtuous man to Hell. He 
was therefore released, and restored to life again. He 
then compared what he had seen in Hell with what was 
written about it in the Karanda-byuha, and finding that 
they agreed, he was pleased. He attributed his curious 
adventure and his release to Lokeswara Padma-pani, 
who, as he learned from books, had caused by his presence 
the cessation of the tortures of those in Hell. He there- 
fore erected an image 01 Dharma-raja Lokeswara, and 
one of Yamantaka Agama. He left his brother Balarchana- 
deva there, and himself returned and placed an image 
of Pancha-Buddha near Godavari, calling the place by the 
name of Bandyagaon 2 . Shortly afterwards he died at 
his palace. 

1 These specimens of rice are still in existence, and are shown m the month of 
Sawan The grains are as large as small nutmegs ' 

3 Now called Bandegaon, a Tillage about two miles wes>t of Oodayari. 


His brother Balarchana-deva paid great attention to 
the images of the deities erected by his brother. Up 
to this time no one had cultivated land or grown corn 
in these regions, but grain was brought from a great 
distance. Every one was afraid to be the first to dig 
the earth. Balarchana therefore selected a strong 
young man, called Balbala, who had no family, to drive 
the first spade into the earth ; in return for which service 
he was to receive a share of the corn grown by every one 
thereafter. He performed this service, and in course 
of time died, after having erected a stone image of 
himself, to which Balarchana caused religious honours 
to be paid, and bread made of rice to be offered, on 
the day of the full moon m Aghan 1 . The land which 
Balbala dug is called Savaya-mateva-bhumi, and no 
plough dragged by oxen is ever used on it 2 . 

At this time the incarnation Shankaracharya was 
born in the Deccan of an immaculate Brahman! widow. 
This Shankara in his six former incarnations had been 
defeated in religious discussions by the Bauddhamargis, 
and had been cast into the fire At the time of his 
seventh incarnation there were no learned Bauddhamargis 
there, but only sixteen Bodhisatwas (or novices), who, 
hearing of the advent of this great reformer, fled to the 
North, seeking refuge wherever they could find it, and 
there they died. Shankaracharya, finding no clever 
Bauddhamargis with whom to argue, and hearing that 
the sixteen Bodhisatwas had fled to Nepal, pursued them, 
but could not find them. On his arrival he saw that 
there were no learned Bauddhamargis in Hepal. The four 

1 This linage of B ilb.ila still stands iieai tlic temple of Mackchhindia-nstlia m 
1'RUn, south of the dmli.u 

2 Tin, kbit or field he-> smith of the jviiadp giounct at I'atm 


Hindu castes were Bauddhamargis Of these some lived 
in bihars as Bhikshus ; some were Sravaka^, also living 
in bihars ; some were Tantrikas, and called Acharyas, and 
some were Grihasthas, following tlie Buddhist religion. 
Shankara found that of the three Bauddhamargi sects, 
viz., the Bhikshus, Sravakas, and Grihasthas (as is written 
in the Sambardrnava), the first two had no clever men 
to argue with him. Therefore some of the Grihastha 
Acharyas, when preparing to argue with him, brought 
a jar of water, in which they invoked Saraswati (the 
goddess of speech) to aid them. While contending with 
them, Shankara somehow became aware that Saraswati 
had been invoked to help them against him. He there- 
fore entered the temple at the southern door and dis- 
missed her, after which the Bauddhamargis were soon 
defeated. Some of them fled, and some were put to 
death. Some, who would not allow that they were 
defeated, were also killed; wherefore many confessed 
that they were vanquished, though in reality not con- 
vinced that they were in error. These he ordered to 
do hmsd (1, e, to sacrifice animals), which is in direct 
opposition to the tenets of the Buddhist religion. He like- 
wise compelled the Bhikshunis, or nuns, to marry, and 
forced the Grihasthas to shave the knot o£ hair on the 
crown of their heads, when performing the churd-lcarmat 
or first shaving of the head. Thus he placed the Bana- 
prasthas (ascetics) and Grihasthas on the same footing. 
He also put a stop to many of their religious ceremo- 
nies, and cut their Brahmanica! threads. There were at 
that tune 84,000 works on the Buddhist religion, which 
he searched for and destroyed. He then went to the 
Manichura mountain, to destroy the Buddhists there. 
Six tunes the goddess Mam Jogml raised storms, and 


prevented his ascending the mountain, but the seventh 
time he succeeded. He then decided that Mahakala, 
who was a Buddha and abhorred hinsd, should have 
animals sacrificed to him. Mam Jogmi or Ugra TarinI 
was named by him Bajra Jogmi. Having thus overcome 
the Buddhists, he introduced the Saiva religion in the 
place of that of Buddha Thus ends Shankaracharya's 
triumph over the BaudiLimFugis f Nepal. 

At the time of his coming into Nepal, Brikhadeva 
Kaja had died, leaving his luini pregnant His brother 
Balarchana, being uncertain whether the issue would be 
a son or a daughter, remained at Matlrfyya 1 and wor- 
shipped Dharma-raja Lokeswara, whose statue had been 
consecrated by his brother, though he was desirous of 
living as a bhikshu. The Bfini m due season gave birth 
to a son Shankarachfuya, when searching after great 
men who followed the Buddhist religion, caught Balar- 
chana , and as he refused to be converted, his head was 
shaved, and his Brahmanical thread taken away from 
him Having thus in mockery made a perfect bhikshu 
of him, he forced him to many a bhikshuni. 

Shankarlicharya thus destroyed the Buddhist religion, 
and allowed none to follow it , but he was obliged to leave 
Bauddhamargis m some places as priests of temples, 
where he found that no other persons would be able to 
propitiate the gods placed m them by great Bauddha- 
mlirgjis He then returned to the sea-side, leaving the 
northern parts of the world un conquered. 

Very few Bauddhamargis were left m the country 
now, and the Bhikshus began to intermarry with the 

1 Ximoof iht cWut\n uliuli uas built on tlxu aiumcivai;y of the commence- 
un Ht <>f the H.iha. \n ■•<> 


Pingala Kani liad consecrated images of a god and 
goddess, and worshipped them with Ganges water, and 
fasted for a month, through the influence of which pe- 
nance her husband had come to seek her, and been 
reconciled to her. At the time of her departure she 
had left Bauddharnargi priests to continue the worship 
of her deities in the Pingala Bahala Kot, The de- 
scendants of these priests, being desirous to perform 
the chura-karma, began to reflect thus : " Shankara- 
cliarya has destroyed the Bauddhamargls. He has 
turned out the Bauddhamargi Grihastha Brahmans, who 
hitherto worshipped Pashupati, and has appointed in 
their stead Brahmans from the Deccan, and those 
Bauddhamargls, who have accepted Shankaracharya's doc- 
trines have been made priests of Guhjeswari and other 
places. Our fathers, however, did not accept Shankara- 
charya's doctrines, and they remained firm in the worship 
of their deities as before, How then can we leave these 
deities and relinquish our former creed? If we remain 
m our former creed, however, we cannot discharge the 
duties of Acharyas without performing the chura- 
karma, as ordered by Shankaracharya. Our fathers died, 
leaving us as infants, unable to perform any action 
ourselves. There is no image of a god here, without 
which chura-karma cannot be performed; and we can- 
not go to any bihars for chura-karma, except those of 
Kuliseswara and KuliseswarL Nor can chura-karma be 
performed without our first being Bhikshu Acharyas, and 
no god can be consecrated without Bhikshu Acharyas." 
Being thus at a loss how to act, they went to their 
uncles 1 , the Bhikshus of Charumati Bihar, who had 

1 Vmlc and aunt aic often merelj teims of lespcct, not of actual lelationblnp. 


married their aunts through fear of Shankaracharya. 
After consultation, these Bhikshus said • " O nephews 1 
what can we do ? The people of this place, contented 
with their scanty means of livelihood, have kept the 
things they- know in their hearts, and have remained 
silent through fear of Shankaracharya; for which sin 
they will all be afflicted with goitre 1 . What are we to 
do ? Those who were living as bhikshus have been 
forced to live as grihasthas. The rules established by 
Bhaskara-barma Haja for this place, and written on a 
copper-plate, kept in this bihar, have been replaced by 
others made by Shankaracharya; and a rule for sacri- 
ficing animals has been added to the copper-plate, which 
is now ordered to be kept here. If we are obliged to 
live as grihasthas, and to obey the rule about sacri- 
ficing animals, we shall commit a great breach of the rules 
of our own religion. We have therefore made up our 
minds to go elsewhere, and live in a new bihar. Let 
those remain here who wish to remain , but we will not 
stay. You too have made up your minds to remove, and 
we will accompany you." 

They then went to Pingala Bahal, and worshipped 
with great ceremonies the Iswari ]STairatma. Then they 
made a chaitya for Swayambhu and an image of Sakya 
Smha Buddha ; and to keep up the worship of these, they 
took bhikshus (living now as grihasthas), the descend- 
ants of those who had followed Sakya Smha into Nepal, 
and appointed them as priests. They made these follow 
the Tantra Shastras, and settled down along with them. 
They did not make any change in the grihastha priests, 

1 This ongin of goitre is still believed in Similarly I have heard intelligent 
and educated Nepalese assert that hydrocele (which is very prevalent there) 
originated with the introduction of the potato as an article of food. 


who had been appointed by Rani Prngala of Marwara 
to worship her Nairatma Guhjeswari, but made a rtde 
that every bhikshu, living as grihastha in the Bahal, 
should in turn take charge of the Swayambhu Chaitya 
and the image of Sakya Smha. 

At the time when Shankaracharya appeared, a son 
of Raja Brikhadeva-barma was born, and was named 
after Shankaracharya. 

19. This was Shankaradeva Raja. 

In the reign of this Raja, a trisul (trident) of iron, 
weighing a maund, was made, and placed at the northern 
door of Pashupati's temple, and dedicated to him 1 . 
There was a well near Rajeswari 2 , by looking into which 
people saw the shape which they were to assume when 
reborn Thinking that this would cause great distress to 
the people, the Raja had it filled up, and in front of it he 
erected a large emblem of Siva, which he called Apansa- 
jati-smarana-birateswara 3 . In this reign an image of 
Nandi, or the bull on which Mahadeva rides, was placed at 
the western door of Pashupati. From the day this image 
was erected, it was no longer a sin to pass in front of 
the Jalahari, or stone on which the emblem of Siva is 
fixed. In the reign of this Raja there was a Brahman 4 
named Jayasri, who refused to become a convert to the 
doctrines of Shankaracharya, and married a daughter 
of a bhikshu of Charumati Bihar, who, through fear of 
Shankaracharya, had himself entered into matrimony. 

1 This trisul is still a very conspicnous object in front of the temple, as seen 
from the opposite bank of the rrver 

2 A temple sonth of the large temple at Pashupati, below the bridges 

3 This linga, of enormous size, still stands on the bank of the Bagmati at 
the place mentioned 

* Explained by the Pandit to mean a person of Brahmamcal descent, but by 
leligion a Buddhist. 

1 24 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

The Raja told liim to remain as a Bandya, or Bfmra, if 
he did not wish to renounce the Buddhist religion, and 
he would make a bihar for hun on the other side of 
the Bagmati. While they were uncertain where to "build 
the bihar, and where to place the image of the deity, a 
peacock came and alighted on a certain spot, and when 
this was dug, an image of Yishnu was found and taken 
out. On this spot an image of Bhagavan Sakya Smha 
was placed; and for this reason the bihar built there 
was called Mayura-barna (Mayura, a peacock). Some 
people call it Vishnuksha Bihar 1 , 

20. The son of Shankaradeva was Dharmadeva. 
This Raja repaired the Dhanado Chaitya, built by 

Raja Dharmadatta. 

21. His son Mandeva. 

Some say that Khasa Chaitya was built by this Raja 2 . 
He bmlt Chakra Bihar, near Matirajya, known now by 
the name of Mandeva-sanskarit-chakra-maha-bihar 3 . 

22. His son Mahadeva. 

23. His son Basantadeva-barma. 

He was crowned in the Kahgata year 2800. 

24. His son Udayadeva-barma. 

25. His son Mandeva-barma. 

26. His son Gunakamadeva-barma. 

27. His son Sivadeva-barma. 

This Raja was crowned before he was married In 
his reign the Durbar near Baneswara was abandoned, 
and one of nine stories in height was built in Deva 
Patau, where the Raja estabhshed his court After 
removing to Deva Patan, he brought ISTritya Natha, 

1 This building is at Patan. 

* Now called Bodlmsth 

J In Pntan, near the statue of Balbala. 


known as Bhukuns, from the Satarudra mountain, and 
established him on the western side of Pashupati Natha. 
This Nritya Natha is possessed of great gifts. The Raja 
built nine new tols, or divisions of the city, and erected 
nine Ganeshas. He also brought Kameswara Bhfma- 
sena from the west, and established him to the west 
of Pashupati. For the protection of the country he 
caused to be brought from Sivapuri a round stone image, 
called Bhairava Sila, which he placed in his Durbar. 
To free the country from debt he caused to be brought 
an Arini Sila, or debt-payer stone. When using this 
as a weight, the Bhairava appeared, but he was unable 
to complete the task of paying all the debts of the 

He founded and peopled the place known as Nava- 
tol, after performing all the requisite ceremonies, and 
establishing four Ganeshas, four Bhairavas, four Nritya 
Nathas, four Mahadevas, four Kumaris, four Buddhas, 
four Khambas, four Gaganacharls, and four chatush- 
pathas or crossways with Bhuta images Then, after 
establishing an Avarna deity in each tol or division 
of Deva Patan, he erected an image of Siva. He in- 
voked Mahamrityunjaya to protect men from untimely 
death. He founded and peopled Mahanagara and other 

After making one dhoka (gate), two wells, three 
dharas, four Nritya Nathas, five davalis 1 , six tols, seven 
Iswaris, eight Agamas, and nine Ganeshas, at Subarna- 
puri, he named it Gol, because its shape was round. He 
caused to be uncovered Banakali, who in the reign of 
Baja Dharmadatta had eaten up the army and concealed 

1 A. platform for dancing at festival*, and wheie images are brought to be 


herself m a wood The flesh of the human bodies 
was still sticking to her teeth. He also erected near 
her a large image of Bachana Binayaka Ganesha. Being 
a "wise monarch, he caused to be uncovered m the city 
a chaitya which Shankarachfirya had concealed. He also 
caused burning-ghats to be built, for the dead bodies 
of each caste, to the east of Bajreswari Bachhla Devi, 
on the banks of the BagmatI 1 . Leading to these he 
made a special street, along which the dead bodies might 
be carried. 

He also established the custom of assembling the 
people and offering a human sacrifice to Bachhla Devi, 
the principal deity of Nepal, on the 12th of Chait Badi. 
On the 13th, unmarried boys and virgms were fed. On 
the 14th, winch is called Pisacha-chaturdasi, a fire was 
kept lighted all night wherever there was an image of 
Mahadeva, and the next morning the Devi was carried 
in a ratha, or car, round the city to celebrate the jatra. 

Being aware that Bachhla Devi was the principal 
deity of Nepal, that he might be able to perform all 
her numerous religious rites, he ordered that, after wor- 
shipping Pashupati Natha, a cloth should be tied by 
one end to his temple, and by the other to the palace. 
This cloth was left for four days, and then taken down 2 . 
In this manner he revived the worship of Bachhla, Bhu- 
vaneswari, Jayabageswarl, Bajeswan, and many other 

This Baia entrusted the ceremony of invoking and 

1 Tins temple is close to the principal bridge at Pashupati, on the right bank of 
the BagmatI It is covered with horribly indecent figures 

2 These clotha are constantly seen tied to the tops of temples, or extending 
across rivers, with floweis, small flags, etc, attached to them at intervals The 
attuhutes of the deity are supposed to pass fiom the shrine or temple to the place 
whore the cloths aie fastened 


worshipping Bachhla and other deities to Achars. He 
instituted the custom of sacrificing a human being- every 
year to Bachhla, to propitiate the goddess At the end 
of the ceremony he used to distribute gifts in money 
and clothes. The Achars, after invoking the prin- 
cipal deity of Nepal, propitiated Kshetrapaleswaii and 
other deities with annual offerings of money and other 
things Hence arose the custom in ISTepfil of offering 
sacrifices and presents of money, flowers, etc 

Having one day learned from a certain good man 
that a samt came daily to bathe m the Swapna Tirtha 1 , 
the Raja hunied there to satisfy his curiosity. He 
found on his arrival a hideous fakir, whom^ after much 
persuasion, he succeeded m bringing back with him, 
and lodged him near Tamreswara. The Raja, having 
first repainted the image of GiamadevI Jayabageswarl, 
employed the fakir in performing the ceremony of 
Jivana-nyasa, or bringing the goddess to life again 2 . 
While thus employed the fakii informed him that he 
was an incarnation of Durbasa 3 . He then caused the 
goddess to be very powerful in workmg miracles. He 
also soothed the restless image of Bhairava Nava-lm- 
geswara, and discovered Gaja-karnaka (i e , Ganesha, 
he with the ears of an elephant) The Raja then pro- 
ceeded with the fakir to Bajra Jogmi, and, having re- 
pamted the image, performed the ceremony of Jivana- 
nyasa. He ordered thab this ceremony should be per- 
formed only once in twelve years, instead of annually, 
as heretofore had been the custom, 

1 A pond near the Vishnumatl, m -winch people bathe on the Mesh Sankrsnti 

2 The spirit of the image, bcfoie repainting, is supposed to be extracted, and to 
be ltept m a ;jar of ^vater till the work is finished, when it is restored A Mm ia 
then peiformed, and IhThmans aie fed a& i sual 

d An incarnation of Srs a 

128 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

The Raja, now thinking that his Guru would soon 
be becoming old and decrepit, built a Dharma-sala at 
Tamreswara, and revived the Mahadeva by daily worship. 
He then reigned for a long time, and at last had his 
brother Narendradeva-barma anointed as king, and he 
himself lived with the fakir. 

One day, when these two were going to Godavaii, 
they came to a place where, in the Treta Yuga, Manjusrl 
Bodhisatwa had founded a city , and where Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Maheswara (who had come to visit Swa- 
yambhu and Guhjeswari), were seen strolling in Mriga- 
sthall ; and where Vishnu entered the mountain. They 
stopped at this place, and the fakir expounded all its 
glories to the Raja. Then, at the mountain where there 
was a Saligrama Lakshml Narayana 1 , the fakir invoked 
Vishnu ISTarayana, and was about to disappear, when the 
Raja thus addressed him " Guru ! Thou art now 
about to disappear, and what, will be my condition then ? 
Pray show me the path by which I may obtain salva- 
tion, and not be subjected to being born again." The 
fakir replied . te There is nothing that cannot be ob- 
tained by man. Everything can be gained, provided 
the requisite exertion is made. Now I am going to tell 
thee the way. It is difficult to obtain salvation after 
this birth by worshipping other deities. Therefore wor- 
ship Buddha alone , obtain a knowledge of the rive ele- 
ments ; become a bhikshu , perform devotions to and 
meditate on Buddha , and thou wilt then obtain salvation 
after this birth." Having thus spoken, the fakir vanished. 
From that day this mountain was named Vishnugun, 
or the mountain of Vishnu. 

After this Sivadeva-barma went roaming about, and 

1 This is a spin of the lull*, nortli of GocLliaii 


one day met a bhikshu, who was living in the Banprastha 
state. He made this bhikshu Ms Guru, and built a 
bihar, in which be placed images of Swayambhti and 
Sakya Sinba Buddha, and then he himself became a 
bhikshu. Four days after becoming a bhikshu, the Raja 
told his Guru that it was impossible for a man, who had 
enjoyed the comforts and luxuries of a king, to lead that 
kind of life. He therefore begged him to show him 
some means, by which he could live comfortably in this 
world, and yet obtain salvation in the next. "It is 
written," replied the Guru, "in the Dharma-shastra, 
that a bhikshu can return to the grihastha mode of 
life, and is then called a Bajradhrik or Bajracharya. 
Also, that those who are descendants of Sakya Muni, 
are, after the ten sanskaras or ceremonies, Bandyas or 
Bhikshus, and they can also worship Kuliseswara, and 
still lead a grihastha life." Having said this, the 
Guru took off the ochre-dyed cloth from the Baja's 
body, and performed the ceremony of Acharyabhisheka. 
The Baja then, with the sanction of the Guru, built 
a bihar near his own, and lodged the Guru in it. For 
his maintenance he assigned some land, which up to the 
present time is given only to those who live as bhikshus 
m that bihar 1 . The Baja then, with his Guru's sanc- 
tion, placed an Agama-devata or Buddha in his own bihar, 
meditated there daily, and performed his devotions and 
worship there. He then married, and many sons and 
daughters were born to him. It was his daily custom 
to sit before the Kuliseswara or Buddha, which he had 
erected, and one day, while thus meditating, his skull 
burst, and his soul escaping, he obtained salvation. 

1 Sivadeva's bihar is in Patan 
W N 9 

130 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

At the time Ms skull 4 burst, a mani, or jewel, came 
out of it. Only one person at a time is allowed to 
enter that Agama, lest, if more entered together, they 
•should begin to discuss among themselyes the size 
and shape of that jewel. 

Narendradeva-barma had been placed on his brother's 
throne, and Punyadeva-barma, the son of Sivadeva-barma 
by the wife whom he married after becoming a Bajra- 
charya, performed his father's funeral rites, and led the 
same life as his father. 

28. His brother Narendradeva-barma. 

29. His son Bhimadeva-barma. 

30. His son Vishnudeva-barma. 

31. His son Viswadeva-barma. 

This Raja once said that the human sacrifice to 
Bachhla was a piece of cruelty, whereupon the Nara- 
siva 1 made a great noise. The Raja went to see what 
was the matter, and the Nara-siva came to seize him. 
The Raja, being pleased at this, gave him a large jaglr 
(grant of land), which remains to the present day. 

This Raja made a large stone image of Yishnu on 
the northern side of the Bagmati and Yishnumatl. In 
order to propitiate Jayabageswarl, who had come to 
Nepal from Mansarovara 2 , across the Sila river 3 , the 
Raja erected an image of Nava-Durga and Kumarls, 
and offered many sacrifices on the Chandl purnima, 
or night of the full moon in Chait. 

This Raja had no male issue, so he gave his daugh- 
ter in marriage to a Thakuri, or legitimate Rajput, 
named Ansu-barma, and shortly afterwards he died. 

1 Literally "man-jackal", perhaps the sacrificing priest The Pandit cannot 
explain this passage. 

2 A lake m Titefc. 

3 Another name for the Gand&ki 


At tins time Yikramajit, a very powerful monarch 
of Hindustan, became famous by giving a new Samba- 
tasara, or era, to the world, which he effected by liqui- 
dating every debt existing at that time in his country. 
He came to Nepal to introduce his era here Wlide 
searching for a suitable place for his abode, he thought 
of a certain spot on the first range of mountains, where 
there still lived the descendants of the people of 
Dipavati, who came to Nepal in search of Raja Sarbii- 
nand, who lived m the Dwapar Yuga. This Raja had 
left his bihar in Dipavati, where he worshipped the 
image of Dipankar Buddh, who died m the Satya Yuga 
The people in search of Sarbanand came to Nepal, but 
hearing of the Raja's death, they halted at the first range 
of hills and lived there, worshipping an image of Dipan- 
kar, which they made exactly like one m Dipavati 
Vikramajit, knowing these people to be descended from 
very ancient families, took up his abode with them 
One day, while he was wandering alone on the moun- 
tains, meditating on a subject which preyed on his mind, 
viz , how he was to pay off the numerous debts of this 
country, Ganesha appeared to him, but only for a 
moment. The Raja took it as a lucky omen to have 
seen the form of Ganesha, who is the giver of nches 
and success, and he became confident that he would 
now succeed m his object. He therefore erected an 
image of Ganesha on the spot where he had seen the 
form, and having worshipped it, he went to Nepal, and 
after clearing off all the debts of the country he intro- 
duced his Sambat. From that day Ganesha came to 
be known as Suiya-binayaka 1 

1 An image of Ganfshi, -with this name, stands opposite Bliatg'km, on tlio otbei 
Bide of the sticam 


132 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap ii ] 

The Raja then, having received the permission of 
the gods and the people, went back to TTjjain 3 and 
having brought the god of three Shaktis, or attributes, 
named Harsiddhi, placed him near 2SFil-tara. From this 
the village of Harsiddhi took its origin 1 . The Haja 
then, under the direction of the goddess 2 , brought all 
the gods of Nepal to that place, with great ceremonies, 
and dramatic performances, and vocal and instrumental 
music. It is well known that there is no dramatic 
performance equal to that of Harsiddhi. The people, 
in gratitude to the B-aja for having paid off all the 
debts of the country, promised to continue the Har- 
siddhi performance. After this Haja Vikramajit obtained 
salvation. Being a stranger, he left no son in Nepal, 
so that Ansu-barma, who had married the daughter of 
"Viswadeva-barma, and was about to ascend the throne 
when prevented by the descent of Vikramajit, now be- 
came king, (and thus began a new dynasty). 

1 About halfway between Pstan and GrodSvarl 

2 Harsiddhi is a deity of both sexes 


Vikramadifcya's successor begiii3 a new dynasty The Salivahana era 
introduced into .Nepal. Founding of Patan or .Lalitpur. Legend 
of Machchhindra-natha Hevival of Hinduism under a supposed 
incarnation of Shankaracharya. Foun d ing of KlcLntipur or Kath- 
mandu. A Tha&uri Raja founds a new dynasty, known as the 
Vais Thakuri. 

1. The first Raja of the new dynasty was Ansu- 

He left; the Durbar at Deva Patau, and removed 
to one which he had built, with many beautiful court- 
yards, in a place named Madhyaiakhu 1 . He also caused 
his Kajis and ministers to be accommodated with houses 
in the same place. This Paja was very strong-Hmbed 
and restless, and people feared his power. He once 
went to Prayaga Tirtha (the junction of the Ganges, 
Jamna, and Saraswati, at Allahabad), and persuaded 
Prayaga-Bhairava to accompany him to NepaL He 
placed him near his Durbar, and to propitiate him 
established a Mansahuti-yagya 2 , to be performed every 
year. The image of this Bhairava is still in exist- 

Down to the reign of this monarch the gods showed 
themselves plainly m corporeal form, but after his time 
they became invisible. jQl. slok in the Bhabishya Purana 

1 Some ruins on tlie road south of Deva Patan 

s A Mm, in which there is a burai-offering of flesh instead of- nee, acwgraffe^d*. 


says " Ten. thousand years Vishnu will reside on the 
earth ; the Ganges half of that time ; and Grama 
dcvatas (local deities) the half of that." Nepal, how- 
ever, being the city of the gods, the deities consented 
to remain there three hundred years longer than the 
time thus fixed. 

In the reign of this Raja, a certain Bibhu-barma Raj- 
bansl, or descendant of a Raja, having consecrated a 
Buddha, built an aqueduct with seven dharas or spouts, 
and wrote the following slok on the right-hand side of 
one of the dharas " By the kindness of Ansu-barma, 
this aqueduct has been built by Bibhu-barma, to augment 
the merits of his father 1 ." 

In this reign three thousand years of the Kali Yuga 
had passed away. 

2 His son Krit-barma 

3. His son Bhimarjuna-deva. 

4. His son Nand-deva 

This Raja, having heaid that the era of Sakvahana 
was in use in other countries, introduced it also into 
Nepal. Some people, however, in gratitude to Vikra- 
majit, who introduced his era by paying off all the 
debts of the country, were averse to giving up the use 
of that era Hence some continued to use Vikramajit's 
Sam bat, and others, out of deference to the Raja's wishes, 
used the Salivahana Saka 

5 His son Bir-deva. 

In his reign there Lved an ugly grass-cutter, who 
used every day to cut grass in Lalitban 2 , sell it m 

1 Tins cliinia, still exists on the loft-hand side of the road leading southwaida 
fiom the Ii.uii-polvl»l 

a A place in Patau, where the temple of KtimbhCswaia new stands, near the bank 
of itho 13.T#inatI 


Madhyalakhu (the capital), visit Mani Jogini, and then 
return home. One day, while cutting grass, he felt^ 
thirsty, and having stuck into the ground his nol (bam- 
boo yoke for carrying loads), he went in search of water. 
He soon found a tank full of water, in which he 
bathed and drank, whereupon he lost his ugliness and 
became a handsome man. On returning to his nol, he 
found it stuck so firmly in the ground that he was 
obliged to leave it where it was. Having made a bundle 
of his grass, he went as usual to sell it in Madhyalakhu. 
Here he was seen by the Raja, who enquired how the 
change in his appearance had been brought about, and 
was told the preceding story. The Raja asked him 
to point out the place, which he did; and the Raja 
then said that, as he had got a new and better shape 
by bathing in the tank, he would give him the name of 
Lalit, and consider him hereafter as one of his friends. 

The Raja was desirous of erecting some memorial 
of this event, but was at a loss what name to give to 
the tirtha, or holy place, and returned to his palace 
meditating on the subject. The next night he had a 
dream, in which he heard these words : " O Raja 1 
the name of that tank is Gauri-kund-tirtha. At the 
distance of eight haths (cubits) from the south-east 
corner, I, Sarbeswara-ling, am buried. Dig and see. 
The nol of the clown has become siddha (supernatural) 
and is my Kameswara Found a city near It, and call it 

The Raja awoke, sent Lalit across the Bagmati, 
with much money, and founded a city, to contain twenty 
thousand inhabitants, which he named Lalitpur. He built 
and peopled it according bo the following rules, observed 
on such occasions. In the middle of the city he made 

136 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

a tank underground, and in it worshipped the Nags and 
many other deities. He then covered over the tank and 
the watercourses for introducing and carrying away the 
water Over the tank he "built a chaitya and a dhara, 
and erected a Siva- ling, a Ganesha, a Mahakala, and a 
Mandapa, and "built a Durbar for the Raja, all of which 
he consecrated. Being a devotee of Mani Jogihi, he 
named all these after that goddess as follows Mani- 
talava, Mani-chaitya, Mam-dhara, Mani-hnga, Mani-Gane- 
sha, Mani-Kumara, Mani-Mahakala, Mam-Mandapa, and 
Mani-gal-hhatta. He then budt a Dharma-sala 1 , for 
entertaining thirty-three crores of gods, and named it 
Lalitapur. He passed the rest of his life in wor- 
shipping these thirty-three crores of gods, and then 
obtained salvation. 

At the time Bir-deva Raja was crowned, 3,400 years 
of the Kali Yuga had passed away. 

5. His son Chandraketu-deva. 

En the reign of this Raja, enemies from all sides 
attacked the country, and plundered and pillaged the 
people. The Raja, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself 
up with his two Ranis in a room, and lamented and 
shed tears over these misfortunes for twelve years. At 
last he received help from a certain person, whose history ■ 
is as follows. 

In Treta Yuga was built the town of Manju-pattan, 
which, being enlarged by Sudhanwa Raja, was named 
Sankasya It was again enlarged by Raja Dharmadatta, 
and named Bisal-nagara. After this Danasur stopped the 
water, and changed the valley into a lake, at which time 
a grihasthacharya, residing in Manju-pattan, took shelter 

1 This Dharma-sala stands near the temple of JCumbheswara before mentioned 


in the mountain of SwayambhtL Among his descendants 
"was one named Bandhudatta Bajracharya, who, after 
becoming a bhikshu, had returned to the grihastha life. 
He had observed great austerities, and, by constant 
reciting and performing devotions, had made many 
mantras subservient to his wishes, and gods even had 
promised him their help. 

At this time he was roaming in the woods and forests, 
performing chatur-jap 1 , and visiting holy places. On 
his return he found the city depopulated, and, after 
dipping his head and body under the water of the 
Panchnadl 2 , and performing bajra-jap 3 , the true state 
of affairs became known to him, and he saw Baja 
Chandraketu-deva with his Ranis starving in a room. 
He then caused a Panch-rasmi-tej 4 to emanate from his 
body and illuminate the room in which the Raja was. 
The Baja, surprised at seeing the light, got up, and 
went in search of the object from which it proceeded* 
Having traced it to the bank of the river, he was about 
to jump into the water, when the devotee appeared, 
and, taking hold of the Raja's hands, gave him hopes 
that he would put an end to his misfortunes. Speaking 
thus, he conducted the Raja back to his Durbar; and, 
in reply to his entreaties to put an end to his troubles, 
the Acharya told him to collect articles of worship 
and offerings for the goddess, whom he was going to 
summon to relieve him. 

The Acharya then went to the Kamani mountain 5 , 
and, after performing great devotions, and reciting man- 

1 Recitation of mantras at morning, noon, evening and midnight, 

2 The junction of the Vishnumati and Bagmati. 

3 Recitation of Buddhist mantras 

4 Or solar spectrum, •which, according to the Nepalese, has only five instead 
of seven colours 

* One of the peaks on the south side of the valley. 

138 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

bras, he at last succeeded in bringing with him the 
goddess, whom he left in a certain place, and went ta 
bhe Durbar to bring the offerings for her. To his 
surprise, nothing had been collected by the Baja, so 
tie had himself to prepare an offering. This caused 
some delay, and the goddess meanwhile, in the shape 
of a child, was crying and wandering about in search 
of food. Just then a Jyapu (cultivator), on his way 
fco his fields, saw the child, put her in his kharpun 
(basket), and carried her away with him to his fields, 
named Navalim 1 . There he gave her bread to eat 
and pyatho (beer) 2 to drink, and placed her under 
an umbrella to shelter her from the sun. The Raja 
and Acharya returned to the place where the goddess 
had been left, and not finding her there, they went 
into the fields, and after much entreaty succeeded in 
bringing her back. They then placed her in a suit- 
able sacred spot, and worshipped her ; and then the 
Baja and Acharya poured forth their woes, and asked 
how the wealth, which had been plundered, was to be 
recovered, and their enemies driven away. The Devi 
instantly caused a light to issue from her body, which 
niuminated the ten sides of the universe. The Bajas, 
who had carried off the riches and pillaged the country, 
became frightened at this sight, and restored what they 
had taken away, so that the Baja and his people were 
made happy again. From that day the goddess was 
named Lomrf-mahakall-devi 3 . 

The Baja was blessed with a son, whom, after per- 

1 Near the Tudiihsl, now the grand parade-ground. 

9 Two kinds of hquor are made in Nepal, raksM, a spirit distilled from rice or 
wheat, and pyatho, a kind of coarse beer, fermented but not distilled. 

* Her temple stands on the eastern side of the Tudikhel, and is much resorted 
to by the natives. 


forming all the requisite ceremonies, he named Narendra- 
deva. He then caused his son to be crowned, and being 
himself old, he ascended into Heaven. 

7. Nai endra-deva reigned 7 years, 

This Raja built a bihar near Lomrl-devi, whom 
Bandhudatta Acharya had brought and placed there for 
the protection of the country. After naming it Tirtha, 
because the Acharya came from Tirtha, he gave it to 
the spiritual guide of his father. He then gave much 
away in charity, and settled down at Madhyalakhu. 
He had three sons, the eldest of whom was named 
Padma-deva, the second Ratna-deva, and the youngest 
Bar-deva. The Raja sent the eldest to become a 
bandya in the Pingala Bahal, where there were at one 
time six hundred bandyas. The second he put under 
the guidance of Bandhudatta in the Tirtha Bihar. The 
third was anointed as Raja. 

Bandhudatta placed Padm&ntaka 1 in the Tirtha- 
bahal, and then brought ten Krodha-devatas, t>r aveng- 
ing deities, from Kamuni, and also placed them there, 
along with Asta-pfthas and Asta-smashans 2 . At the 
noith-east corner of the Tirtha-bahal he placed Maha- 
kala, whom he brought from. Bhot (Tibet). Having 
thus placed gods on all the ten sides, the Raja and 
Acharya lived happily. 

After tins, the Raja, having lost his love of the 
cares of state and worldly riches, went to the distance 
of two kos to the east of the city, and built a bihar 
there, in winch he hved. From his living alone there, 
the bihar was named ALag-bahal, which has been cor- 
rupted into Ak-bahal 3 , 

1 A Bliauava 2 EigM places of MOi&liip and eight burning-ghats. 

3 At the boutliem end of Bliat&aon. 

140 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

8. Bar-deva. 

This Eaja reigned eight years. Because his father 
Narendra-deva relinquished the world and went to live 
as a recluse, the Durbar at Madhyalakhu became dis- 
agreeable to "the Eaja, who therefore removed his court 
to Manigal-bhatta Durbar at Lalit-patan, which had been 
built by the grass-cutter Lalit, under the direction of 
the Raja's grandfather Bir-deva Eaja. 

In this reign Gorakh-natha came into Nepal, and 
when there reflected thus: f 'In this universe Niran- 
jana and other Buddhas, whose forms are sachchitta 
(existence and thought), m order to create the world, 
produced the pancha-tatwas (five elements), and took 
the form and names of the five Buddhas. The fourth 
Buddha, by name Padma-pani Bodhisatwa, the son of 
Amitabha, sprung from his mind, sat in a state of 
saraadhi (deep meditation), called Loka-sansarjana. The 
Adi-buddha then named him Lokeswara, and gave him 
the duty of creating the world. He then created Brah- 
ma and other gods; and because he sat in Sukhavati- 
bhuvana, and watched attentively Brahma and the 
other gods, to ensure their protection, he was called 
Aryavalokiteswara Padma-pani Bodhisatwa. This Buddha 
went from Sukhavatl to a place called Banga, where 
Siva came to learn from him Yog-gyana (i. e. union with 
the supreme being by means of profound meditation). 
Siva, after learning this, was returning home with Par- 
vati, when one night he stayed on the sea-shore, and 
Parvati asked him to repeat to her what he had 
learned. He did so, but Parvati fell asleep during the 
rehearsal, and Aryavalokiteswara Padma-pani Bodhisa- 
twa transformed himself into a fish, and performed the 
part of a listener. Parvati at last awoke, and on being 


questioned showed that she had not heard all that Siva 
Lad recounted. This made Siva suspect that some one 
else was listening, and he exclaimed, '"Whoever is lurk- 
ing in this place must appear, or I will curse him/ 
On this Lokeswara appeared in his true form, and Siva, 
falling at his feet and making many apologies, was for- 
given. From that day the Lokeswara, on account of 
his having taken the form of a fish, was known as 
Matsyendra-natha 1 ." Gorakh-natha then knew that this 
Matsyendra-natha dady resorted to the Kamani moun- 
tain; but he also knew that that place was very difficult 
to approach. At the same time he was unable to 
suppress his desire to see one who had been the Guru 
of all the gods, and the creator of the world , and he 
thought that his life was worthless unless he saw 
Matsyendra-natha. However, he thought of a plan to 
bring Matsyendra-natha before him. This was to catch 
the nine Nags and confine them, so that they could 
give no ram. There would thus be a great drought, 
and the people would cry out, and surely Matsyendra- 
natha would appear for their relief. 

With this design, Gorakh-natha attracted the nine 
Nags into a hillock, and sat down upon it. The result 
was a drought, which lasted for twelve yeais. The 
people were in great distress, and Raja Bar-deva was 
orach troubled in , his mind, as he saw no means of 
reheving them. Whde seeking for some mode of relief 
be used to go about eavesdropping and listening to 
what old people were saying. 

One night he went to Triratna Bihar, where old 
Bandhudatta Acharya lived, and he overheard a con- 

1 Vulgarly, Machchhlndra ndtha. 

142 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

versation between hhn and his wife The wife asked 
the Acharya the cause of the drought and its remedy. 
The Acharya replied: "The only one who is able to put 
a stop to this is Aryavalokiteswara, who resides m 
the Kapotal . mountain ; and he cannot he brought 
except by the prayers of the ruler of the country. 
Now the Raja is young and foolish, and the old man 
his father, Narendra-deva, is living in a lonely bihar, 
because he and his son do not agree." 

Having overheard this, the Raja returned to his 
palace, and next morning he went to his father and fell 
at his feet. He brought the old Raja home with him, 
and having sent for the aged Acharya, asked him to do 
something to relieve then distress. The Acharya said 
that he would do all he could to help them, but that, as 
he could not be successful through a priest alone, without 
his yajamana, he must take the father JSTarendra-deva 
with him. They then took a large supply of offerings, 
and taking a mall and malini (gardener and his wife) 
with them, they took leave of Raja Bar-deva. They 
halted at the spot where Dolana 1 has been erected, 
and with great ceremonies and offerings performed 
purascharanas, at first one thousand, and then up to 
ten millions in number. After this, Bandhudatta, 
Narendra-deva, the carrier of the articles of worship, 
and the malini with the kalas 2 remained there, and 
Bandhudatta performed a purascharana to summon 
Jogambara-gyana-dakmi After the mantra had been 
recited a crore of times (counting each one as a thousand), 

1 A place -where there was a tree, under which Machchhindra-natha rested The 
old tree has fallen, but some young ones haye sprung up around it The place is 
to the south of Fatan, between the town and the laige Asoka chaitya 

* A pot of water carried by a gardener before marriage proceBsions and m 
religious ceremonies, &e 

m] THAKimi DYNASTY 1 43 

tlie goddess was pleased, and promised her assistance, 
The Acharya, having gained this additional power, was 
now able to rescue Karkotak Nag from the grasp of 
Gorakh-natha, and started on his journey to the Kapotal 
mountain. He carried Karkotak m his pen, and when- 
ever they had to cross a river or a bad road, he took 
out Karkotak, who carried them over it 

After encountering many frightful objects, placed 
in their way by gods and devils, they reached the 
Kapotal mountain, and the Acharya began to perform 
purascharana to invoke Aryavalokiteswara ; whereupon 
the latter, in his residence at Sukhavati, began to think 
that in Nepal (which had been a lake for the residence 
of Nags ; where Bipaswi Buddha sowed a lotus seed ; 
where Swayambhu appeared in the form of light ; 
which Manjusri Bodhisatwa peopled, and gave a king 
to ; and where he himself, after visiting Swayambhu 
and Guhjeswarl, stationed the gods to protect the people 
and country) Gorakh-natha, in order to see him, which 
he could have effected by meditation, was perfdrming 
Nag-sadhana, i.e, bringing the Nags under his control 
He therefore said, "Why has he done tbis mischief ? 
Have the gods not been able to rescue the Nags ? The 
people, instead of assisting and protecting their fellow- 
creatures, must be bent on wickedness !" He accord- 
ingly determined to go to the valley of Nepal, to station 
gods expressly to protect the country, and to prove that 
he, whose name enabled Bandhudatta to rescue Karkotak, 
possessed much power. The Aryavalokiteswara then 
left Sukhavatl, and, resting on the sky, showed himself 
to Bandhudatta, and after giving him much insight 
into his secrets, again disappeared. Then he went to 
reside with a Yaksmni, whom he called his mother, and 

144 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

who was named Gyana-dakini, from, being created by 
Maya (delusion). 

Bandhudatta, according to his instructions, recited 
mantras to summon the Aryavalokiteswara ; but when, 
through the influence of the mantras, he was about to 
go to Bandhudatta, his mother tried to prevent him. 
Such, however, was the power of the mantra, that he 
disappeared thence, and, transforming himself into a 
large black bee, entered into the kalas. Bandhudatta had 
told the Raja. Narendra-deva to shut the mouth of the 
kalas as soon as the bee entered, but the Raja having 
gone to sleep, the bee entered the kalas three times 
without its mouth being closed. At last the Acharya, 
giving the Raja a touch with his foot, awoke him, and 
caused the mouth of the vessel to be closed. The 
Acharya then worshipped the bee as Machchhindra-natha. 
The Raja, however, determined to slay the Acharya, 
because he had touched him with his foot. 

After this, Gyana-dakini, with numerous gods, 
yakshas, and devils, came to attack Bandhudatta, who, 
being hard pressed, called all the gods in Nepal to his 
assistance. The Nepalese gods went to the place where 
Bandhudatta was, and, after a consultation, decided that 
the office of ruler and protector of Nepal should be en- 
trusted to Machchhindra-natha ; and Bandhudatta on his 
part promised to send occasional offeiings to Gyana-dakini 
and the gods who had objected to Machchhmdra-natha's 
being taken to Nepal. Having thus satisfied every one, 
the Acharya worshipped the Aryavalokiteswara in the 
kalas, according to the das-karma, or ten ceremonies 
observed on the birth of a child. 

When the Acharya was about to depart, Gyana- 
dakini asked bv what road he intended to cm ha ok 


He replied, " by any way they liked to point out " The 
gods and devils, who had come from the Kamrup 
mountain, then said that he should take the god by the 
way of Kamrup, and that he should leave marks along 
the road to enable the god to return by the same 
route. For this purpose, they said, they would give 
him a quantity of devadaru (deodar) seeds to scatter 
as he went along The Acharya agreed to this, but 
stipulated that the god should only return as far as 
the devadaru trees produced from this seed extended 
The gods, bhuts, prets, pisachas, yakshas, and gan- 
dharbas agreed to this ; whereupon, by means of a 
mantra, the Acharya parched the seeds, and carried 
away the god, scattering the parched seed as he went, 
and thus he reached the Kotpal mountain. 

This Kotpal mountain got its name as follows In 
Satya Yuga, when Nepal was a lake, Bipaswl Buddha 
had sown a, lotus seed, from the flower of which the 
form of light had issued In the Treta Yuga, Manjusri 
Bodhisatwa, coming from Maha-Chm, had cut a passage 
to let out the water through this mountain, which he 
named Kotpal 

After propitiating the gods, daityas, gandharbas, 
yakshas, rakshasas., &c , who had come from the Kamrup 
mountain, Bandhudatta sent them back. Then he wor- 
shipped the kalas 111 which the Aryavalokiteswara was, 
and invoking all the deities of Nepal, he held a great 
jatra on the banks of the Bagmati, as he entered 
Nepal; and now he scattered the unparched devadaru 
seeds along the road by which they entered the 

In this jatra, the kalas, in which the Aryavalokite- 
swara was, was carried by four Bhairavas, namely, Haya- 

i 4 6 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

grfva, Harsiddhi, Lutabaha of Pachhilu village 1 , and 
Tyanga. Brahma, swept the road, reciting Vedas as 
he did so ; Vishnu blew the sankha ; Mahadeva sprinkled 
kalas-water on the road ; Indra held an umbrella ; 
Yama-raj lighted the incense; Varuna sprinkled water 
from a sankha, and rain fell ; Kuvera scattered riches ; 
Agni displayed light ; Nairitya removed obstacles ; 
Vayu held the flag ; and Ishan scared away devils. In 
this manner all the gods showed their respect, while 
bringing in Aryavalokiteswara-Matsyendranatha. These 
gods, however, were not visible to any except Bandhu- 
datta and Narendra-deva. The people only saw Bandhu- 
datta, Narendra-deva, the mall and maiini, and the gods 
in the shape of birds and beasts. 

A plentiful rain now fell in Nepal. When the pro- 
cession reached a certain spot they sat down to rest, 
and here Harsiddhi Bhairava, in the shape of a dog, 
barked and said "bu", which Bandhudatta explained 
to the Haja Narendra-deva to mean "birth-place", and 
that they were to consider that Machchhindranatha was 
born on this spot. 

In honour of the Amaras, or gods, who came so 
far in company with them, and of the spot thus myste- 
riously pointed out by the dog, Bandhudatta, after 
consultation with the Baja, determined to build a town 
and name it Amarapur 2 , and here he placed the kalas 
containing Aryavalokiteswara-Machchhindranatha. They 
then appointed two priests to worship him in turn. 
One of these was a distant cousin of Bandhudatta, and 
a descendant of a priest of Swayambhu, who lived in the 

1 On the road between Kotpal and Paian 

1 Or Eogmati, about jtliree miles south of Patan 


Triratna Bihar. The other was a resident of Te Bahal 1 . 
Thej assigned to these lands for their maintenance. 

After this, Bandhudatta, Narendra-deva, and the 
mali, went on their way to the place where Raja Bar-deva 
had remained. As they went along, they talked, and 
decided that they would institute a rath-jatra 2 with 
an image of the god. Each of them, however, wished 
to have it held at the town in which he himself lived , 
that is to say, Bandhudatta wanted it at Kantipur 
(or Kathmandti), Narendra-deva at his residence, and the 
malakar (or mail) at Lalitapur. While thus disputing, 
they arrived at Ikhatol in Lalitpattan, and seeing a 
great crowd of people, they agreed to abide by the 
decision of the oldest person there. They therefore 
called the Naikya (or head man) of the whole district 
belonging to Lalitpattan, and having put sacred things 
on his head 3 , asked for his decision. The Naikya re- 
flected thus . " There is no town where Narendra-deVa 
lives, nor where the Acharya lives. These three people 
have all taken equal pains and trouble, but it is Maharaj 
Narendra-deva who has been put to expense. However, 
I shall give my decision in favour of Lalitpattan, because 
it is a large town with many inhabitants ; and Baja 
Bar-deva has come from Madhyalakhu to reside here : 

1 There seems to be some mistake here, for Tg Bahal is said to be the same 
as Triratna Bihar 

3 A festrval in which the images of the gods are drawn in a rath or chariot 
A rath consists of a platform with wooden shafts, 30 or 40 feet in length, and 
ponderous wooden wheels, bix or eight feet m diameter and a foot thiek On the 
platform an ereetion of wood or bamboo is ran up to a height of from SO to 50 feet 
The shrine of the gods ib placed on the platform, and the upper part of the erection 
is adorned with flowers and green branches The rath is drawn along by-fhe wor- 

8 This ceremony is performed when a person is put on his oath, Buddhists 
place the book called Pancharaksha on the head, Hindus use for the same purpose 
gold, leaves of the tuM plant, a sahgr&m, and the book named Harvoanscu 


1 48 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

and besides, it is my own dwelling-place In showing 
this partiality, and doing this injustice to Raja Naren- 
dra-deva, I shall however, I am sure, he swallowed up by 
the earth." Having formed this resolution, he caused 
seven uhhals 1 to be brought and piled one upon another 
He then ascended to the top of them and spoke thus 
"Hear, O^Acharya-Bandhudatta, Maharaj Naiendra-dova, 
Malakar, and all you people' Anything to be done 
for Padmapam - Aryavalokiteswara - Machehhindranatha 2 
should be referred to Mangal-bhatta, where reside the 
gods of the whole three worlds." Having thus spoken, 
he was swallowed up by the earth, and so died. Tins 
spot is still well known to the people 3 . 

The audience, being contented with the decision, 
went to the bihar in which SunayasrI Misra once 
lived as a bhikshu; and as they considered it a very 
sacred spot, they performed a purascharana 4 at a place 
called Chobhu. Then, taking possession of one-third 
of the bihar which was built by SunayasrI Misra, they 
caused an image to be made of Aryavalokiteswara- 
Machchhindranathia. This, after consecration, they took 
to Amarapur, and worshipped it; and after this the 
spirit of the god, brought from Kapotal mountain in the 
kalas, was transferred to the image. This image was 

1 Ajwooden blofiitiie a butcher's block, about two feet high, with a small bole 
in the centre, in. wfefeeh nereis pounded with a wooden jpestle, about four feet long, 
grasped by the middle, bo that eitbeT end can be used The object of fee pounding 
\s to i^iaoveiihe brink. 

On the Buddhist prayer-machines is writterU>m mam padme ham, i.e " hail to 
him with the jewel and lotufl." The Pandit and MunshI say that this is Mach- 
■chhindra-nBtha^ and not gaijya Mtuoi. The Nepalese do not use prayer-machines 
although they are found round the t«aplea at BodhnSth and Swayambhunath for 
the use of the Bholiyas. 

3 It is near the PodhiyaM in Patau, to tb,e south of the durbar 

4 When & person wishes to attain any object, he makes a vow to recite mantraa 
a certain number of times, either himBelf or by proxy The mantraB vary with the 
deity to be propitiated 


made of earth brought from the Hmayapido mound 1 , 
with the earth of which also the Swayambbu Chaitya 
was built by Prachanda-deva Raja, in. accordance with 
the directions of Santikar Acharya This earth was 
taken from its place after many ceremonies and the 
worship of Jogambara-gyana-dakini This hillock was 
considered very sacred, because, after the depopulation 
of Bisal-nagara, when the two countries of Matirajya 
and Irkharajya were peopled, the Rajas used to take 
earth from ifc to use in the worship of Purnachandi-devi. 

After the consecration of the image, whatever offer- 
ings and presents were necessary were given to the 
descendants of Sunayasri Misra. 

Bandhudatta, who knew everything of present, 
past, and future times, established the rites of worship 
in the following order. The image of the deity was 
brought from Amarapur, when the sun was in the 
northern hemisphere, and kept in a temple built in Tau 
Bdiar 2 . He was bathed on the 1st of Chait Badi. On 
the 8 th he was put in the sun. On the 12th and 13th 
the das-karma was performed 3 . On the 1st of Baisakh 
Sudi he was put on the rath, and after being taken 
round the city (of Lalitpattan) he was conveyed back to 
Amarapur, or Bugmati, when the sun was in the 
southern hemisphere From the time the rath-jatra 
of Machchhindranatha began, the rath-jatras of Dhalachhe 
Lokeswara, Swattha-narayana, and others, which used to 
take place in Lalitpattan, were discontinued , except that 
of Minanatha-dharmaraj, who is Sanu (or junior) Mach- 

1 A wooded knoll on the left bank of the YishnumatI, where it is crossed hj the 
road to 

2 In Pafcan, to the south of the Durlur, on the left-hand side of the street lead- 
ing to the parade ground 

3 Ten ceremonies, commencing from the time of the conception of a child 


chhindra. From this year too the rath-jatra of Chaubahal 
was discontinued, which used to take place in Deva-patan 
every year, because the rath, in returning from Deva- 
patan, waa sunk in the Danagal Khola. 

After this, the son of Raja Narendra-deva removed 
from MadhyaLakhu Durbar with his court to that of 
Mangal-bhatta, and Narendra-deva returned to his own 
residence. Narendra-deva's wife had died, and her two 
daughters he had given in marriage, the elder at Patan, 
the younger in a village near his residence. He now 
called these two daughters before him, and said : " I have 
become old. Ye have no brothers, and your mother is 
dead. Your gotiya brothers (step-brothers) may invite 
you to their houses, or not, according to their pleasure. 
I have no wealth to give you. All I have to give you 
is my crown with its appurtenances, and the book Pragya- 
pdramitd. She who comes to me first on the morning 
of the fourth day from this, after bathing, will get the 
crown, and the other the book." The two sisters did as 
they were told. The elder came first and got the crown, 
and the younger got the book. This crown and book 
are still in existence 1 . 

Bandhudatta Acharya, sometime after this, went to 
Narendra-deva, ana asked him whether all his wishes 
had been accomplished, and nothing left unfulfilled. 
The Kaja replied, that the Acharya, with great kindness, 
had taken much pains and trouble to fetch Aryavaloki- 
teswara-Machchhindranatha to this Kkas 2 country, and 
had relieved the poor people from tbe distress of a 
drought, which had lasted for twelve years, by a plentiful 

1 If so, tlie Pandit does not know -where 

J The Khas arc, strictly speakmg, the children of Brahmans and Chhgtria by 
women of the different hill-races, such as Bhotiyas and Newars. They now rank as 

hi] thakuri dynasty 151 

rain, which, had pleased the gods of Nepal. Every wish 
of his had been fulfilled, and there was nothing more 
remaining to be done. The Acharya then told him to 
think well, because there was one thing wished for in 
the Raja's mind, which still remained to be fulfilled. 
The Raja, however, could think of nothing. Whereupon 
the Acharya said. "When Aryavalokiteswara came in 
the form of a black bee to enter the kalas, I awoke 
yon by touching you with my foot, and you then 
resolved to kdl me. That is the one thing still undone, 
and you ought to perform it." The Raja begged to be 
forgiven, and said that he, being a descendant of kings, 
was easily enraged, and hence thought of such a thing, 
which he begged the Acharya would forget. The Acharya 
told him that it was not from any ill-feeling that he 
mentioned this, but that it was incumbent on him to 
carry out any resolution made at the moment when he 
was in the presence of Iswara. The Acharya then made 
a figure of himself with boiled rice, at which the Raja 
struck, and thus accomplished his vow. 

On returning home that same night Bandhudatta 
died, and, being absolved, was incorporated with the 
right foot of Machchhindranatha. 

The Raja Narendra-deva was much grieved, and after 
four days he too was absolved and incorporated with the 
left foot of the deity. For this reason, any one going 
to see Machchhindranatha looks at his feet, in order to 
see Narendra-deva Raja and Bandhudatta Acharya. 

Seeing such devotion on the part of the Raja and 
Acharya, the people became very much attached to the 
worship of AryavalokiteSwara-Machchhindranatha, who in 
return always gave plentiful rain and protected the 
people. Machchhindranatha came into Nepal m the 


Kaligata year 3623 \ Here ends this brief history of 

Bar-deva Raja, the son of Narendra-deva now lived 
in the Mangahbhatta Durbar at Patan, and followed his 
father's advice m worshipping Machchhmdranatha. The 
Harsiddhi Nach, introduced by Baja Yikramajit, had 
been discontinued, so Bar-deva revived the deity Haxsiddhi 
and the Naeh, and made a rule that the Nach should be 
first of all performed before Machchhindranatha. 

In the reign of this monarch, a Brahman, an incar- 
nation of Shankaracharya, came to see whether the rules 
and customs established by that great reformer were 
still in force in Nepal He found them observed every- 
where, even at the place where Machchhindranatha was, 
owing to the directions of Bandhudatta Acharya, who 
knew all the events of the present, past, and future 
times. The Brahman then went to Pingala Bahal, 
where he found that the Bandya Acharyas had acquired 
great influence by recitmg mantras and worshipping 
Agama. After eating their meals they used to throw 
the remainder into the enclosure around 'Pashupati 
Seeing this, he determined to destroy these impious 
people. He therefore entered their service, and one 
day, when throwing away the remnants of their meal, 
he also threw away their Mrigthucha (a small golden 
bull, supposed to supply the food) 2 . The next morning, 
the Bandyas came as usual for their meal, but found 
no food and no Mrigthucha They said that this was a 
gieat sin which had been committed, and therefore they 
went to live elsewhere. 

i Tins date is given in a bIdTc, of which the figures are sida (3), duandua (2), 
j as (6), agm (8) Aceoiclmg to rule, these figures must be inverted, giving 3623 
' i The MrigthuoliS is not u&ed now adays m KepoJ 



The Brahman then went towards Bhot, and arrived 
at a place called Khasa. The Lama of Bhot, knowing 
that such a one had arrived, came in the disguise of a 
poor Bhotiya, and while the Brahman was bathing, 
relieved the calls of nature before him. Thereupon the 
Biahman used bad language towards him, calling him an 
Asur and a Chandal. The Lama then ripped open his 
stomach with a knife, and asked the Brahman to do 
the same, so as to see which of them was purest internally. 
The Brahman, being afraid, transformed himself into 
a kite and flew away; but the Lama transfixed him to 
the ground by piercing his shadow with a spear. The 
Lama then placed a stone on him, and performed Sfidhana 
over him The spot where this occurred is still pointed 
out, where Khasa Khola is crossed. 

At this time a son was born to Bar-deva Raja, who 
attributed this happy event to the advent of the 
Brahman, whom he consideied to be Shankaracharya 
himself, after he had heard the history of that great 
reformer. He therefore named this son Shankaia-deva, 
in honour of Shankaracharya. 

9. Shankara-deva reigned 12 years. 

This Raja built a village in the shape of a sankha, 
or shell, and named it Sankhu. It was dedicated to 

10. His son Barddhaman-deva reigned 13 years 

1 1. His son Ball-deva reigned 13 years. 
12 His son Jaya-deva reigned 15 yeais 

13. His successor Balarjuna-deva reigned 17 years 
14 His successor Vikrama,-deva reigned 12 yeais 
15. His successor Guna-kama-deva reigned 51 years 
While this Raja, was fasting and worshipping Mahfi- 
lakshmi, the goddess appeared to him in a dieam, and 


told him to found a city at the junction of the Bagmati 
and Yishnumati rivers. This was the sacred place where, 
in former times, Ne Muni had performed devotions and 
practised austerities, and here was the image of Kanteswara 
devata. To^this spot Indra and other gods came daily, 
to visit Lokeswara and hear puranas recited* The new 
city was to be built in the shape of the kharg or sword 
of the Devi, and to be named Kantipur; and dealings 
to the amount of a lakh of rupees were to be transacted 
in it daily.- The Kaja, being thus directed, founded 
the city at an auspicious moment, and removed his court 
from Patan to Kantipur (Kathmandu). This took place 
in the Kaligata year 3824. 

The city contained 18,000 houses. Lakshmi gave 
her promise that, till the traffic in the city amounted 
to a lakh of rupees daily, she would reside there. By 
her kindness the Baja was enabled to build a suvarna- 
pranali or golden dhara. 1 , and hence he named the city 
Suvarna-pranall-kantipur. He then peopled it with 
various castes. 

He also went towards the East, and brought Chan- 
deswari, and placed her in the centre of the country 
for its protection. In like manner he made Karbira- 
smashan on the banks of the Vishnumati. At the 
same place he erected an image of Bidyadhari-devi, 
who had shown herself in the sky to a pandit named 

He also brought from Dakshina-Kali the goddess 
Rakta-Kali, and revived her worship as Kankeswari. 
He also revived the worship of two sets of ISTava-durgas, 
the one inside, the other outside, of the country. To 

1 Has dJhara is on. the street leading from the Durbar in Kathmando, to a bridge 
over the ViBhriumatl on the old road to Thankot. 


the west of the country he renewed the worship of 
Panchlinga Bhairava, whose jatra takes place on the 
5th of Aswin Sudi This Bhairava had come to play 
with a Khargini, or KaaainL 

He also brought from Indrani-ghafc the goddess Mana- 
maiju-pitha, and placed her in the east of the country, 
at a place called Agama-choka. To the east is the 
Lomri-devI, brought by Bandhudatta Aeharya from the 
Kamrup mountain. Then he established, or rather 
revived, the Hilya jatra, Krishna jatra, and Lakhya jatra. 
The last of these was in honour of Sakya Muni having 
obtained a victory over Namuchi-mara 1 , when the latter 
came to distract his attention, while he was sitting under 
a bodhi tree 2 in profound meditation for the purpose 
of becoming a Buddha. After his victory Brahma and 
other gods came to pay their respects to Sakya Muni, 
for which reason the gods are represented in these jatras. 

He also instituted the Matayata and Sringabheri 
jatras. The Hilya, Krishna, and Lakhya jatras were in 
existence before the time that Kantipur was founded. 
He then instituted the Indra jatra hy erecting images 
of Kumaris. Then, in imitation of the Lokeswara 
jatra of Patau, he made an image of Khasarppa Loke- 
swara, and caused his jatra to be celebrated every year. 
He then founded a village named, at the 
place where formerly Vikrama-sila Bihar stood. The 
image of Thambahil, consecrated by Sinhal Baniya, the 
survivor of the party of 501 baniyas, had been destroyed 
when the waters of the Bagmati had been stopped up 
by Danasur, but it had been replaced by the descendants 
of Sinhal. 

1 Another name for KamdSva, or more likely for Indra 

8 The Ebotiyas use the seeds of this tree as beads m their rosaries. 


The Raja took a large army with him, and brought 
much wealth from all quarters. He caused Pashupati 
to be bathed with golden water, poured from two golden 
dharas, for a fortnight, and instituted a jatra to be 
continued ever after. He also made a new roof of gilt 
copper for the temples of Pashupati and Balasukl 1 . 

In the reign of this Raja some one consecrated the 
image of Ganesha in Kantipur, and named him Asoka 
Binayaka, from the circumstance of there being many 
Asoka trees at that spot A hithi was also built near 
the place known by the name of Maduhiti-dhara 

"What remained of the wealth of the Raja he caused 
j0 be stored up in rooms, which he built m the Indrachal 
nountain 3 . The wealth amounted to fifty-two crores, 
md he made Balasukl the guardian of it This Raja 
:uled over both cities, i e Patau and Kantipur. 

One night Sri Skandaswami appeared to the Raja 
m a dream, and told him that he would be much 
pleased if all the boys of the city were assembled and 
kept at a place near Kankeswaii-kall. If he did this, 
his subjects would nevei revolt, and his enemies would 
be destroyed The god added, that he was taught by his 
parents from his boyhood to play at Siti (stone-throwing) 
fiom the beginning of the month Jeth to Siti-khashti. 
The Haj a, taking this to be a warning from lswara, 
assembled the boys, and established the custom of their 
pelting each other with stones 3 . 

1G His son Bhoj-deva reigned 8 years 

17 His son Lakshnii-kama-deva reigned 22 yeais 

1 So the MS , instead of Bnt,uki 

2 Tlie lulloclt noitli of the temple fit Pashupati 

3 This* custom -was originally earned out -Kith, groat rigour, the prisoners on each 
Ride being saonficed The fcaenfices weie however discontinued long ago, and the 
festival (it it may be so called) -was abolished by Sir Jung Bahadur, on the occasion 
of the Butish Resident, air Colvin, being &tmck by a stone whilst looking on 


This Raja, tlimking that his grandfather had acquired 
so much wealth and conquered the four quarters of the 
world through the aid of the Kumaris, resolved to do the 
same With this intention he went to the Patan Durbar, 
and having worshipped as Kumari the daughter of a 
bandya, living in a bihar near the Durbar, known by 
the name of Lakshmi-barraan, he erected an image of 
Kumari and established the Kumari puja 

18 His son Jaya-kama-deva reigned 20 years. 

This Raja, m order to put a stop to theft and snake- 
bites, revived the worship of the Balasuki Nag, and made 
offerings to him of musical instruments From that day 
no cases pf robbery or snake-bite took place in the city 

This Raja had no issue, so after his death the Thakurls 
of the Noakot mountain came and elected a Raja from 
among themselves. 

1 This Raja's name was Bhaskara-deva. 

In his reign the Banras of Pingala Bahal removed to 
other places. Their descendants, who were Aeharyas, 
became Banras, and lived in Gnakha-chok in Lalitpattan 1 . 
The Bhikshus of Devapatan and Chabahil came to these 
people, and told them that they had heard from some 
people, who were working in the fields, that they had 
seen the god of Pingala Bahal They accordingly went 
to see, and found the god buried tinder the ruins of the 
Pingala Bahal, and brought him to Patan. "While they 
were taking him thither, when they had arrived at a 
bowshot north of Mangalbhatta, they saw Lakshmi-devi 
of Lagankhel in the form of a kite; and one of the 
devotees, by the influence of his mantras, brought her 
down, and the Devi became stationary there in the road 
After this, they took the god to Gnakha-chok, but he said 

1 Close to the western gate of tl e tovna 


lie would not like to live there. This having been brought 
to the notice of Raja Bhaskara-deva, he caused a new 
bihar, named Nhul-bahal, to be built for the god. This 
new house also being disapproved of by the god, the Raja 
went to ask where he would like to &k his residence. The 
god said he would like to live in a place where a mouse 
attacked and drove away a cat* The Raja himself then 
went in search of such a place, and one day at a certain 
spot saw a golden mouse chasing a cat. Here he built a 
bihar, and named it Hema-barna (1 e golden-coloured) 1 , and 
having placed the god in it, with Agama-devatas, just as 
they weie in Pingala Bahal, he assigned lands as guthis 2 
for the maintenance of the establishment. The Banras, 
who came with th'e god to reside here, were those of 
Thyakayel and Hatkhatol. 

2. His son Bal-deva. 

3. His son Padma-deva. 

4. His son Nagarjuna-deva. 
5 His son Shankara-deva. 

In the reign of this Raja, some people, from a village 
named Jhul 3 , had gone to the Gaur country (Bengal) and 
lived in a city named Kaphi, whence several persons re- 
turned to Jhul. These men performed yagya daily in a 
hollow consecrated place, where a perpetual fire was kept 
alight. The hollow place is called yagya-kund, and he 
who undertakes this fire-worship is obliged to perform the 
yagya with his wedded wife sitting by his side, as Siva 
and Sakti. The yagya is never performed by a single person, 

1 It is a little to the east of Gn&kha-chok 

2 A guthl is land assigned for a religious purpose, which cannot be resumed by 
the donor nor seized by creditors Bent may or may not be paid for it A Ixrta is 
a grant of land in perpetuity, for which rent 18 paid Ajaglr is a grant of land for 
a term, which may be resumed by the donor No rent 15 paid for it Soldiers and 
officials are usually paid in this way, the grant terminating with the service 

3 It lay between Kirtipur and Matntirtha 


One of these Biahmans, having no lawful wife, took with 
him a Brahmani widow, named Yasodhara, instead of his 
wife ; and one day, as he was performing the yagya, the 
fire increased, and, after burning him up, consumed the 
whole village. 

Raja Shankara-deva then established a yagya-kund in 
Patan; and in Kantipur he make known the Tana-devata 
as Kul-devata; and he made it a rule that no house should 
be built higher than the gajura of the Devi. 

At the time when the village of Jhul was burning, 
Yasodhara, the Brahmani widow, fled to Patau with a 
small model of a chaitya, the book Pragya-paramita 
(written in golden letters in Yikrama-sambat 24 5 x ), and 
her infant son Yasodhara. She repaired the bihar in 
Gala-bahal, built by Bidyadhara-barma, and placed the 
model chaitya inside the one in the bihar. She caused 
her son Yasodhara, after his chura-karma, to be made a 
bandya; and in order to conceal this from her relatives, 
who weie Agmhotrls, she did not allow the ceremonies 
attending the chura-karma to be performed in front of the 
Agama-devatas of the bihar. To this day the bandyas 
of this bihar only follow this custom. In other bihars the 
custom is different. Previously this bihar was called 
Bidyadhara-barma-sanskarit-maha-bihar, but after the 
chura-karma of Yasodhara it became known as Yasodhara- 
maha-bihar, and also as Buya-bahal 2 . 

Long before this time, out of hatred to Shankaracharya, 
a party of one thousand Banras murdered seven hundred 
Brahmans residing in Bisalnagara. The wives of these 
Brahmans immolated themselves as Satis, and their curses 
were so powerful that the thousand murderers were burned 
to ashes. The spirits of these Satis then became so tur- 

1 V S 245= j. D 183 s West of tlie Durbgr in Patan 

l6o HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap hi] 

bulent, that no one would venture to pass that way The 
Raja, therefore, in order to put a stop to this trouble, 
caused an emblem o£ Siva to be placed there by venerable 
pandits This emblem, having- been erected for the Santi, 
or peace, of the Brahma-pisachas, was called Santeswara 
It is also called Nandikeswara 1 , from its having been 
erected by a Brahman of Bisal-nagara, named Nandi, who 
himself after death was deified as Mopta-deva or Bhat- 

This Raja, to establish peace on a more secure footing, 
instituted the custom of a yearly jatra of the ISTavasagara 
Bhagavati of Bisal-nagara, on the anniversary of the Preta- 
chaturdasl. The original image of this Devi, made hy 
"Viswa-karma, was so frightful, that no one would pass 
that way. The people therefore buried it, and covered 
the place with stones 

After the seven hundred Brahmans had been massacred, 
the rest left Bisal-nagara, and went to live at Deva-patan, 
where they budt a house having seven courts. 

The dynasty of the "Vais Thakuris of Nbakot ends 
here A descendant of a collateral branch of th e solar race 
of the former Raja Ansu-barmS, by name Bama-deva, hav- 
ing gained over the nobles of Balitapur and Kantipur, 
succeeded in expelling the "Vais Thakuii Rajas, and made 
himself king. 

1 A large temple on the north side of the Pashnpati roacl 


A new Rajput dynasty Founding of Kirtrpur and of Bhaktapur or 
Bhatgaon Introduction, of the Nepal era, and legends connected 
with it A i rival of Newais in the country undei Raj 5, Nanya-deva 
from the south, -who expelled the Malla Rajas and 
founded a fiesh dynasty Legend of ILeschandra Nepal invaded 
from the west by Mukunda-sena The Khas and Magat castes 
enter the country Pestilence, and destruction of the mvadeis 
The V"ais Thakuria of Noakot again seize the throne, and hold the 
country for 225 years Country invaded by JECaii-sinha-deva of 
AyOdhya, who founded a dynasty [Legends connected with his 
conquest of the country Turja Devi Invasion by and defeat of 
the Bhotiyas Legend of the Baid and KLarkotak Nag 

Of the new dynasty the first Raja was 

1. Bama-deva 

2. His son Harkha-deva 
3 His son Sadasiva-deva 

This Haja founded a town near Kantipur and Lalit- 
patan, at the south-west corner of the valley, near the 
hills On account of the great hlrti (celebrity) attached 
to this place, from a cow belonging to it having been the 
means of discovering Pashupati-natha, it was named Earfci- 
pur. The children of the cowherds of this town used to 
go to the forests to feed their sheep, and amused them- 
selves by making a clay figure of a tiger. One day the 
children, thinking the figure incomplete without a tongue, 
went to fetch a leaf to supply the defect , and on their 
return were dismayed to find their sheep devoured, and a 
real tiger in the place of the image, a Bhairava having 
w n 11 

1 62 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

entered into it. The images of the Bagh. (tiger) Bhairava 
and the deified children are still to be seen at this place. , 
The Baja, having gone to the four quarters of the 
world, and conquered all countries, brought back a great 
quantity of gold, and made with it a new roof for the 
temple of Pashupati-natha in the Kaligata year 3851. 
He was the first to introduce into the currency the Suh, 
a coin of copper and iron mixed, with the figure of a lion 
on it. 

4. His son Man-deva. 

He reigned for ten years, and then abdicated in favour 
of his eldest son, and lived the life of a bandya in a bihar, 
and so obtained salvation. This bihar, having on it 
numerous chakras, was called Chakra Bihar. 

5. His son Narsinha-deva reigned 22 years. 

6. His son Nanda-deva reigned 21 years. 

This Baja, after consultation with Sunandaeharya, an 
Achar of Deva-patan, built three apartments, one within 
the other, for Bhuvaneswan, into which only the initiated 
are allowed to enter. 

7. His son Budra-deva reigned 7 years. 

This Baja entrusted the government to his son, and 
employed himself, after having become a Bauddha-margi, 
in acquiring a knowledge of the elements. 

8. His son Mitra-deva reigned 21 years. 

9. His son Aii-deva reigned 22 years. 

A son having been born to this Baja, while he was 
engaged in wrestling, he gave the child the title of 

10. His son Abhaya Malla. 
This B'lja had two sons. 

11 The elder, Jaya-deva Malla, reigned 10 years 

12 The younger, Ananda Malla, reigned 25 years 


This younger brother, being very generous and wise, 
gave up the soveieignty over the two cities , and having 
invoked Annapuma Devi, from Kasi, founded a city of 
12,000 houses, winch he named Bhaktapur (Bhatgaon), 
and included sixty small villages in his teriitory. 

After tins, the Raja, having obtained the favour and 
directions of Chandeswan, founded seven towns; viz. 
Banepur, near Chandeswan Pltha ; Panavati, near the 
Prayfiga Tirtha of Nepal, celebrated m the Shastras, on 
the site where Panchala-des formerly stood , Nala, near 
Nala BhagavatI , Dhaukhel, near Narayana ; Khadpu, 
near Dhaneswari ; Chaukot, near the residence of Cha- 
kora Rishi; and Sanga, near IsTasika Pltha 1 . 

He established his court at Bhaktapur, where he built 
a Durbar ; and having one night seen and received in- 
structions fiorn the Navadurga, he set up their images in 
proper places, to ensure the security and protection of the 
town both internally and externally. 

It was at this time, when Ananda Malla reigned in 
Bhaktapur, and his elder brother in Patan and Kantipur, 
that a certain astrologer of Bhaktapur found out an au- 
spicious moment, at which he said that sand, taken from 
a certain place, would turn into gold. The Raja Ananda 
Malla, having ascertained the exact time, sent a number 
of coolies, to take up sand at that particular moment, 
from the place called Lakhu Tirtha, at the junction of the 
Bhatlkhu and the Vishnumati, and to convey it to the 
Raja's palace. The coolies did as they were directed, but, 

1 Banepur, now called Banepa, is a village outsit] e of the great valley, eight or 
nine miles east of Bhatgaon Panavati (now PanautI) lies five or six miles south of 
Banepa, in auother valley. Nala, is between BanSpa and Bh5t£at>a Dhaukhel 
and Khadpu he east of Banepa About Chaukot I have no information Sanga 
stands where the road from the Nepal valley eiosscs. the low hills into the BauOpa 

11 -2 

1 64 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

as they were going back with their loads, a Sudra mer- 
chant of Kantipur, named Sakhwai, prevailed on them to, 
take their loads of sand to his house ; and then the 
coolies filled up their baskets again with sand from the 
same place as before, and took it to Bhaktapur. Their 
second loads, however, not being taken up at the au- 
spicious moment, did not turn into gold, and the Raja, 
being enraged at the imposition practised on him, burned 
the book 1 . 

On the other hand, Sakhwal, having obtained so much 
wealth, with the permission of Jaya-deva Malla, paid off 
all the debts existing at that time in the country, and 
thus introduced a new era into Nepal, called the Nepal 
Sambat 2 . He then established a chaitya near his houae, 
and placed a stone image of himself at the southern door 
of the temple of Pashupati-natha. Thus he obtained sal- 

Maharaj Ananda Malla, finding that his heap of sand 
did not turn into gold, was very angry ; and going to the 
astrologer, told him that what he had said about the sand 
turning into gold was false. Having said this, the Baja 
returned to his palace, and the astrologer in his mortifica- 
tion kindled a fire, and put his book into it to be burned. 
The Baja, however, on his return to the palace, happened 
to observe the baskets in which the sand had been brought, 
and saw some grains of gold at the bottom of them. He ran 
back to the astrologer to tell him that he was right, and 
seeing the fire, asked what was being burned in it. The 
astrologer's wife told him that it was the false Shastra 

1 I e , the book by reading which the astrologer had been led to make the 
prediction. Further on the astrologer is said to have done this 

a This eri} begins in October, x ». 880 The present year, 1876, ib therefore 
3Tb 996—7, 


which her husband was burning. The Raja was very* 
sorry, and snatching the unburned portion of the book 
out of the fire, put it into milk. He then took the astro- 
loger to his palace, and after showing him the grains of 
sand which had become gold, told him that the Shastra 
was true, and that it was their own haste which was in 
fault. The astrologer advised him to enquire from the 
coolies how they had carried out their orders, and they 
said that the first loads of sand had been taken by a mer- 
chant of Kantipur, and that those brought to Bhaktapur 
had been collected afterwards. 

Raja Ananda Malla was then sitting in his court, 
surrounded by his courtiers and astrologers. On hearing 
what had happened they exclaimed : " There is nothing 
so poweiful as luck or destmy in this world. High birth 
and wealth are its servants. It is also wiitten in the 
Shastras, ' Luck everywhere begets fortune , neither 
learning nor strength can do it In the churning of the 
ocean Han got Lakshmi and Hara got poison.' Oh Ma- 
haraj, in the Satya Yuga the thirty- three crores of gods, 
devatas, and daityas, churned the ocean, and first of all 
there came out the Uchchaisrava, which Indra took, saying 
that it was his luck. After the horse came out Lakshmi, 
whom Vishnu took. Then came out the Kalakuta poison, 
and began to destroy the world. The thirty- three crores 
of devatas then began to pray to Mahadeva, who alone 
was able to destroy the power of the poison. Mahadeva, 
bemg easily propitiated; appeared, and asked what they 
wanted from him They replied that the Kalakuta 
poison was destroying the world and themselves, and 
they sought protection, and implored it with joined hands 
and tears m their eyes Mahadeva said that he would 
instantly destroy its powei , and so saying, he put it into 


Lis mouth, but, instead of swallowing it, he kept it m Ms 
throat, which became blue from the effects of the poison ,» 
and hence Mahadeva is named Nlla-kantha. Feeling 
now very hot, he went close to the snowy range of moun- 
tains, hut the cold there was not sufficient to cool him. 
He then struck his trisul into the mountain, from which 
sprang three streams of water, and he laid himself down 
and let the water fall on his head. There lies Sadasiva, 
who takes away the sins of man, and exempts him from 
having to be reborn. The good things that came out of 
the ocean, after churning, were appropriated by devatas 
and daityas ; but when Kalakuta came out, these all fled, 
and so it fell to the lot of Mahadeva. Such is destiny, 
oh Maharaj i The astrologer foretold an auspicious mo- 
ment, and you sent coolies to fetch gold, which all went 
to Sakhwal, who took no pains or trouble to get it. Be 
content therefore with your fate." 

Eudra-deva Chhetrl Raja, who, being learned in 
Tatwa-gyana, or the knowledge of the elements, had after 
a brief reign abdicated in favour of his son Mitra-deva, 
and occupied himself in acquiring religious merit, at this 
time first practised Bauddhacharya, then Mahayamka- 
charya, then Tribidhibodhi. After this he repaired the 
old OnkulT Bihar, built by Raja Siva-deva-barma, and 
after performing the chura-karma he lived in it as a 
bandya, the sure way of obtaining mukti, and thus he 
earned salvation. This Eudra-deva Raja on one occasion 
sent an image of Dlpankar Buddh to receive pindapatra- 
dan instead of himself. He also kept a guthi, by name 
Bepar Madhi, in the name of his ancestors, Bama-deva, 
Harkha-deva, Sadasiva-deva, Man-deva, Narsinka^deva, 
Nanda-dcva-, and of himself Eudra-deva, for his own bihar, 
m older that people hying in it might be allowed to 


follow any trade 1 . To make this more secure, lie in- 
formed his grandson Jaya-deva Malla of his having 
established this custom. 

At the time when Raja Jaya-deva Malla was ruling 
over Lalit-patan and Kantipur, and Ananda Malla over 
Bhaktapur, in the Saka year 811, and Nepal Sambat 9 
(a.d. 889), on the 7th of Sravana Sudi, a Saturday, 
Nanya-deva Raja came from the south Karnataka country 
and entered Nepal He brought with him the Saka 
Sahkala era, and introduced it. Among the troops that 
were with him were ISTewaras, from a country called 
Nayera, who were Brahma-putra Chhetris and Achars. 
He brought two devatas with him, named Maju and 
Swekhu, and having defeated the Malla Rajas, he com- 
pelled them to flee to Tirhut. He established his court at 
Bhaktapur, and ruled over it as well as over Lalit-patan 
and Kantipur. The kings of this dynasty are as follows. 

1. Nanya-deva reigned 50 years. 

2. His son Ganga-deva reigned 41 years. 

3. His son Narsinha-deva reigned 31 years. 

In his reign, in Nepal Sambat 111 (a.d. 991), on the 
6th of Phagun Sudi, Raja Malla-deva and Kathya Malla, 
of Laht-patan, founded the village of Chapagaon, then 
called Champapun. 

4. His son Sakti-deva reigned 39 years. 

5 His son Rama-sinha-deva reigned 58 years. 

All went well in his reign. 

6. His son Hari-deva. 

He removed his court to Kantipur, in which city at 
this time lived a Thakuri, named Bhaskara Malla, who 
had a son called Keschandra, who was a minor wLen 
his father died, and unable to take care of his own 

1 This passage is rather obscure 

1 68 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

affairs, so that his father had appointed a guardian 
Keschandra, however, being of a truant disposition, used 
to give his guardian the slip and go gambling here 
and there One day he went to Thambahil, where he 
saw the devata being repaired by the descendants of 
Smhal. This devata had been erected by Smhal, 
but was destroyed when Danasur flooded the valley. 
He began gambling there, and as it was late, instead 
of returning home, he went to the house of his sister, 
who lived at ThambahiL His sister reproved him for 
playing to so late an hour, but he paid no attention to 
her, and after taking his meal, he again went out to 
gamble. He lost heavily, and returned to the house of 
his sister, who again reproved him, but with so little 
effect that Keschandra now took away and staked the 
plate off which he had eaten his meal, and lost it also 
When he returned his food was served to him on the 
ground, which so affronted him that he tied up the 
nee m his clothes, and going home he put it m a 
comer To relieve his mind fiom the feeling of degra- 
dation he then went to Niladcantha-GosanvThan, and 
having bathed in the lake, prayed to the deity, and 
asked for help. Nila-kantha's voice replied from the 
sky, that he should visit Pashupati and Kritimukha 
Bhairava, and his misery would be ended. Keschandra 
did as he was directed, and seeing that the offering of 
rice before Kritimukha was so rotten that the grain had 
become full of maggots, he gathered it up, and took it 
home. His curiosity then led him to go and see m 
what condition the rice was which he had brouo-ht from 
his sistei's house. This also was rotten, and Kes- 
chandra, not knowing what to do with it, begged foi 
and obtained a quantity of lice from some othei people 


and mixing the rotten rice with this, he went to sell 
it He exchanged it for some marcha (the lefuse rice 
that remains after distilling spmt), and went to a place 
named Bakhunchha, where he spread it out to diy, as 
it was wet, and then went to sleep While he slept 
pigeons came and ate the maicha, and being told by 
Knumukha Bhairava to give something m return, they 
left golden dung on the spot. KoWhandia, having 
awoke, was gatheimg the gold, when a Rakshasa, named 
Gnrung Mapa, came by, and was about to devour lum , 
but being addiessed as Mama (maternal uncle), the 
Rakshasa was appeased, and helped Keschandra to cany 
the gold to his home Keschandia then married the 
daughter of Raja Handeva. 

As for the Rakshasa, he kept him m his house, and 
told hrm that he might have the bodies of all the peisons 
who died there for his food This gave much, annoyance 
to the people, and caused a great deal of miseiy, foi 
when parents, to frighten their crying children into 
silence, said "Gurung Mapa take thee," the Rakshasa 
took them at their word, and soon devoured them 
The people therefore complained to Koschandra. He 
had bought 360 ropnis of land, which he had levelled 
into a khel or plain, and called Tudi-khel, because he 
had pm chased the land with gold begotten by tudi, or 
maggots pioduced in rotten grain. He therefore now 
gave this plain to Gurung Mapa as his residence, on 
condition that lie was not to devour any one, and was 
never to allow three bucks to stand on one another on 
the Khel In return fur this service Koschandra pro- 
mised to send him eveiy year an dm of nee 1 and a 
buffalo fui his food 

1 About fiolbb 


Keschandra's son having died in his youth, he took 
Ins body to burn, and havmg ascended into the sky by 
means of the smoke, he saw his son above him in the 
clouds mounting upwards. Having come down again, 
he performed the funeral rites. He then returned home 
and built a bihar, m which he placed a bauddha, and 
assigned a guthi for feeding pigeons with 102 aras of 
dhan (unimsked rice), because all his wealth was derived 
from pigeons- The bihar he named Paravata-maha- 
bihar 1 , from pdrdvata, a pigeon He also assigned a 
guthi to place on the Tudi-khel one ara of boiled rice, 
and one cauldron full of flesh, for Gurung Mapa on the 
anniversary of the 14th of Phagun Badi. He then 
caused a picture of all these circumstances to be made, 
and put it in his bihar, where he lived as a devotee of 
Buddha. This picture is shown to those who wish to see 
it in the month of Sawan 2 . People afterwards named 
his bihar Itum-bahal. 

In the reign of Haii-deva Raja, the ministers, people 
and troops of Patan revolted, and the Raja with his 
ministers and the troops of Kathamadon {sic), going to 
suppress the rebellion, was defeated, and pursued as far 
as Thambahil. 

At this time there was a Magar in his service, who, 
through the machinations of the ministers, was dismissed 
as bemg no longer required. This man returned to his 
home, and praised Nepal as having houses with golden 
roofs and golden pranalis (or dharas). The Raja Mukun- 
da-sena, a brave and powerful monarch, having heard of 
this, came to Nepal from the west, with a large number 

* In the centre of Kafchmandii, west of the Indra-chok or mam bazar Pigeons 
are still fed hers at certain times. They inhabit the temples m great numbers, and 
me very tame, at least in the streets 

2 A copy of this picture still exists, aod is exhibited as mentioned in the text ' 


of mounted troops, and subdued Raja Hari-deva, the son 
of Rama-sinha-deva Of the Nepalese troops some were 
slam, and others fled Great confusion reigned in the 
three cities Through fear of the troops the people 
buried their radishes, and having cut their rice, stacked 
it and concealed it by heaping earth over it, The 
victorious soldiers broke and disfigured the images of 
the gods, and sent the Bhairava placed in front of 
Machchhindranatha to their own country, Palpa and 

On the day that Raja Mukunda-sena arrived at 
Patan the priests were performing the Snana-jatra, or 
ceremony of bathing Machchhindranatha. Seeing the 
troops, they ran away, leaving the god in the Davali 
(bathing-place) At this moment the five Nags, which 
were in the golden canopy of Maehchhindra, poured 
forth five streams of water on the head of the deity. 
Mukunda-sena saw this, and, out of respect for such great 
power, he threw upon the image the golden chain which 
adorned his horse's neck. Maehchhindra himself took rl 
up, and put it round his neck, and this chain is nevei 
removed from the neck of the image 

With this Raja the Khas and Magar castes came tc 
Nepal These men, having no mercy, committed greal 
sins, and the Aghora Murti (tkf^ southern face) of Pa 
shupati showed its frightful teeth, and sent a goddess 
named Maha-tnarl (pestilence), who within, a fortnighi 
cleared the country of the troops of Mukunda-sena. Th« 
Raja alone escaped to the east, in the disguise of i 
Sannyasi On his way back from thence to his owi 
country he arrived at Devi-ghat 1 , and died there. Fron 

1 At tlie junction of the Tiulill and Tusill-garga in the No3"Ut Tallov 

j*)72 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

tins time the Khas and Magaia came into the country ; 
and smki and hakuwa rice weie made 1 . The Karnatakl 
Rajas reigned for five geneiations. In the sixth Hari- 
deva was subdued by Mukunda-sena, whose tioops were 
destroyed by pestilence For seven or eight years after 
tins there was no Raja in Nepal. 

Seeing that the throne was vacant the Vais Thakuri 
Rajas of Noakot came and began to rule. In Laht- 
patan every tol (division or quarter of the town) had 
its own Raja In Kantrpur there were twelve Rajas, 
who were called Jhrmhmatha-kula. Rhatgaon had also a 
Thakuri Raja. 

At this time Bhimasena, being desirous of living in 
Nepal, came m the form of a man to the house of a 
Thakuri of Kwatha Bahal. This person, having re- 
cognised him by some of his supernatural deeds, built 
a temple for him, the walla of which he caused to be 
pamted. In this temple he established Bhimasena. 

To the west of the city (i.e , Kathmandu), at a 
distance of fifteen kos, was a place called Majipata, 
where a Rak&hasa used to visit a KLshipam (a female 
dyer of chintz, &c) The twelve Thakuris persuaded 
him to take pait m the annual Indra-jatra, and estab- 
lished him m the Majipata-tol. 

From this time the Thakuris ruled the country for 
225 years , but, as they were very numerous, their names 
have not been recorded They left numerous Bauddha 
temples, with lands assigned for their maintenance, in 

1 Smki is ladi-Jbes buued m the ground till they feimeut They aie then taken 
out, dued, and eaten The smell is atrocious and utteily abominable Hakuwa is 
made by &taclung the rice when not peifectly ripe, coveimg it with eaith, and 
allowing it to heat and become blight!} malted It is then dued It lb conbideied 
Mxy light and wholesome 


Lahtapur (Patan), Kantipur (Kathamadon), and Bhak- 
tapur (Bhatgaon), 

The descendants of the JhuL-bahal Thakuris used to 
worship the das-paramita-bauddha-devatas by washing 
their feet and feeding them m their houses with kshira 
(rice boiled in milk) 1 . To maintain this custom lands 
or guthls were set apart. One of the descendants of 
these Thakuris had married a woman of Bhatgaon, and 
used to go to his father-in-law's house One day, while 
conversmg with his father-in-law, he told him that he wor- 
shipped the das-paramita-bauddha-devatas. The father- 
in-law said he would like to see them, and for this pur- 
pose wejit to Patau, and while his son-in-law was serving 
them with food, he mixed poison in something and laid 
it before them to eat They, however, were aware of 
the treachery, and escaped the effect of the poison by 
repeating a dharam, or mantra. The Thakuri, who had 
given the poison, became affected by it, and no physician 
could cure him; but an astrologer told him that his 
disease was the work of some great deity. The son-in- 
law then entreated the Bauddha-devatas for his cure, and 
by their advice, the water with which their feet had been 
washed was given to him to drink, and he was cured. 
From that day the devatas came no more, and the 
Thakuris worship ten old bhikshus who represent them. 

A descendant of the same Thakuris of Tihru-bahal, 
named Bhari-bharao, being poor, used to store cakes of 
cow- dung (fuel) m his dhukuti or treasury, and revealed 
to no one what he had there. He used to carry the key 
with him wherever he went i but one day he forgot it, 

1 Any tea old men from any bihfir are taken and ■worshipped as gods Their feet 
are -washed and they aie fed as described. The names of the original devatas were 
Dana paramita, Slla p , XshSnti p , Blrja p , Bh^ana p , Pragja p , "Upaya p., 
Bala p , Pianuihi p , and Gyanap 


and bis wife, finding it in his absence, opened the door, 
and saw that the room was full of ingots of gold She 
told her husband, who was much, surprised to find gold 
instead of cow-dung Both of them, out of gratitude, 
became desirous to employ a portion of the gold for reli- 
gious purposes The wife however wished to do some- 
thing for Nfirayana, and the husband for Buddha , and 
they could not agree which to prefer. At last they 
determined to sow the seed of bhlmpiiti and tulsi 1 , the 
former as an emblem of Buddha and the latter of Narfi- 
yana ; and whichever sprang up first was to decide which 
was to be the god of their worship The Bhlmpiiti came 
up first, so they followed the Buddhist religion. They 
invited the Baiuldha-margis of the three cities, on 
the 3rd of Phagun, entertained them the whole night 
with feasting and an illumination of the house, and gave 
them leave to go away on the 4th. They then assigned 
lands for the maintenance of this custom, winch is kept 
up to the present day 

The Thakuri Bajas built many Bauddha temples, 
patis 2 , and other religious houses. Thoy were the first 
to introduce the Ghora-jatra 

At this time Baja Hari-smha-dova of Ajodhya (or 
Oude), a descendant of Sri Bama-chandra, being hard 
pressed by the Musalmans, fled to Simangarh 3 with his 
four ministers, family and servants, and treasure. His 
Hani had a keti (slave girl), whose paramour was a Bak- 
shasa of Ceylon, who was a skilful architect. One night, 
when the slave girl was going to sweep the floor of the 

1 Tulsi is a land of basil, held sacred by the Hindus BhTmpall is a shrub with 
bunches of small whitish blossoms, held sacred by the Buddhists 

- Xpiiti is a clliai msrd or house of lest for pilginns One of large size is called 
a pou ah 

J Now called Smnoungaih 










palace, her paramour gave her, without her knowledge, 
a golden broom, with which she swept, and left some 
golden fragments on the floor. The Raja, having seen 
these, was curious to know how they came there After 
a long inquiry, he at length heard of the paramour, and 
calling him before him, demanded his name, caste, family, 
residence, etc. 

The demon told him that his name was Mayabija, 
and that he was a Rakshasa from Ceylon He presented 
the Raja with a diamond necklace, consisting of 108 
stones, which were so brilliant that they resembled the 
star Venus. 

The Raja then asked him to build a temple for his 
household goddess Turja (or Tulja) Bhavani, winch Maya- 
bija undertook to do. In one night he erected a temple 
of five stories, with images of gods and goddesses, wells 
of water, and tanks full of clear water, crowded with the 
red lotus, fish, and waterfowl. He also laid out gardens, 
full of flowers and singing birds, which could, rival 
the Nandana-bana of Indra in heaven. He also built a 
wall round the city, so thick and high that neither beasts 
nor enemies could penetrate it. As the cock crew before 
the work was completed, he was obliged to stop and 
leave a portion of the wall unfinished. 

After some time Turja Bhavani directed the Raja to 
go to Nepal, which he did in the Saka year 1245 and 
Nepal Sambat 444 (a. d. 1324) \ 

On his way to Nepal he arrived on the 9th of Pus 
Sudi, a Saturday, at a jungle called Madhu-bana, where 
his followers could get nothing to eat, and were on the 
point of being starved ; whereupon the Raja prayed to 
his goddess Turja for help. In the night the goddess 

1 Tins was when Simioungaili was clesfcioyed !>j Tughlalt Slnli of D1I1II 

176 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

told the Baja, in a dream, that they might eat whatever 
they could find early m the morning- Early next morn- 
ing the Baja saw a wild buffalo, which his people caught 
and brought before the goddess, who directed the Baja 
to seek for a man among the bushes after sunrise to kill 
it. Such, a man having been found, the task of sacrificing 
the animal to the goddess was entrusted to him, and 
he was called khadgi (swordsman). The goddess then 
directed that they should eat the buffalo's flesh, as her 
prasada or leavings. The descendants of the khadgi 
became the caste named after him, but now called Kasais. 
Seven castes of people came with the goddess to Padara 
Kharl, vk. Brahmans, Bhadela, Achara, JaisT, Baida, 
Bajaka (MS Bajika), and Khadgi 

The Baja was overtaken by night before reaching 
Bhatgaon, and some traders, arriving where the Baja 
had stopped for the night, halted there also They asked 
him what'was the cause of something which they felt to 
be supernatural in this place, where before this time they 
could never make up their minds to halt. 

The Baja then spoke thus * " In Treta Yuga the 
monster Bavana, — a grandson of Pulastya, who had ten 
heads and twenty arms, a body hke a mountain, a com- 
plexion like lampblack, a burden to the earth, an enemy 
to gods and good men, and the ruler over fifty-two crores 
of cities 3 — having obtained the deshe of his heart from 
Brahma at Gokarna, (where he had observed austerities, 
and had made a sacrificial offering of his heads for ten 
thousand years, by putting them in the burning fire of 
the yagya-kund,) went and defeated Indra the king of 
heaven. Bavana took Turja Bhavani, the principal 
Devi of Amarapur, the capital, and was carrying her off to 
Ceylon, when he was seized with a pressing necessity, 

iv.] HARI-SINH A-BEVA ^177 

and descending' to the earth, was obliged to put down 
yie goddess. When he was going to take her up 'again, 
all his strength was insufficient to accomplish this, and 
he was obliged to leave her where she was. After some 
time, Rama, the incarnation of Narayana, who was born 
in the house of Dasaratha, the king of Ajodhya, through 
the aid 1 of his wife Sita and the help of Sugrlva, the 
monkey king, built a bridge across the arm of the 
ocean, killed Havana, Kumbha-karna, Indrajit, Prahasta, 
etc., and made Bibhikhana king of Ceylon. Then Bama, 
mounting Pushpaka-bimana, returned to Ajodhya. On 
his way thither, when he had arrived on this side of the 
sea, he saw a ray of light issuing from the earth and: 
ascending to the sky. He descended to find out the 
cause of this, discovered Turja-devi, and took her to 
AjSdhya. As he did this secretly no mention is_ made 
of it in the Hamayana, The goddess was brought to 
Simangarh, where Mayabija of Ceylon built a 1 ^temple, 
garden, and city. This city was attacked by a large army 
of the emperor Akbar (sic), who succeeded in taking the 
city by entering at that portion of the wall which had 
been left incomplete by Mayabija, Turja-devi has now 
come to Bhatgaon, and her influence is such, that ene- 
mies are destroyed and good men exempted from being 
reborn. She was worshipped by Brahma, Vishnu, and 

The Baja here ended his narrative ; after which, the 
Thakuris and people of Bhatgaon came to see the god- 
dess, and such was her influence that they quietly 
made over the Durbar to Hari-sinha-deva. He estab- 
lished the goddess 1 there, in a temple which he named 

The Bhotiyas, hearing of the renown o£ Turja-devi, 
w n 12 


came with a large army to carry her away , but when 
they arrived at the stream named Sampusi, instead qf 
seeing Bhatgaon, they beheld a frightful fire blazing, and 
were frightened. They each threw down a clod of earth 
and a quantity of ashes, which formed two or three 
small ridges of hills, named Dandampa, and then they 
returned to their own country. These ridges are still in 
existence 1 , 

A person who washed the clothes of Raja Hari- 
sinha-deva at Padara Khari was called Kajaka, and this 
caste of people, his descendants, settled down at Deva- 
patan and Bhatgaon, 

A Baid (physician) of this Raja was one day pre- 
paring to bathe in the water at Tekhudobhana 2 , when 
he was accosted by Karkotak, the king of the Nags, who, 
in the form of a Brahman, was seeking for a Baid to 
cure a malady with which his Rani's eyes were affected. 
The Nag, being satisfied that the man was a Baid, en- 
treated him fco go to his house and see a patient. The 
Baid, after finishing his ceremonies and bathing, went 
with the Brahman, They arrived at a pond, at the 
south-western corner (of the valley), a thousand bowshots 
beyond Chaubahal. The pond was so deep, and the 
water so black, thai; it was frightful to look at It was 
shaded by trees, large fish played in it, and it was 
covered with waterfowl 3 . The Nag told the Baid to 
shut his eyes, and m a moment he jumped with him into 

1 To the N B of Bhatgaon, but I could not ascertain which, stream is the 

4 The junction of the Bagmati and Vishnumati. 

8 This Unk, Taudsh, is still m existence, and behoved to be the abode oi 
Karistai I have been gravely cautioned against going to fish there for fear oi 
tins mighty Nag or serpent During the present reign an unsuccessful attempl 
was made to draw off the water, with the view of getting the wealth supposed to b« 
Bunk in it. 


the water, and they ai lived at the Durbar of Nag-iaj 111 
"Patalpuri. The walla of the palace were of gold, the 
windows of diamond, the rafteis and beams of sapphires, 
the pillars of topaz adorned with rubies. The darkness 
of the subteirancan place was dispelled by the lighs 
emanating from Luge jewels 111 the heads of the Nags. 
They entered the palace, and saw the Nagmi, sitting on 
a throne studded with jewels of several sorts, shaded 
with three umbiellas of white diamonds, one above the 
other, and surrounded by beautiful Nag mis Karkotak, 
assuming his proper form, took the Baid by the hand, 
and gave him a seat near the throne He himself 
mounted the throne, and showed the patient to the 
Baid. The Baid, having examined her eyes, took out a 
drug from a bag which he carried at his waist, and having 
rubbed it on a clean stone, applied it to the eyes, which 
were instantly cured. Kaikotak gave the Baid a hand- 
some present and a dress of honour, and having expressed 
his gratitude, made him a promise that his descendants 
would be good curers of eye-diseases. The descendants 
of this Baid, accordingly, were renowned as good eye- 
doctors Hari-smha-deva, having been made acquainted 
with these events, honoured the Baid, and gave him a 
place to reside in, near Sesha Narayana. 

The descendants of the Newaras, who came from 
Nayera, still occupy the country 

Dwlmaju-devl made over to Hari-smha-deva all the 
treasure which she had hoarded up from the time of 
Nanyadeva Baja, and the Raja, m return, established 
the yearly Devali "Ptija in her honour. 

The kings of this dynasty were 

1. Hari-sinha-deva, who reigned 28 years 

2. His son Mati-smha-deva reigned 1 5 years 


180 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap iv] 

3. His son Sakti-sinha-deva reigned 22 years. 

This Raja abdicated in favour of his son Shyama 
feinha-deva, and took up his residence at Palamchok 1 , 
whence lie sent presents to China, which so pleased the 
Emperor that he sent in return a seal, "with the name 
Sakti-sinha engraved on it, and m addition the title of 
Rama, -with a royal despatch, in the Chinese year 535. 

4. His son Shyama-sinha-deva reigned 15 years. 

In this reign a tremendous earthquake was felt in 
Nepal. The temple of Machchhmdranatha and all other 
buildings fell down, and innumerable human beings 
perished. This took place on the 12th of Bhadra Sudi, 
m Nepal Sambat 528 (a r>. 1408). 

This Shyama-sinha-deva had no male issue, but only 
a daughter, whom he gave in marriage to one of the 
descendants of the Malla Hajas, who fled to Tirhut on 
the invasion of Nanyadeva Haja. He then made his 
son-in-law Raja. 

1 To the east of Banepa 


The hue of Hari-smha-deva having become extinct, the throne is filled 
by a descendant of the foimer Malla Rajas, -who founds a new 
dynasty Laws of Jayasthiti Malla Division of the kingdom. 
Malla Rajas of Bhatgaon. Fust invasion of the Nepalese territory 
by the Gorkha kings. Birth and education of Prithwrnaiayana Sah. 

1. Jayabhadra Malla reigned 15 years. 

Before this time these Malla Rajas had ruled over 
Bhatgaon, and the Navadurga-devi, being much pleased 
(at their return), caused such a plentiful crop to be 
produced, that, in threshing out the rice, a large quantity 
was scattered about and formed a hillock of corn ; ■which 
hillock still exists at the south-east corner of the town. 

2. His son INag Malla reigned 15 years. 

3. His son Jayajagat Malla reigned 1 1 years. 

4. His son Nagendra Malla reigned 10 years, 

5. His son TJgra Malla reigned 15 years. 

6. His son Asoka Malla reigned 19 years. 

This Raja, having propitiated the Kwathachhe-ku~ 
marl-devi of Patau, defeated the Thakuri Rajas, and 
took their possessions. Through the influence of this 
Devi, the rivers Bagmafci and Manmati, which flowed 
near his temple and joined there, left' a great space of 
land at their junction. 

This Raja once went to hunt in the jungle of Swa- 
yambhu, and became thirsty. While searching for water 
he saw Sweta Kali and Rakta Kali, in the middle of 
the space bounded by the Vishnumati on the west, the 

1 82 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

Bagmati on the south, and the Rudramati on the east 
and he determined to name this place Kaslpur, or the 
northern Kasi 

This Raja ruled over both Patau and Bhatgaon ; and 
Ganga-balakumarl being pleased with him, he was 
blessed with a wise and powerful son. 

7. His son Jayasthiti Malla reigned 43 years. 

This Raja was very wise, through the favour of 
Ganga-balakumarl, who was very much pleased with his 
father Asoka Malla, the sixth of the Malla Rajas, the 
descendants of Raja Jayabhadra Malla, who succeeded 
to the throne m right of his wife, the daughter of Raja 
Shyama-sinha-dova, the fourth m descent from Raja 
Hari-smha-deva, of the solar race, who brought Turja 
Bhavani into Nepal 

He made many laws regarding the rights of pioperty 
in houses, lands, and birtas, which hereafter became 

In former reigns criminals were allowed to escape 
with Hows and reprimands, but this Raja imposed fines, 
according to the degree of the crimes He ordered that 
all the four castes of his subjects should attend the 
dead bodies of the kings to the bin mug-ghats, and that 
the instrumental music of the Dipaka Rag a 1 should be 
performed while, the dead bodies v^cie being burned 

To some castes he gave permission to sound the 
kahal (a long trumpet), while the bodies of their dead 
weie being burned 

Every caste followed its own customs. To the low 
castes dwellings, dress and ornaments were assigned, 
according to certain xules No sleeves were allowed to 

1 Tlicro me Six n-s, 3f> raying and riglit pntias ox sons of tlieso All these 
aic \a,i ions uioikb oi sniyuig 


the coats of Kasais. No caps, coats, shoes, nor gold 
ornaments, were permitted to Podhyas. Kasais, Podhyas, 
and Kullus, were not allowed to have houses roofed with 
tiles, and they were obliged to show proper respect to 
the people of castes higher than their own 

The Eaja caused a stone image of Bama, with his 
two sons Lava and Kusa, to be made, and placed it on 
the bank of the Bagmati, opposite Arya Tirtha, where 
it is yearly worshipped as a patron deity. He also caused 
the image of Gorakhnatha to be revived witb mantras 
by an inspired devotee. He likewise established a daily 
worship and ceremonies to be performed at Gokarneswara. 

He built a two-storied temple of Kumbheswara in 
Lalit-patan, and put a gajura on it. He caused the 
tank near Kumbheswara to be cleaned out^ and found 
in it eight stone images of Narayana, Ganesha, Sitala, 
Basuki, Gauri, Sanda, Kritimukha, and the Agama- 
devatas of Bauddha-margis, whichhe caused to be erected 
in various places. To pacify Sltala he erected Unmatta 
Bhairava, and to mitigate his fury he placed an Agama- 
devata above him. These circumstances are inscribed 
on a stone of the said Bhairava, which bears the date 
Nepal Sambat 542 (a,d. 1422). 

This Baja, after having earned the esteem and grati- 
tude of his subjects by making numerous religious and 
social laws, died on the 5th of Kartik Badi, Nepal 
Sambat 549 (a.i>. 1429) \ 

In making laws about houses, lands, castes, and dead 
bodies, he was assisted by his five pandits, Kirtinatha 
Upadhyaya Kanyakubja, Baghunatha Jha MaithilT, 
Srinatha Bhatta, Mahmatha Bhatta, and Bamanatha 
Jha. Such laws were formerly in existence, but having 

1 There seems to be an error in iuis and the immediately preceding date. 

1 84 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

fallen into disuse through lapse of time, they were again 
compiled from Shastras and brought into use. 

Houses he divided into three classes . Galli, situated 
in a lane ; Galli bhitar, situated in a street ; and Sjhahar, 
in the centre of the city. To estimate the value of 
houses it was to be determined how many Kha they 
covered. For first class houses a kha was 85 hatha 
(cubits) in circumference ; for the second class of 95 
haths : and for the third of 101 haths 1 . 

To the four principal castes, viz., the Brahman, 
Kshatri, Vaisya, and Sudra, were given the rules of 
Bastu-prakaran and Asta-barga for building houses. The 
ceremonies before laying the foundations were to be 
performed by Brahmans, if the owners of the buildings 
were Brahmans or Kshatris ; and by Daivagyas, if they 
were of the Vaisya or Sudra castes. 

Lands were divided into four classes, and their value 
was to be determined by the number of Karkhas or 
Bopnis they contained. For the fourth class a ropni 
was 125 haths in circumference ; for the third class 112 
haths; for the second 109 haths, and for the first class 
95 haths. A hath was to be of the length of 24 lengths 
of the first joint of the thumb. 

Formerly the Tango or bamboo measuring-rod was 
104 haths in length, but Eaja Jayasthiti Malla reduced 
it to 7£ haths. The land-measurers were made into a 
caste called Kshatrakara, and the house-measurers into 
one called Takshakara. 

In dividing the people into castes the five councillors 

1 It may seem an extraordinary arrangement, and to a European a very absurd 
one, that a measure Ehould vary in dimensions according to the quality of tlie 
thing to be measured Such, however, is stall the rule in Nepal. There is a special 
class of people who determine the value of houses and lands These neople are now 
called ChhiLhandail, and they make a mystery of their trade. 


had to consider that the bandyaa had been converted 
in the Treta Yuga, by Krakuchhand Buddh, from the 
Brahman and Kshatrl castes, and had become bhikshus, 
and that these again had been made grihasthas by Shan- 
karacharya. It is, moreover, written in the Shastras that, 
first of all, one should live as a Brahmacharl and read 
all the Shastras ; secondly, that he should hve as a Gri- 
hastha; thirdly, that he should accept Pravrajya-vrata, 
and live m the woods as a Banaprastha Bhikshu ; and, 
fourthly, that he should return to the life of a Grihastha, 
or householder, and instruct sons and grandsons, living 
himself in a state of Nirbriti (i.e., free from worldly cares). 
He who does all this receives the title of Buddha or 

Now Shankaraeharya had forced these people to change 
from bhikshu s to grihasthas, without passing through 
the four different kinds of lives , and being thus fathers 
of families, they were obliged to attend to worldly 
affairs ; but still they were respected by the four castes. 
Hence it was determined to class them as Brahmans or 
Kshatrls, their customs and ceremonies being the same. 
Bandyas therefore are like Sannyasis, who are all of one 
class without any distinctions of caste. 

The rest of the people were divided into 64 castes as 
follows, the first mentioned being the lowest. 

(1) Charmakara, (2) Matangi, workers in leather : 
(3) Niyogi (4) Kajaka, (5) Phobi, washermen . (6) 
Kshatrikara • (7) Lohakara • (8) Kundakara (9) Nadi- 
chhedi (10) Tandukara • (11) Dhanyamari . (12) Badi 
(13) Kirata (14) Mansabikri, butchers . (15) Mali, 
gardeners (16) Byanjanakara, cooks ( ? ) (17) Mandhura * 
(18) Natijlva (19) Surabija . (20) Chitrakara, painters 
(21) Gayana, musicians and singers : (22) Bathahom 

1 86 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

(23) Natebaruda , (24) Stlrppakara, cooks (?) : (25) Bimari 
(26) Tankadharl ; (37) Tayoruta . (28) Kanjikara . (29) 
Bhayalachanchu . (30) Gopaka, cowherds. (31) Tamra- 
kara, coppersmiths : (32) Suvarnakara, goldsmiths . (33) 
Kansyakara, bellmakers * (34) Karmka. (35) Tuladhara, 
weighers (36) Kumbhakara, potters (37) Kshetrakara, 
land-measurers . (38) Srmkhari • (39) Takshaka (40) 
Darukara : (41) Lepika : (42) Napika . (43) Bharika 
(44) Silpikara- (45) Marlkara (46) Chicbhakaj (47) 
Stipika . (48) Sajakara : (49) Snchante (50) Alama 
(51) Daivagya, (52) Ganika, (53) Jyotisha, (54) Giaha- 
chintaka, different kinds of astrologers . (55) Acharya 
(56) Deva-chinta . (57) Pujita (58) Amatya . (59) 
Sachiva, (60) Mantri, state officials m olden times : 
(61) Kayastha . (62) Lekhaka, writers- (63) Blmpa, 
Baja, Narendra, or Chhetri (64) Dwija, Bipra, or Brali- 
mana 1 . 

Brahmans were of two classes, Panchagauda and 
Panchadravida, each containing five divisions with nu- 
merous subdivisions. Jaisi Brahmans were not sacred. 
Among the ISTewaras there were four divisions of Jaisls, 
viz Acharya, Baida, Sreshtha, and Daivagya Acharyas 
were divided into three classes ; Baidas into four ; and 
Sreshthas into many classes, of which ten were allowed 
to wear the Brahmamcal thread, as were also the three 
classes of Acharyas and the four classes of Daivagyas 

Of Sudras there were 36 classes, amongst which the 
Jyapu had 32 divisions, and the Kumhal four divisions. 
The Podhya caste had four divisions. 

The four highest castes were prohibited from drinking 
water from the hands of low caste people, such as Podhyaa 
or Charmakaras. If a woman of a high caste had inter- 

1 Many of these cas>tes are now not known m Nepal 


course with a man of a lower caste, she was degraded 
to the caste of her seducer. 

Thus Raja Jayastithi Malla divided the people into 
castes, and made regulations for them He also made 
laws about houses and lands, and fostered the Hindu 
religion m Nepal, thereby making himself famous. 

In Nepal Sambat 515 (a. d 1395), on the morning of 
the 10th of Magh Sudi, having placed and woi shipped 
a kalas, the Raja pei formed a Kotyahuti-yagya 1 . He 
then made a rule that Brahmans might follow a pro- 
fession, and enacted laws for the disposal of lands and 
houses by sale or mortgage. He then composed the 
Narakavah Slok, got benedictions from Brahmans, and 
made poor wretched people happy by conferring on them 
lands and houses, according to caste. 

The Slot 

u Oh sun, moon, air, fire, earth, water, conscience, day 
and night — these by their conjunctions and virtues 
{dharm) know the deeds of every m<i,n. He who speaks 
aught but truth will lose his rectitude, his sons, the 
merits of his former existences, and his forefathers who 
are in Heaven. He who resumes a gift made by himself, 
or by any one else, to a god or a Brahman, shall remain 
for sixty thousand years as a worm in the dust. He who 
disobeys the regulations now made and oidamed, shall 
be guilty of the sin mentioned m this slok , bat he who 
obeys, shall be exempt from it." 

1 A Mrti performed a croie of times I remember this ceiemony being per- 
formed an front of the new tfinple in the centie of Fashupati wood, -ulnch v.ns built 
by Sir Jung BahStlui On this occasion two Is^lis worth of gtam, ghee, etc , neio 
said to have been burned The burning went on fca a long time m a pit &uiioumled 
by kauath or nent-walh 

1 88 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

8. Jayasthiti Malla's son Yaksha (or Jayayaksha) 
Malla reigned 43 years. 

This Baja, having studied the rules made by Shankar- 
acharya, appointed Bhatta Brahmans from the south of 
India to worship Pashupatinatha, and made the Newaras 
of Deva-patan store-keepers. 

In his reign one Padma-deva built a temple for 
Dharmaraj-mmanatha-lokeswara, in which he placed 
images of Samantabhadra-bodhisatwa and Padmapani- 
bodhisatwa, together with those of other Bodhisatwas, 
gods, planets, &e. This is called the JPadmadeva-sans- 
karit-bihar, and its history is inscribed on a stone fixed 
in a chaitya in front of this Lokeswara 1 . 

In his reign also a stone image of Ganesha was placed 
at Kathmandii in Teda-tol, which is between Asan-tol 
and Jyatha-tol 

This Uaja began to build a wall round Bhatgaon, and 
caused the following inscription to be placed on a stone 
to the right of the principal gate, 

" Yaksha Malla Deva made this fortification and ditch, 
and a high citadel, in which to keep troops and ammuni- 
tion. In building this fortification the people of the four 
castes willingly bore loads of bricks and earth. The Kot- 
nayaka (2. e , officer in charge of the fort) will see that the 
people clean the streets and houses every year before the 
6th of Jyeshtha Sudi, and that the roofs of the premises 
in the fort are repaired. If the Kot-nayaka fail in this 
duty he shall be fined twelve dams. Fo horses, buffaloes, 
cows, or swine, are to be allowed to graze on the glacis. 
Any one whose cattle trespass shall be fined one dam, 
and be made to repair any damage thus caused. Any 
one not attending to this shall be held guilty of the five 

1 To the ea&t of the large temple of MachchHnclranS,tlia in Patau. 


great sins 1 . If any rational being causes any damage 
he shall be fined nine dams. For every brick, stone, or 
piece of wood injured in this wall, a fine of one dam shall 
be levied 2 . Dated the 15th of Sravana Sudi, Nepal 
Sambat 573 (a d. 1453)." 

Yaksha Malla and his* son Jayaraja Malla built the 
temple of Sri Sri Sri Dattatreya, in Tachapal-tol in 

In this reign some potters, while digging for clay, 
found an image of Lokeswara, which had been made by 
Guna-kama-deva Baja, but which had been buried under 
the ruins of the temple that fell down in the time of the 
Thakuri Rajas. The Raja got the image repaired, and 
put it into a new temple, which he built for it in Kath- 
mandu. The image henceforth was named Yamaleswara, 
and the place where it was dug up was called Yamala 3 . 

Yaksha Malla had three sons. He died in Nepal 
Sambat 592 (a d. 1472). 

9. His eldest son Raya Malla succeeded his father 
at Bhatgaon, and reigned 15 years. 

10. His son Suvarna Malla reigned 15 years. 

In this reign a famine occurred, and the people of 
Bhatgaon were dispersed. This Raja, reigned over Bhat- 
gaon and Bandepur (Banepa). He introduced the dance 
of the Navadurga, having heard that they had been seen 
dancing at night ; and also the dance of Maha-lakshmi 
in the village of Bude*. He had under his rule, besides 

1 These five sins are, murdering a Brahman, murdering a woman, murdering 
a child, murdering one's own gstra (relative), and killing a cow 

s The fines mentioned seem very trifling nowadays, but at that time a dam 
was the prioe of 100 lbs of rice. 

3 To the north of the Esnl pokhri or large tank, east of ICithmandu The temple 
is in Kd.thma.ndu, on the right side of the street which leads to the Indra-chok 

4 A small village north of ThCmI> which latter is half-way between Kathmrindu 
and BMfcg.ion 


Bhatgaon, the villages of Theml, Nakadesa, Bude>San- 
khapur and Chiigu. 

11. His son Prima Malla reigned 15 years, 

12. His son Biswa Malla reigned 15 years. 

This PJlja. went to Deva-pfitan, and in consultation 
with the Ttaja of Kantipur invoked the ISTarayanas, and 
placed their images on the four sides of Pashupati- 
natha. In the place of Jalasayana Narayana he set up 
Balasuki (Basuki) In the same year the Ichangu Kara- 
yana 1 was buried under a rock that fell from the Yamalaya 
mountain Sivananda Brahman erected in its place an 
image, which had been carried thither by the stream of 
the Vishnumatl. 

This B-aja built a three-storied temple for Datta- 
treya in Tachapal; and having assigned lands for sup- 
porting the daily worship of the deity, he made it over to 
Sannyasls, for whose residence he built a matha (or bihar). 

13. His son Trailokya Malla reigned 15 years. 

14. His son Jagatjyoti Malla reigned 15 years. 

In this reign some Indian corn (maize) was by chance 
brought from the east, mixed up among a quantity of 
mas or urd-dal (a kind of pulse). The clever people 
of the country were immediately assembled, and decided 
that this new grain would cause a famine, so that it was 
thought best to send it back whence it had come , and to 
destroy all the ill luck it might have left behind, Brah- 
mans were fed, and the gods worshipped 2 . 

Jagatjyoti Malla was once playing at dice with Turja- 
devi, when a sinful thought passed through his mind, 
whereupon the goddess vanished. 

1 Ichangu is a village S W of Swayambhu. 

s Tins proceeding is exactly what would take place under similar circumstances 
at the piesent day, 


This Raja introduced at Blutgaon the custom of 
folding the rath-jatia of Adi-bhanava on the anniver- 
sary of the Mosh Sankrfmti, when a tall pole was erected 
in his honour as a flagstaff. He also introduced this 
jatra at Thomi Having on one occasion suspected that 
the Bhairava of Bhatgaon had improper desnes regarding 
a ceitain Sakti or female deity, he punished him by 
bringing the rath of Kali into violent collision with the 
Bhairava's rath. The wheels of the Bhairava's rath 
were made of wood, brought from the Pashupati forest 
by permission of the Raja of ICantipur, 

15 His son Narendra Malla reigned 21 years. 

16. His son Jagatprakasa Malla reigned 21 years. 

This Raja, having made sadhan of Bara-bfrja-hanu- 
man, built a brickwork ghat on the river to the east of 
Bhatgaon, and erected many monuments there. 

In the reign of this monarch, Dara Smha Bharo and 
Va Sinha Bharo built a temple in Tachapal-tol in honour 
of Bhimasena. The stone lion m it has the following 
inscription : i 

"In Sambat 775, 3rd of Pus Badi" (a.d. 1655) 1 . 

In Nepal Sambat 782 (a d. 1662) this Raja built the 
Bimala-sneha-mandapa, and having composed five hymns 
in honour of Bhavani, he caused them to be inscribed on 
a stone on the 6th of Margasira (Aghan) Sudi. He also 
caused an inscription to be placed on a stone to the effect 
that "twenty-four ropnis of land have been assigned 
to furnish oil for lighting the Mandapa" He built a 
Basantapur Durbar 2 , and called it Nakhachhe-tava- 
gol-kwatha. He erected a pillar for the Garur of the 

1 Here again there seems to be some error in the date 

' A sort of pleasure-house for the Ranis The two lions which etood at the gate 
of this Durbar are still to he seen to the west of the present Durbar m Bhatgaon, 

192 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

Narayana of Narayana-ch5k, and had the following in- 
scription placed on it : 

"Sri Jaya Jagatprakasa Malla Baja, the master of 
many arts and sciences, composed hymns in honour of 
Garuda-dhwaja for the benefit of the people, on the 
3rd of Jeth Krishna, Sambat 7&7 (a.d. 1667), being 
a Friday, when the moon was in the 26th mansion or 
Uttarabhadra, and in the 11th kumbha 1 , and in the 

In the same year he erected an image of Bhavani 

IT. His son Jitamitra Malla reigned 21 years. 

This Baja, in Nepal Sambat 802 (a d 1682), built near 
the Durbar the two-storied Dharmasala, in which there 
is the golden Mahadeva. To the east of this he built 
the Dharmasala with the temple and statue of Narayana. 
He also erected the temple of Dattatrikasa, and the temple 
with Narayana, below the temple of Mahadeva built by 
Kaji Bhaglratha-bhaiya ; as well as the two-storied temple 
called the temple of Pashupati. In the Dharmasala 
there is a stone with the following inscription : 

" The overseers of the water-course do not gi^e water 
fairly to the people, therefore the following arrangement 
is being made. At the time of planting rice the people 
are to make a watercourse, and every one going to work 
at this, after doing a day's work, must come and get a 
certain royal token (to entitle him to a share of the 
water). He who cannot produce this token shall be fined 
3 dams, but not more than that amount. The overseers 
are not to levy any duties for allowing water to be taken 
from the channel. The rank of people is not to be taken 

1 A mistake, for UttarabhMra is 311 Pisces, the 12th sign, and not in Agnariu?, 
the 11th. 


into account in distributing the water, but every one is 
to get a supply in turn. If the overseers do not allow 
water to be taken in turn, tlie head-ofnoer shall be fined 
six mohars By obedience to the above rules Iswarl will 
be pleased ; by disobedience she will be displeased. Sri 
Sri Ugra Malla, Sri Sri Bhupatlndra Malla, and Chau- 
tara Dukhibhagiriima have assisted in making this ar- 
rangement. Tke 15 th of Jeth Sudi, Nepal Sambat 803" 
(ad 1683) 

Raja, Jitamitra Malla built the temples of Pashupatfc 
and Narayana, and erected many other memorials 
18 His son Bhupatindra Malla reigned 34 years 
This Baja built a Durbar with 55 jhals, 01 windows, 
in one of which he put a small pane of glass, presented to 
him by a man from the plains of India 1 . This piece of 
glass was considered so rare and valuable that the Raja 
placed it m the window as an object of wonder for the 
people To the right and left of the principal door of 
the Durbar he erected stone images of Hanuman and 
Narsmha. He made 99 choks, or courtyards, in the 
Durbar. In the Mfila Chok he placed a golden door 2 , 
and set up many images of gods ; and in other Choks 
he made tanks. In one Chok, which he named Malati 
Chok, he placed a window of sandal wood, and a stone 
with the following inscription. "In Nepal Sambat 817 
(a d. 1697) 3 , on the 9th of Phagun Sudi, having placed 
these deities in the Durbar, Sri Sri Jaya Bhupatlndra 
Malla, and Sri S11 Jaya Ugra Malla Deva, of the solai 
race and of the Manava gotra, assign the land named 

1 The position of tins pane of glass may be seen xa one of the plates Even at 
the present day glass is very scaice m Nepal, and only nsed "by a few of the wealthiest 

s Veiy handsome, and still well preeeived 

' In the MS onginally 818, but collected \uth a pencil 

W N. IS 


Dolkha Khet, consisting of seven ropms, and another 
piece of land named Khapi Khet, consisting* of four ropnle, 
as guthi. From the annual income arising from these, 
Hanuman and Narsinha are to be each rubbed with one 
kuiwa {11 seers) of oil, on the 9th of Phagun Sudi, the 
9th of Asaxh Sudi, and the 9th of Kartik Sudi, in every 
year. On the 9th of Phagun Sudi, Taleju (^ e., Turja) 
is to be woi shipped. On the following days worship is 
to be pei formed, and offerings made on the Makara 
Sankianti, Basant panchaml, Sivaratri, 15 th of Phagun- 
Sudi, Ghora jatra chaturdasi, Mesha Sankranti, Rama 
navaml, Kartik chaturdasi, Akshaya-tritlya, 14th and 
15th of Baisakb Sudi, 6 th, 10th, and 15th of Jeth Sudi, 
Ghanta-karna chaturdasi, 15th of Savan Sudi, Kah- 
yugadi, 4th and 15th of Bhadon Sudi, 9th of Aswin 
Sudi, Doviili, Sukharatri, 9th and 15th of Kartik Sudi, 
and Saptabiihi chaturdasi. The Raja in person is to 
attend and assist at the ceremonies. The woman who 
prepares the articles of worship is to get a share of 
the offerings The Acharya priest is to get 22 pathis 
of rice. The roof of the Malati Chok is to be repaired 
annually. The Awal (tder) is to get 3 pathis of rice, 
the Lohar (blacksmith) 2 pathis, and the Lohankarmi 
(stone-mason) 2 pathis It is the duty of the holder of 
the guthi to attend to the above." 

Bhupatmdra Malla built a three-storied temple, the 
length of which ran north and south, and placed in 
it, facing west, a Bhairava for the protection of the 
country, and the removal of sin and distress fiom the 
people. This Bhairava gave much trouble, and the 
Raja in consequence consulted ' clever men, who told 
him that, if the Tswarl of the Tantra Shastra, whom the 
Bhairava icspected, were placed near him, he would be 


appeased He therefore, at an auspicious moment, laid 
the foundation of a five-storied temple, with a flight of 
stairs, and with images of lions, griffins, elephants, and 
Jaya Malla (and) Phatta. The pillars were of carved agras 
(or sal) wood, and there were five stories of roofs. This 
temple is the most beautiful, as well as the highest, in 
the whole city 1 . In building it the Haja set an example 
to his subjects by himself carrying three bricks, and 
the people brought together the whole of the materials 
in five days. When the temple was finished he secretly 
placed in it a deity of the Tantra Shastra, who rides 
on Yama-raj (supposed to be a Bauddhamargi-devata),, 
whom no one is permitted to see, and who is there- 
fore kept concealed 2 . After this the Bhairava became 

On the 10th of Jeth Sudi, Nepal Sambat 823 (a.d. 
1703), at an auspicious moment, the Raja placed a Chuda- 
mani in the temple 3 . At the moment that the founda- 
tion of the temple was laid, a Jyapu sowed some rice, 
a,nd when he went to take it up, he found he could not 
pull out the plants, but had to use a spade to dig them 
up 4 . 

The Baja made Jcausls 5 in the Durbar, and having 
built temples there, he placed in them beautiful images 
:>f Varahi, Kaumarl and Taishnavi, on the 10th of 
Bhadon Sudi, Nepal Sambat 828 (a.d. 1708). 

On the 3rd of Baisakh Sudi, Nepal Sambat 827 (a.d 

1 This temple is really a beautiful work of art, covered with magnificent carvings 
n wood A picture of it by a native artist forms one of the plates 

2 Even to this day 

3 The chuda-mam is a jewel worn on the top of a head-dress 

4 An omen showing the stability of the foundation of the temple 

B A tcausl is an open platform at the roof of a house, on which people take the 
nr Nepalese houses are not flat-roofed (as in India), but with sloping roofs and 

1^4 *> 


1707), he placed a Bhairava and Ugrachanda m the 
Nayakha^hhe^tava-gol-kwatha, built by bis grandfather" 
Jagatprakasa Malla, 

Again, be built a temple in the Durbar, and placed 
bis Devata in it, tbat those persona who fast during the 
month of Kartik might worship there. This temple con- 
tains the following inscription. 

" thou whose lotu.j-feet are worshipped by gods 
and the king of gods, thou who art the husband of 
Gaurl, the destroyer of Manmatha, and whose forehead 
is adorned with the moon f I dedicate the faculties of 
my mind to thy two lotus-feet Be thou propitious to 
thy humble devotee Bhupatmdra. On Saturday the 
10th of Bhadon Sudi, Nepal Sambat 828, Bhupatmdra 
Malla, to please his patron-goddess, placed Siva in this 
temple May Sadasrva be gracious to him." 

The Raja and his son Ranjit Malla put a golden 
roof on the temple of the Bhairava in Nepal Sambat 
838 (a.d. 1718). 

On the 3rd of Phagun Badi, Nepal Sambat 841 (ad. 
1721), he dedicated a new bell for the temple of Batsala 
(or Bachhla) Devi, near the Durbar, the old one, dedi- 
cated in N. S. 820, after a Kotyahuti-yagya, having be- 
come damaged. 

19. His son Ranjit Malla 

This Raja was very prudent and economical He sent 
a great quantity of his coin to Lhasa, in exchange for 
which he got a large quantity of gold and silver. He 
collected a great many rare and curious ai tides, and made 
numerous Choks in the Durbar, and also a golden door. 

Being desirous of erecting a stone-pillar, like the one 
in K&ntipur, he requested Jayaprakasa Malla, the Raja 
of Kantipur, to send oil-men to put it up Jayaprakasa 


Malla com plied with, his request, but privately told tlie 
men. to spoil it They went to Bkatgaon, and prepared 
to set up the pillar, but while doing so they let it fall, 
and broke it into three pieces Seeing that the Raja 
was displeased at this, they joined the pieces together 
again and put up the pillar. Eanjlt Malla, and Jaya- 
prakasa Malla both gave the men dresses of honour. 

Baujit Malla dedicated a large bell to Annapurna 
Devi on the 1st of Phagun Badi, Nepal Sambat 857 (a.ix 

At this time the Hajas of Bhatgaon, Lalit-pStan, 
and Kantipur, were on bad terms with each other. 
Hence Narbbupala Sah, Haja of Gorkha, laid claim to 
the throne of Nepal, and crossed the Trisiil Ganga to 
invade the country Being, however, opposed and de- 
feated by the Vaisya-rajas of Noakot, he was obliged to 
return to Gorkha, after burning the bridge over the 
Trisiil Ganga 

A jyapu, who owned a field, near a plain to the 
south of Machchhmdrapur (Bogmati), called Deva-khel, 
was one night sleeping m it, when he saw a strange 
sight. Some one came and lighted a lamp, and then 
others came and spread carpets, on which several persons 
sat down. At the bidding of one of these, another 
person went to call some one, but returned with the 
answer that he would come to-morrow. On this the 
meeting broke up Next night the same events took 
place, bat the vacant seat on the carpet was occupied 
by Maehchhmdra-natha, who, it seems, was the person 
who had promised to come the night before A 
Bhairava then came forward and asked for food. Mach- 
chhindra told him to go to Gorkha, and enjoy the 
sovereignty of the country where Goiakhnatha resided. 

198 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

The Bhairava then said that, if he -would give him 
the sovereignty over Nepal also, he would go. To this 
Machchhindra-natha agreed, and then the meeting broke 
up. From this the Jyapu learned that henceforth the 
Gorkhas would rule over Nepal. 

Raja Narbhupala Sah had two wives, of whom the 
senior was pregnant at this time. The junior dreamed 
one night that she swallowed the sun, and, awaking, she 
told the Raja. He however only abused her, which so 
hurt her feelings that she did not sleep all the rest of the 
night. In the morning the Raja told her that it was 
merely to keep her awake that he had abused her, be- 
cause, if she had slept again, the effect of the dream 
would have been lost, and he considered this dream was 
as good as a promise that his kingdom would be enlarged. 
After this the junior Rani became pregnant, and after 
seven months gave birth to a son, who was named 
Prithinarayana Sah 

When Prithinarayana came of age he went to see 
Nepal, and lived at Bhatgaon with Raja Ranjit Malla, 
who, being pleased with his guest, promoted a friendship 
between him and his son Bir-narsmha Malla In this 
way Prithinarayana lived three years in Nepal, with the 
object of making himself acquainted with everything 
regarding the country, 

On the Vijaya dasami, when the Navadurgas were 
being taken to the Mula Chok, Raja Ranjit Malla and 
Prithinarayana Sah stood together at the door of the 
Kumarl Chok. When passing, the Bhairava gave the 
prasada to Prithinarayana instead of to Ranjit Malla ; 
and in like manner the Kumarl presented him with a 
blue lotus - A few days after this Pnthinarayana took 
leave and returned to Gorkha. 


Hanjit Malla had several illegitimate sons, who con- 
spired against the life of Prince Bir-narsmha Malla, and 
consulted some ill-disposed persons as to how they might 
remove him. These people said that he might be de- 
stroyed by performing- a "Kotyahuti-yagya and pronoun- 
cing the mantras so as to produce a bad effect. The sons 
then told the Haja that, if he would have a Kotya- 
huti-yagya performed, the country would be prosperous 
and he would have done a meritorious act. The !Raja 
consented, and Prince Bir-narsmha died suddenly at the 
age of 32, and with him the dynasty of the solar race 
in Ehatgaon became extinct. 


Han Malla, king of Banopa The Malla Itaj3.s of Kantipm or ICath- 
maudu, dowix to the time of the Goikha invasion Repanmg of 
the Sway&mLhu temple Taking of Kathmandu by the Gorkhas 

9. Ran MallAj the second son of Raja Yaksha Malla, 
became king of Bamkapur (Banepa) and seven adjacent 
villages He reigned 21 years, and died without issue 

Devi gave a golden head of a buffalo to a certain 
oilman of Banikapur, who, m consequence, made an 
offering to Pashupatmatha of a kavacha 1 ornamented 
with precious stones, and an ek-mukhi-rudraksha 2 , in 
N S 622 (ad. 1502). At the time that he made this 
offering he presented a shawl to the Raja, which is still 
pieserved at Kantrpur These riches had been given to 
him by the Kumari-devi of Krimarl-kund, to be employed 
for charitable purposes, 

9 The youngest son of Raja Yaksha Malla was named 
Ratna Malla, and he had quai relied with his eldest 
bi other Raya Malla. It was the custom at that time 
for the Raja, when dying, to impart to his eldest son the 
mantra by which Turja devi was made subservient , but 

1 Formerly a coat of mail, now any loose coat 

s A rudiaksha is the seed of the Eleoeaip-u^ gamtius It is used by fakrrs to 
malve rosanos The seed m ffeneird has ham too to eight 01 nioie lines, niaiking 
its division'! Seeds wjth only one line are veiy i.ue, and considered especially 
s.ioied Tlicic aie two such U muIJii-juthtiUhas at Pashnpati temple Rudiaksha 
mean? iiteialh "the oc of lhidra ru Sna " 


Ratna Malla, the youngest son, treacherously got this 
from his father, when dying, to the prejudice of the 
eldest brother. 

Through the influence of this mantra, the Nfla-tara- 
devi, being pleased with him, informed him in a dream 
that, if he went to Kantipur, he was sure to become 
Raja there, through the help of a certain Kaji He 
therefore rose early m the morning, and, having seen the 
Devi, went to the house of the principal Kajl of the 
twelve Thakuri Rajas, and told him his dream. 

The Kaji said he would assist him, and concealed 
him. Then, having invited the twelve Thakuri Rajas 
to dinner, he gave them poison. After this he made 
Ratna Malla king, who, when firmly established on the 
throne, put the Kaji to death, as he feared that one 
who had killed all the Thakuri Rajas for his sake, would 
not be likely to hesitate about killing him too, if a 
quarrel arose at any future time. "Kings, serpents, 
and tigers are never to be trusted; he who trusts any 
of them is soon ruined." 

The Thf^kuris of Noakot having had the image of 
Rajyeswari painted, without getting permission from 
Ratna Malla, he was offended, and defeated them in a 
battle, N S 611. He then brought a large quantity of 
fruit and flowers from Noakot, and offered them to 
Pashupati-natha From this time the custom was in- 
troduced of bringing fmit and flowers for offerings from 

The Raja being at one time hard pressed by the 
Bhotiyas, called Kuku, and others from the country of the 
Deva-dharma, four Tirhutiya Brahmans, having brought 
a number of troops from their spiritual disciple Sena 
Raja of Palpa, assisted Ratna Malla in duvmg off the 

202 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

Bhotiyas, From this time the place where the Bho- 
tiyas were defeated became known as Kuku-syana-j6r, 
and the Tirhutrya Brahmans were rewarded with grants 
of land and dresses of honour. 

At this period the Yavanas (Musalmans) first en- 
tered Nepal. 

In this reign a Swaml (prior or abbot), by name 
Somasekharananda, from the Dakhan, who was well 
versed in Khodha-nyasa 1 , came to Nepal, and was made 
a priest of Pashupati-natha. To assist him in the per- 
formance of the ceremonies two Newaras of Bandepur 
were appointed as Bhandaris. Two other Newaras from 
Kantipur were appointed to take care of the property 
and treasures in the temple, and were called Bisetas 
A Dittha (overseer) was also placed over the Bhandaris 
and Bisetas This Swaml got the title of Guru, and 
the Baja caused Dakshma-kali to be invoked by him 
and placed at the south-west corner of Pashupati, along 
with the seven planets and eight Matrika-ganas By the 
directions of the Swaml, the Baja showed a Devi in the 
Adi-bauddha to the Bhandaris, who every year perform 
Devali Puja to her To the Bisetas he entrusted the 
annual Puja of Matlll-devi, in the temple of Panch- 
linga Bhairava After this the Swaml went to heaven 

BaVja B-atna Malla, having perfected the mantra of 
Turja-devi, consecrated her image in a small temple, 
which he built near Tana-devata, on the 10 th of Magh 
Badi, N S 621 (a d. 1501) 

Batna Malla conciliated the people of Kantipur and 
Lalit-patan, and having brought copper from Tamba 

1 A form of worship consisting m making certain gestures with the hands and 
arms, while repeating mantras A full performance of this ceremony occupies at 
least three hours 


Khani 1 , he introduced pice (paisa) into the currency 
"instead of Sukichas 2 . The Dittha Naikya (overseer) 
employed in this work was Madhana, a Bauddhacharya 
of Onkuli Bihar m Lalit-patan 3 

After reigning 71 years, Eatna Malla died. 
10. His son Amara Malla reigned 47 years 
In this reign the potters of Banikapur wished to place 
an image of Ananta ISfarayana in the temple of Pashu- 
pati, but failed to get permission They then managed 
m one night clandestinely to build a temple of tiles 
near Bakshala (Bachhla) Devi*, and placed the image of 
Narayana in it, without any one knowing what was 
being done. 

In this reign the descendants of one Muni Acharya, 
a woi shipper of Bhuvaneswaii, instituted an annual 
jatra of Kumais and Kumaris (nine in number), mounted 
on nine different sorts of raths, with rice-pestles, iron 
chains and trisuls, attended by people undergoing tor- 
tures 5 . The whole procession goes round Isancswara. 
This jatra takes place on the 8th of Asarh Badi In 
Nepal Sambat 677 (ad. 1557) this Muni Acharya had set 
out to obtain the Mrit-sanjivani (elixir of life), and had 
disappeared. His descendants heard of his disappearance 
while perfoimmg the jatra, and they caused his horo- 
scope to be carried behind the raths in the shape of a 
dead body. While this was going on, Muni Acharya 
returned to Deva-patan with the elixir, and hearing that 
his horoscope was going to be burned with such pomp in 

1 In the Chitlong valley, at the foot of the Sisaghari hills 

2 Sukicha or SuLl, an ancient com, worth eight pice 

3 An ancestor of the Pandit who assisted m translating this book. 

* This temple stands between the two bridges at Fashupati, on the right bank of 
the river, close to its margin 

* Children placed bo that the tnsulg appear to have transfixed their bodies 

204- HISTORY OF NEPAL [ch\p 

place of Ins corpse, he left the two pitchers and the 
basket containing the ehxn at that place, and made him- 
self invisible by entering into the horoscope. Theie are 
two hillocks at the place where he left the elixir, which 
are called Kubkudo 1 

A Raj-baid had come with Tuija and settled down 
at Pkarphlng, and afterwaids removed to Lalit-patan 
The Eaja brought tins man to reside at Deva-patan, and 
budt a place for his family god. 

In this reign the beautiful dances of the gods and 
goddesses were instituted m Laht-patan and Kantrpur 

In this reign there lived a Bauddhacharya, by name 
Abhayaraj, clever and devoted to his religion 2 . He had 
three wives, two of whom had been fruitful, one having 
two sons and the other four He then married a fourth 
wife, and seeing that his elder sons were displeased at 
this, he left the wife with four sons at Onkuli Bihar, and 
the other with two sons at a house which he had recently 
built, and he himself went to Bauddha Gay a with Ins 
newly-married wife. He remained there three years as 
a devotee of Buddha. One day he heard a voice from 
the sky, telling him that Mahabuddha had accepted his 
service and worship, and that he should now return to his 
home, where Mahabuddha would come to visit him, and 
where he would receive the royal favour The voice also 
told him that she who spoke was Bidyadharl-devI, a 
handmaid of Mahabuddha At this time, however, Ab- 
hayaraj 's wife was pregnant, and they theiefoie could not 
undertake the journey In due season a son was born, 
and named Bauddhaju After this they returned home, 
taking with them a model Bauddha image from that 

1 To the fccmtli-ea&t of Dc^ a-pa,tan 

2 This imragiapli contains pait of the family hi&tuij of the Pandit 


place. On ariiving at home, Abhayarfuj built a three- 
storied Buddhist temple, and erected a Bauddh -with an 
image of Sakya Muni, in which he placed the model image 
To the east of the temple, m his former house, lie built 
an Agama, and placed there an image of Bidyadharl-devi 
Raja Amara Malla called him before him, and told him 
that, as his (the Raja's) father had appointed Madhana, 
Abhayaraj's father, as Dittha Naikya, to superintend the 
making of pice, he now appointed him to the same post. 

This Amara Malla reintroduced the Harsiddhi dance, 
bat, thinking that the elephant (one of the dramatis per- 
sonse) caused scarcity of grain, in order to counteract this 
he introduced the dance of Maha-lakshmt of Khokna. 
He introduced also the following dances 

The dance of Halchok-devi of the Jamal mountain, 

of Maua-maiju-devi, 

of Durga-gana of Pachli Bhairava, 

of Durga-gana of Lumrlkali, 

of Kankeswari-gana, and 

of GnateswarL 
In this last dance it was found necessary to hare the 
Bagh-bhairava of Kfrtipur represented, with the sheep 
which he devoured, and the performers had to go to Kir- 
tipur to perform then dance In the dance of Kankes- 
wari, on one occasion, a man, who had disguised himself 
as a beast, was eaten up by Kankeswari, and after this 
the dance was discontinued, because the performance 
would have required a human sacrifice. The other dances 
were continued, some being performed annually, others 
only every twelfth year. 

He also instituted the rath-jatra of Kankeswari, 
Luchumbhelu, etc , to take place on the Preta-chaturdasi 
This Raja's sovereignty extended over the following 

2o6 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

towns 1. Lalitapur, 2 Bandyagaon, 3. Thecho, 4 Har- 
siddhi, 5 Lubhu, 6. Chapagaon, 7. Pharphing, 8. Mach- 
clihmdrapur or Bugmati, 9. Khokna, 10. Panga, 11. 
Kirtipur, 12 Thankot, 13. Balarnbu, 14. Satangal, 15. 
Halchok, 16. Phutum, 17. Dharmasthali, 18 Tokha, 19 
Chapaligaon, 20. Lelegram, 21. Chukgram, 22. Gokarna, 
23. Deva-patan, 24. Nandigram, 25. Namsal, 26. Mall- 
gram or Magal 

The Raja once inquired when these villages were 
founded, and he was told that some were given as mar- 
riage-portions to daughters of Brahmaiis by Bajas ; some 
were founded by rich men, three generations before this 
time ; some were peopled by persons seeking refuge, when 
driven by disaster from their former abodes , some were 
of greater antiquity, such as JNTamsal, Nandigram 1 and 
Mahgram, which were the remnants of Bisal-nagara. 
Milligram being destroyed by fire, the people settled down 
near Nandigram, calling the new village by the name of 
the old one, Raja Sankara-deva founded Changu Narfi- 
yana, a village of 700 houses, and peopled it He also 
dedicated a town to Bajra Jogini, which he built in shape 
of a sankha (shell). The above was told by respectable 
men to Amara Malla. 

11. ' His son Surya Malla. 

This Baja took Changu Narayana and Sankhapur 
from the Bhatgaon Raja He went to live at San- 
khapur, and m order to please the goddess Bajra Jogim, 
he instituted her rath-jatra. He lived there six years, 
after which he returned to Kantipur and died. 

12 His son Narendra Malla. 

13. His son Mahindra Malla 

1 Nandigram is the first village on the roan num. iv*uu J m Ul uu. u *„ ± ashupati, where 
the temple of Nanthkeswar stands. 


This Haja placed Mahindieswari and Pashupati-natha 
in temples to the north of his Durbar. He went to Dihli 
with a present of a swan and hawks for the Emperor, 
who, being much pleased therewith, granted him permis- 
sion to strike com in his own name, m weight six mashas. 
He struck this coin, and called it mohar, and made it 
current in every part of his country 1 . 

He induced many families to reside in Kantipur, by 
giving them houses, lands and birtas. 

He went to Bhatgaon and lived with Haja Trailokya 
Malla, and daily woi shipped Turja-devi At last she 
was pleased, and directed him to build a high temple in 
lus Durbar in the form of a j antra 2 . He then returned 
to Kantrpur and told the architects to build the temple 
on the plan he proposed, but they were at a loss how to 
build it At last they were enlightened by a Sannyasi, 
and built it It was completed in 1ST S 669 (a.d. 1549), 
on Monday the 5th of Magh Sudi , and Turja Bha- 
vani entered it in the form of a bee. The Baja caused 
the temple to be consecrated with great rejoicings, and 
gave the Brahmans many birtas. From this time people 
were allowed to build high houses in the city. 

In this reign Purandara Rajbansi, son of Yishnu 
Sinha, built the large temple of Narayana in Lalit-patan, 
m front of the Durbar, in N. S. C86 (a.d. 15GC). 

Mahindra Malla had two sons, the elder named Sada- 
siva Malla, and the younger, by a Thakurl mother, 
named Siva-smha Malla. 

14. Sadasiva Malla kept many horses, and the people 

1 Tins is the first silver coinage of Nepal The copper pice, stamped with bulls, 
lions and elephants, were current long before 

2 A most indefinite direction, as jantraa (cliaimu or amulets) are of all shapes, 
pquaie, oval, round, etc 


were much annoyed by his letting them loose to graze 
on their crops. 

In this reign, one Jivaraj, the son of Bauddhaju, the 
son of Abhayaraj, the great devotee of Buddha, who was 
born at Bauddha Gaya, visited that holy place, and after 
returning home built a large temple, like the one at Gaya, 
consisting entirely of images. It was named Mahabuddha- 
devalaya 1 . This Jivaraj, after performing a great puja, 
and thinking of taking some prasada of the Mahabuddha 
to the Lamas of the north, went to the Lama of Sukim 
and told him how he built the great temple, The Lama 
gave him a plateful of gold, and he returned home and 
made golden lutham (shafts) for the rath of Machchhmdra- 
natha, and assigned land for their maintenance, which is 
called Lutham-guthi. Jaya-mum, the son of Jivaraj , seeing 
that the Bauddha-margis of Nepal were deterioiatmg, for 
want of clever Pandits, well versed in the Bauddha-ma-rgi 
shastras, and for want also of good books, disguised him- 
self as a Dandi and went to Kasi (Benares), where he 
studied Yyakarana (grammar), etc., and then returned 
to Nepal, with a great collection of Bauddha-margi books 
Thus he promoted the Bauddha religion, and himself be- 
came famous as the great Pandit of Mahabuddha. 

Sadasiva Malla was a licentious man, and many hand- 
some women, who came to see the jatras, fell into his 
snares 2 . His subjects, seeing his wickedness, determined 
to take vengeance. So one day, as he went towards 

1 This temple is in Patan, and is the family-temple oi the Pandit It lg built of 
tiles, on each of -which is the figure of a god 

B Such conduct on the part of the nilerg is still common I have heard of 
several instances m which girls, seen at the jatr&s by high officials, have been taken 
to their houses and kept there as conctibme3. The Newars, in consequence, con- 
sider it a great misfortune if their girls are good-looking and oscape bemg marked 
by the «niftll-p^\ 


the Manohara, they assaulted him with nols and mudgars 
(sticks and clubs), and he was compelled to take refuge 
at Bhatgaon. The Raja of Bhatgaon, knowing him to he 
a wicked man, kept him in confinement in one of the 
Choks. After sometime he disappeaied from that place 1 , 
and the Chok was after this called Sadasiva-malla-chok. 

The legitimate solar dynasty thus became extinct m 

15. The people, after having expelled Sadilsiva Malla, 
made his brother Siva-smha Malla king. 

This Raja was a wise man. He caused Degutale (g< ds) 
to be set up by a Maharashtra Brahman, and ga\ e lnm 
the title of Guru In older to secure for the country tbe 
protection of Panchhnga Bhairava, who is the Chhetiaral 
of the southern side of the universe, he caused a well to 
be filled with many articles of worship in honour of him, 
and instituted his rath-jatra on the 5th of Aswin Sudi 

In the time of this Raja, a certain poweiful Tilntrcka 
of Kantipur, by name Surat-bajra, went to Lhasa, which 
journey was considered a difficult undertaking, and one 
day, as he was taking tea with the Lama of BLot, he saw 
his house in Nepal on fire, and succeeded in extinguishing 
the flames by throwing the tea on them ' 

Siva-smha had two sons, the elder named Lakshmi- 
narsmha Malla, and the younger Hanhaia-smha Malla, 
the latter of whom went to reign at Lalit-patan during 
the life of his father His father and his mother, Ganga 
Rani, were both afraid of this prince's violent temper. 
Ganga Rani made a large garden, at a spot midway 
between Kantipur and Budha-nilakantha, which she called 
Ram-ban 2 , and planted m it all sorts of fruit-trees 

1 A habit prisoners had, and ^till have, in Nepal 

• Close to the Bntish Kesidenc} The remains of the ^nnhn, still Inown tis> 

W N. li 


One day, when Siva-sinha Malla was absent on a 
hunting expedition, Harihara-smha Malla expelled liis 
elder brother Lakshmi-narsmha from the durbar, on 
pretence of some quarrel. Lakshml-narsinha, being in 
great fear, took refuge at Deva-patan, in the house of 
a washerman, and lived there in concealment The two 
daughters of the washerman, by name Phikuncha and 
Parunehai, rendered him great service and became inti- 
mate with him. Hence Lakshmi-narsmha Malla pro- 
mised that, if he became Kaja, he would make water pass 
from the hands of the washerman caste {%. e , would raise 
their caste to a higher position among the castes). Ganga 
Hani meanwhile searched for her son, but in vain. 

At this time a certain Brabmachari Khodhanyasi- 
swami, by name Mtyananda-swami, from southern India, 
came to Pashupati-natha, and was made a priest of the 
temple by Ganga Eani. The middle roof of the temple 
of Pashupati being in very bad repair, she caused it to be 
taken off, leaving the temple with only two roofs. The 
gold of the one taken off was made into a gajura and 
placed on the top of the temple, which was thoroughly 

In 1ST S. 705 (ad. 1585) she repaired the temple of 
Changu Narayana. 

In JN\ S 714 (a.d, 15.94) the temple of Swayambhu 
was repaired by the Raja, and the principal timbers 
renewed. The above is inscribed on a stone, placed on 
the west of Swayambhu 

By the direction of Nityananda-swami, Ganga Eani 
offered a flag to Pashupati-natha, one end of which was 
tied to the top of his temple, and the other to the top 

Eam-ban fc are enclosed by a lugli wall, and tlie place was ixsed some yeais ago as a 
doer pari; l>y Su Jimg Ealrdui . 


of the durbar at Kantipur (a distance of nearly three 
u roiles) 

After this, both the Raja and Ram died At the 
time of the Rani's death, a dreadful noise was heard at 
midnight at the south-west corner of the temple of Pashu- 
pati-natha So loud was it, that the hearers became deaf. 
This Rani also built a temple at Bhatgaon. 

16. After the death of Siva-sinha Malla and Ganga 
Ram, Lakshml-narsinha Malla became Raja, and ruled 
over Kantipur. In this reign, on the day of Machchhindra- 
nabha's Lagan-jatra (i.e., the day on which his car reaches 
Lagan-tol), Kalpa-briksha (the tree of Paradise) was 
lookmg on in the form of a man, and, being recognized by 
a certain Biseta, was caught by him, and was not released 
until he promised the Biseta that, through his influence, 
he would be enabled to btuld a satal (pati) with the wood 
of a single tree. On the fourth day after this, the Kalpa- 
briksha sent a sal tree, and the Biseta, after * getting the 
Raja's permission, had the tree cut up, and with the 
timber built the satal in Kantipur, and named it Madu- 
satal From its being built of the timber of one tree, it 
was also named Kathmado 1 . This satal was not con- 
secrated, because the Kalpa-briksha had told the Biseta 
that, if it were, the wood would walk away. 

This Raja had a Kaji, by name Bhlma Malla, a relative ■ 
of the Raja's younger daughter's husband, who was^ a 
great well-wisher of his master. He established thirty- 
two shops in the city, and sent traders to Bhot. He 
himself went to Lhasa, and sent back to Kantipur a large 
quantity of gold and silver. Owing to his exertions, the 
property of JSTepalese subjects dying at Lhasa was made 

1 It standa on the right-hand side of the load leading from the Duibar over the 


2 12 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

over to the JSTepalese government ; and lie brought Kuti 
under the jurisdiction of Nepal. 

"While this Kaji was in Bhot, some misehief-makex 
told the Eaja that Nityananda-swaml never bowed to 
Pashupati-natha, and the Eaja went to see if this weie 
the case. Nityananda-swaml guessed his purpose in 
coming there, and after the ceremony of worship had 
been finished, and Chandeswari had been worshipped, he 
bowed to Kama-devata, whose foot broke and fell off. 
He then bowed to the Dharma-sila, and it cracked in two. 
Next he bowed to a stone inside the southern door, which 
also fell in p : eces. .After this, he was on the point of 
rushing inside to bow to Pashupati-natha, when he was 
forcibly stopped by the Eaja. From this day it was the 
custom of the Swami, after the ceremony of worship had 
been finished, to stand at the south-western corner of the 
temple and cry "Pakdo" three times. He died shortly 
after this. 

Bhima Malla returned from Jjhasa, and rendered 
many services to the Eaja, He caused the cracked 
Dharma-sila to be covered with a plate of copper. He 
was desirous of extending Lakshml-narsinha's rule over 
the whole country, but some one persuaded the Eaja that 
he was aiming at making himself king, and hence the 
Eaja caused him to be put to death. His wife became a 
sati, and uttered the curse, " May there never be bibeka 
(sound judgment) in this durbar 1 ." 

The Eaja afterwards expressed great sorrow for what 
he had done, and, owing to the curses of the Kajfs 
family, he became insane, and unfit to manage the 
affairs of state. 

17. His son Pratapa Malla then took the reins of 

1 Anl. her cuxse seems to have stuck to the country to the present time ' 


government into lis hands, and raled for 61 years. He 
kept his father in confinement, and the old man died 
insane, and thus the mantra of Turja was lost. 

Pratapa Malla took his seat on the gaddi (throne) 
in N S. 750 (a.d. 1639). Though he did not get the 
Turja mantra, still he was possessed of great ability, 
talent, and learning He brought two Ranis from Tirhut, 
and married them He introduced the annual rath- 
jatra of Sena (or Sanu) Machchhmdra, who was dug 
up by potters and placed m a temple by Raja Yaksha 

This Raja brought together many Pandits from other 
countiies, and learned many things from them. He 
composed prayers for different Pitha-deVatas of Nepal, 
and after getting them inscribed on stones, placed them 
in many holy places, such as Pashupati, &c. He made 
himself master of all the Shastras, and amassed four 
crores of rupees, which he buried in a place according to 
Bastu-chakra 1 , and having placed four flags, he built 
the Mohan-chok over it 2 . In order -to keep away evil 
spirits, witches, and epidemics, such as smallpox, he 
made a principal gate to the palace, and set there an 
image of Hanuman, whence it was called Hanuman 
dhoka. To perfect these precautions, he placed a 
Hanuman with five faces in a three-storied temple. He 
built Nasala-chok, and put in it the furious images of 
Narsmha and Nritya-natha, to which he afterwards 
added several others. He built Indrapur and a Jagan- 
natha-dovala in. front of the durbar, and on the 5th of 
Magh Sudi, N*. S. 774 (ad. 1654) he composed a prayer 
to Kahka, and had it inscribed on stones m fifteen differ- 

1 A ceiGtacmy need in laying the foundations of houses, etc 
3 Oue of the courts m the palace at Kathmandn 



eat characters, all of which, he had studied. These he 
placed in different temples and in the durbar 1 . 

He made a beautiful image of Nritya-natha, exactly 
like one in a conical-shaped temple, and placed it xn a 
large pati, newly built for the purpose, which was named 
Madu-nasala-deva. He got made a metal image of Bis- 
warupa, to be placed outside of the durbar during the 
Indra-jatra, for the people to see He caused the jalhaii 
(or stone on which the emblem of Siva is fixed) and the 
greater part of the emblem of Panchlinga Bhairava to 
be covered up, because people from the plains of India, 
seeing the jalhari, used to laugh at the Nepalese for 
sacrificing animals to Mahadeva He buiJt Bhandarkhal 
(m the durbar), and made a tank. He went to consult 
Jalasayana Narayana, and was told not to make an image 
for this tank, so he brought an old image, which was lying 
in a pond near Gyaneswara, and placed it in the tank. 
Being desirous of supplying water to the tank from Nila- 
kEmtha, he got permission from the deity, and brought 
the water in a narrow channel. When it reached B-ani- 
ban it stopped 2 , and the Raja made a vow that he would 
not go to the durbar till he went along with the water. 
He remained there for a whole year, and the Indra- 
jatra was celebrated at that place. During this time 
an embankment was made to the level of the watercourse 
The places which supplied earth for this work were 
named Tapamajol. In the Navaratri, or Dasahra festival, 
the work was completed; the water reached the tank, 

1 This inscription forms one of the plates The date 774 is m the fifth line, 
between the second and third devices. 

3 There is a break in the Tar or table land here The mound mentioned is close 
to the Residency, .and indeed the Besideney garden and grounds are supplied mth 
water from this channel. The embankment is about a quarter of a mile long and 
thuty feet high 


and with it the Raja returned to the durbar and wor- 
shipped Narayana. On the same night the Raja had a 
dream, in which he was told by Budha-nilakantha that 
he or any of his descendants or successors who went to 
visit Mlakantha would die. Hence, from that time, no 
Raja, ever visits Budha-nilakantha. 

After a few days the Raja heard that there was a 
frightful stone image in a tank, near the place from which 
he had brought the image of Jalasayana Narayana. He 
went there and recognized it as Bhimasena, who played 
in a stone-boat m the water, when the valley was a lake. 
He caused it to be dragged out and placed to the west of 
the durbar. This Bhairava possesses great powers. 

He then set np in the Sundara-chok an image of 
Narayana, in the attitude of riding on the Kala Nag after 
vanquishing him, and along with him he placed an image 
of Garuda Both of these images had been found in a 
place called Sakonha in the Sankasya-nagari. This Garuda 
gave much annoyance to the Baja, who in consequence re- 
moved him to a spot near the Narayana of Narayana Hiti 

Syamarpa Lama came from Bhot, and renewed the 
garbka-Mth of Swayambhu. (the main timber round which 
the mound is built), and gilt the images of the deities. 
This was done in N S. 760 (a d 1640), and this date 
and the name of Baja Lakshmi-narsinha are inscribed 
under the arch of the southern side (of the temple) 

Baja Pratapa Malla then composed a prayer to Swa- 
yambhu, which is inscribed on a stone at the temple 
It is dated N S. 770 (a.d 1650) In like manner he 
composed many verses, and set them np m different places, 
inscribed on stones. At last he inscribed his name on 
his coinage, with the affix Kavmdra (poet), and obtained 
great celebrity. 


Being a young man, lie was very amorous, and the 
number of Ins concubines amounted to tliree thousand. 
At this time a girl, not yet airived at puberty, fell a 
victim to his lust and died Afiaid of the consequences 
Of this great sin, he went to Pashupati, and remained 
there thiee months, during which time he . erected 
emblems of Siva, named Kofci Lmga, built a temple in 
the middle of the space, and performed a Kotyahuti- 
yagya He then lepahed the gajiua of the temple of 
Pashupati-natha, and erected a pillai at the southern door 
of the temple He and every member of his family then 
performed the ceremony of Tola-dan 1 . Next, statues 'of 
all of them were placed m the temple. On the fourth 
day after this he made solemn vows, and gave many 
fields noith of Deva-patan as gochar or common grazing 
grounds. He then placed emblems of Siva, with temples 
built over them, at intervals of a pace, all the way from 
Pashupati to Kantipur, and hung up a jpatdM (flag) of 
cloth, extending from the temple of Pashupati to the 
temple of Mahacleva in Mohamchok in the durbar at 
Kantipur, By doing all this, he obtained absolution for 
the sin he had committed. 

At this time a Maharashtra Brahman, by name 
Lamba-karn Bhatta 2 , came and lived at Kulcswaia He 
paid a visit to the Raja, who, on being made acquainted 

1 Tins consists m weighing the person against gold, silver, or -whatever the 
offering is to b • 

•* So name I fiom one of his oars being very long , He obtained a promise from 
the TS.7i]l of ,is much land as ho could -walk round m seven days He might easily 
have walked louml the entnc kingdom in less time, so the sard.lrs persuaded him it woull ho benuath his dignity to walk, and that he must be carried m a 
ptlkT TJie> (hen picmded cupplus and blind men as beams, and lame men to 
cook Ins foo 1 and sent them off to the north ^ est comer of the valley, which is 
hilly and wooded Of ocAiiee he did not inako voiy lapid progieas, but Btill ho got 
ovci a gool deal «f _nound, nmch of which is held b} lu-> de&coiidanta to the present 
dav Ihm tiie a wctlihy family 


with Lis merits, gave him the title of Guru. By his 
advice the Raja built a high temple near Degutale, with 
three golden roofs, and placed his own and his son's 
statues on a pillar (m front of it). 

At this time a Nag of Chaubahal, by name Koinabasi, 
came to Pashupati, along the Bagmatl, and having caused 
the water to rise, entered the temple by a drain and 
stole the ek-mukhi-rudraksha, which Karayana, in the 
disguise of a Sannyasi, had given to Mohan Sinha Salmi 
of Banikapur, who sewed it on a coat which he offered 
to Pashupati Basuki, having heard of the robbery, 
jumped into the river, killed the Nag, brought back the 
rudraksha, and put it on the jalhari. "When the river 
had risen near Bajyeswarl, a great crowd came to see it, 
and the Haja with his Guru and priests also came there. 
Then Lamba-kam Bhatta, having put a stop to future 
inroads of Wags, rebuilt the temple of Basuki with a new 
gajura, and, to insure the security of the temples, he 
put in them musical instruments, called Dhapani, t& be 
played on when one quarter of the night remained 
From this time, through the favour of Basuki, no acts of 
violence have been done by the ISTags. 

In this reign a Tnhutiya Brahman, by name Naifsinha 
Thakur, who had for three years repeated the mantra of 
Narsinha, and thereby secured his aid when needful, 
came to Kantipur He went to live, at Panchlinga 
Bhairava, where the Haja visited him, and, becoming 
acquainted with his powers, gave him the title of Guru. 
Sometime after this, having perused the book Mdhakala 
Sanlatd, the Guiu went to a place north of Slekhmantak- 
ban, and having found there a khadgi (kasai) and a 
tail-kar (oilman), and examined the marks on their 
bodies, he came to the conclusion that that spot was the 

218 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

abode of Iswarl He communicated this intelligence to 
the Raja, who employed all his subjects to dig a tank 
there, and an Iswari appeared. Then he put iron beams 
in the shape of a j antra, to cover the subaqtieous fire and 
prevent it from rushing up, and over these he placed a 
jantra of the shape of eight lotus leaves. He then placed 
there a Bhairava, the ISTava-durga-gana of the Slekh- 
rnantak-ban, and Hmsa-Narsinha. He next enclosed 
the place with a wall, within which he erected pillars, 
one surmounted by a lion and the other by a statue of a 
man. Having thus discovered Guhjeswarl-Kali-Maha- 
maya, he caused a prayer to be inscribed on a stone, 
which he put in the temple. Under this prayer is the 
following inscription 

e< Glory to Sri Sn Sri Rajadhiraj Ramachandra, of the 
solar race, whose descendant Sri Pratapa Malla Raja, 
in order to secure his welfare, has erected a pillar, sur- 
mounted by a lion, in front of the temple which he has 
bunt and consecrated with burnt offerings and sacrifices 
On Thursday, the 6th of Baisakh Badi, Uttara nakshatra, 
Subha yog, he has dedicated them to Gnhjeswari Bha- 


This inscription is in Sanskrit, and under it is the 
following in the language of Nepal (Parbatiya) 

" These sloks have been composed by Sri Sri Kavmdra 
Jaya Pratapa Malla Deva, and are dedicated to Sri Sri 
Sri Guhjeswarl." 

In this reign, in N. S. 774 (a.d. 1654), Sumaraj Sako 
Bhikshu built the Lagan Bahal in Kantipur. 

Tn N". S. 777 (a. d. 1657), on the day of the full moon 
in Magh, the Raja, placed a gilt image of Biswartipa in 
Layakul-bahal. In Pau-bahal he placed a painting, repre- 
senting figures engaged in churning the ocean, and he 


directed tliat it should be taken out on great festival 
days He assigned a guthi for thjs purpose. 

On the 13th of Bhadon Badi, N. S. 777 f the insane 
Raja Lakshmi-narsinha Malla died, after being in con- 
iineznent for sixteen years. His remains were burned at 
Pashupati, at the Deva-ghat, on the Raj-smashan. One 
of the widows of the Raja, by name Bhavani Mai, per- 
formed sati on this occasion. 

Pratapa Malla had four sons Parthipendra Malla, 
Nripendra Malla, Mahipendra (or Mahipatendra) Malla, 
and Chakravartendra Malla 

A Swami Khodhanyasi from the south of India, by 
name Gyanananda, came to Pashupati The liaja went 
to see him, and, having examined him, appointed him 
priest of the temple. By the S warm's advice, the Raja 
made an umbrella of gold with the Panchayana-pancha- 
patra mantra, and having caused an inscription to be put 
on it, of sloks composed by himself in the Bhujanga 
measure, to which the Swami added the abstruse Tan- 
dava-mantia, made by Mahakala, he offered it to Pashu- 
pati-natha Then the Swami, to propitiate Pashupati- 
natha, on the 14th of Savan Sudi, made an offering of 
cotton thread, seven dharnis and one seer in weight, after 
going through a long purifying ceremony, which is called 
Pabitrarohana This ceremony lasts for four days, and 
on the last day the prasada is offered to the king. 

The Raja then built a house for the Swami in Deva- 
patan, in which to perform his dady religious ceremonies, 
and m the middle of it he made a raised platform. The 
Swami built another house adjacent to it, in which he 
placed a deity of the Swatantra-mula-murtti-urddhamnaya 
for his daily worship. 

By the Swarm's advice, the Raja left his throne for a 


time to be filled in turn by bis four sons, for one year 
each. Nripendra Malla, "when acting as Raja, made a 
coat for the rTandi of Pashupati-natha. During the reign 
of Mahipendra Malla, Prattipa Malla placed a large bajra 
(thunderbplt of Ihdra) in the Dharniadhatu mandala in 
front of Akskobhya Buddha,, on the eastern side of Swa- 
yarnbhu, m N. S. F88 (a,d. 1668) To the right and left 
of Swayambhu. he built two temples, in which he put 
secret Agama devatas. Chakravartendra Malla reigned 
only for one day and then died, but the other three sons 
reigned for their three years 

The inscription on Chakravartendra's coin, devised 
by the Swarm, consists of a triangular (bow and 
arrow), Pas (a noose), Ankus (the iron hook for diivmg 
an elephant), Kamal (a lotus), Chiimar (a yak's tail), and 
Sambat 789. This device caused his death 1 . 

The deceased son's mother was inconsolable for the 
loss of her youngest born, and the Haja, to comfort her, 
caused a tank to be dug, and built in the middle of it a 
temple, containing the family deity. This tank was 
filled with water brought' fiom every Tutha or holy 
place. On its southern bank the Itaja placed a stone 
elephant bearing his own and the Hani's statues. This 
tank is called the Hani Pukhil. 

There was a Gubahal (or Buddhist guru), by name 
Jdiuana, who advi&ed the repairing of the Itum Bahal, 
built by Keschandia. The llajji learned many arts from 
Jamana Guru-bhoju and Lamba-karn Bhatta, and showed 

1 A bow and airow aio ommoxis of death, "but, no^ci tholes, tho water m winch 
hueh a com i& clipped possesses the quality of causing a speedy deliveiy m child lied 
These coins, which aic veiy iaic, aie still ti^ed ±01 this pmpose A sword that has 
hilled a, man xb also used 111 the same way , and tho figure kno^n among children 
in Scotland a.% "the walls of Troy" is, supposed to have the same effect, if shown 
to the woman 


his skill by exhibiting many wonderful sights to the 
people 1 . He died m N S 809 (a d 1G89) 

18 His son Mahindra Malla, or Bhupalondra Malla, 
succeeded liim. He instituted tlie jatra of Sweta-bina- 
yaka, and the guthi, or lands assigned for its support, 
were given in chaige to the Bandyas of Chabahil. He 
died m N S. 814= (a. d. 1G94) 

19. His son Sil Bhaskara Malla succeeded him at the 
age of fourteen, and reigned for eight years. He had two 
wives and two concubines He built a beautiful Dharma- 
sala m Kmdol 2 , and remained always m the society of 
his women. In the year in which the Bfya reached Ins 
22nd year there were two months of As win 3 , and the 
Baja determined to hold the Dasain (Dasahra festival) 
during the intercalary month. The people of Bhatgaon 
and Patan refused to celebrate it in that month, but the 
Baia persisted m doing so, and the goddess, being angry, 
sent a plague called Maha-mai, which appeared now after 
an interval of 120 years. 

The symptoms of this disease were that the patient 
was seized with a pain in the head near the ear, and 
death ensued in an instant. The daily mortality amounted 
to between 30 and 40. This lasted for two years, but at 
length the frightful teeth of Pashupati were seen, and 
the daily number of deaths increased to between 80 and 
100. At this time Jhangalthari Kaji kept the Raja, his 
two wives, and a servant, with a store of provisions, in 
Kindol Bahal, to prevent the disease being communicated 
to them. He kept them there for six months, while the 
plague was raging in the country. 

1 Among other feats, he is said to have made the statue of a Bkairava in front 
of the palace smile and move its head 

8 South of S^ayambliu. 

3 The time foi fc&tivals and lchgLous coxemomes is calculated hj the lunar 
month, and no feEtmilg aic cdobiated in the intoxcalar; month 

222 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

At this time a Jogl came, and told the Kajl that the 
Maha-mai would not be appeased by any small ceremony. 
If he was desirous of appeasing the goddess, he should 
give every man in the country, whether a native or a 
stranger, an ample meal of such food as he liked best. 
The Kajl therefore distributed food at Hanuman Dhoka, 
and in four days the plague began to abate. The Raja 
inquired about the plague from a cultivator, through a 
hole in a window of the Dharmasala at Kindol ; and 
being assured that the mortality had abated, he jumped 
out of the window, and ran to the durbar. He died that 
same night, on the 15th of Bhadon Sudi, N. £> 822 
(a d. 1702). The cause of his death was that the eye of 
Maha-mai had fallen upon him. In him the solar dynasty 
at Kantrptir became extinct. The Ranis and Maijus 
(concubines) sent for a distant relative, on the side of a 
daughter, and having made Mm Raja, the four became 

20. The new Raja was named Jagajjaya Malla. He 
built a temple to Radha-Krishna and another to Maha- 
Vishnu. There was a drought m his reign, and as the 
Raja thought that it was the result of the resumption of 
charitable grants of land, he caused lands to be assigned 
to Pashupati-natha to supply the Mahfibali-bh Og 1 . 

He had two sons, Rfijendra-prakasa and Jaya-prakasa, 
born before he became Baja. After becoming Raja, he 
had three sons born in Mohan-chok, viz Bajya-prakasa, 
ISTarendra-prakasa, and Chandra-prakasa. Nine years 
after he became Baja, the eldest son Raj endra-prakasa 
died. The Raja was so grieved at this that he shut him- 
self up in his palace for three months. The Khas sepoys 
came and comforted him, saymg that he had four sons 

1 Food offered to tlie gods and ^tftenvauls cUstubuted to faklis 


left and ought not to give himself up totally to grief. 
The Raja told them that it was his wish that, after his 
death, Jaya-prakasa should be made king ; but the sepoys 
said that they would make Rajya-prakasa king, who was 
born in Mohan-chok. This avowal of their intention made 
Jaya-prakasa their enemy. 

Aftei a time, Chandra-prakasa the youngest son died, 
and his father made a tank in his name on the other side 
of the Tukhucha, which he named Mihma-juju-ka-pokhrl. 

At tins time the Raja heard from a fakir that the 
Gorkhali Raja, Prithwmarayana, had extended his rule as 
far as Noakot ; and being grieved also by the resumption 
of chantahli lands 1 , which was sure to bring ruin on 
his kingdom, he died in N. S. 852 (a. d. 1732). 

21. Jaya-prakasa Malla succeeded him, and reigned 
for 39 years. Being afraid that the Durbar officials 
wished to make his brother, Rajya-prakasa, king, he ex- 
pelled him from the durbar during the time of mourning 
for his father. Rajya-prakasa then went to live at .Patan, 
where the Raja, Vishnu Malla, treated him well, and 
said that, being childless, he would adopt him as his 

The Tharis (Durbar officials), being offended by the 
Raja not allowing them a near approach to his person, 
took Narendra-prakasa to Deva-patan, and made him 
king over five villages, viz. Sankhu, Changu, Gokarna, 
Nandi-gram and Deva-patan. After four months, Jaya- 
prakasa deposed him, and he took refuge at Bhatgaon, 
where shortly afterwards he died. 

Jaya-prakasa imprisoned some of the mischief-making 
Tharis and restored order to his kingdom. The Tharis 
however gained over to their party the Ram Dayavatl, 

1 Lauds given a* gifts to temple 4 . 

224 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

and proclaiming her infant son., only 18 months old, as 
king, they obliged Jaya-prakasa to flee from the durbar. 
The Raja first went to Mata-tirtha, but bemg driven out 
from there after eight months by six Pradhans (state 
officials) of. Lalit-patan, who had espoused the cause of 
Kani Dayavati, he went to God&varL He was expelled 
thence also, and took refuge at Gokarneswara ; but being 
obliged to leave that place too, he went to Guhjeswarl, 
where a devotee^ gave him a khadga or sword. After 
two years and six months had been spent in exile, he was 
one day worshipping at* Guhjeswarl, when a fish, an offer- 
ing to the goddess, came into his hand 1 . He accepted 
this as a good omen, and mounting his horse Khurasan, 
with his sword in his hand, he met the troops from 
Kantipur and defeated them. He killed a great many of 
them, and returned to his durbar m Kantipur. Here he 
took up in his arms his infant son Jyoti-prakasa, and put 
to death those who had made him king. Some of the 
Kajls took poison to escape punishment, and Dayavati 
Kani hanged the Kajl who had been the chief instigator 
of the rebellion. She herself, however, was shortly made 
to end her life in imprisonment at Lakshmi-pur (one of 
the choks in the durbar). 

Jaya-prakasa, having disposed of his enemies, and 
confiscated their property, assembled a court of good men 
and Brahmans He now invaded Woakot, and Prithma- 
rayana was obliged to return to his own country, leaving 
Noakot in the Raja's hands. Eight years after this, the 
Raja was informed that Kasiram Thapa had promised the 

1 At Grub] cs war! theie is a small well, with eight lotus leaves of silver around it, 
and three kalasas of gold, silver and cry&tal When a man has woi shipped, ho 
takes Tjp a i<:alas, and pnts his hand into the 'well to clmw water > and if any 
of the things that have been ofiered come into his hand, it i& regaided as a good 


Goikhali Itilja to get possession of Noakot for liim The 
Raj a therefore summoned him on some pretext, while he 
was perfoimmg sandhya at Gaml-ghat, and put him to 
death at Chabahll, m spite of the Thapii's protestations 
of innocence The Raja said that Thapas Budhathoki, 
Bist, Bagli and Basnyat were his enemies, because they 
had said to his father that they would not take him, 
Jaya-piakfisa, as king 

Prithwmaifvyana, having heard of the death of Kasl- 
ram, came to Noakot, and took possession of the lands of 
thnty-two Tirhutiya Biahmans, who fled to Nepal From 
that day Jaya-piakasa's fortune began to decline. He 
ought not to have put Kasliam Thapa to death 

He now heaid that the six Pradhans of Laht-patan 
had deprived his brothei of his eyesight, and having got 
them into his power he impiisoned them They weie 
taken lound the city, and were made to beg a handful of 
churci 1 from every shop for then food Their wives 
came to see them and bi ought food to thorn, but the 
Raja caused them to be dressed as witches, and aftei 
making them go round the city with then husbands, and 
treating them very ignominiously, he let them go These 
Pradhans after their release endeavoured to detlnone 
Jaya-prakasa The Gorkhali Raja was very glad to hear 
of all these events 

The B,aja, m return for the favour which he had 
received from Guhjeswail, built the Guhjeswail ghat and 
the houses around the temple He turned the course of 
the Bagmati, which foimerly ran northwards at that 
place, He also assigned lands for the expenses of the 
daily cirati 2 , and for keeping a lamp constantly burning 

1 Rice partly boiled and then pounded flat and di led 

2 Five wicka lighted m a vessel, ■which is turned lound hefoie a shrine 



dining tlio two Navaiatns every year (i e , nine days and 
njohts fioui the fhsfc of Kufn Sudi and Chart Sudi) He 
established the custom of feeding people in the Guhjes- 
warl jatia, mtioduced by hiss fathex At Pashupati-natha 
he built a high platform, and canned Koti-pfuthiva-pQja 
to be peifoimed 1 . He caused 21 dharas to be made at 
Bala or Lhuti-kot (Balaji), and appointed pnests there, 
the water haying been ascei tamed to come from GandakI 2 
He caused numerous Saligramas to be brought ftom Kali 
GandakI and placed m the temple of Pashupati-natha 
and Basnki. From this time Saligramas became known 
m Nepal 

The ornaments of Guhjeswarl were stolen, and Kail 
Gangadhai-jha traced the thief and recovered the pro- 
perty, Ilaja P^anjlt Malla (of Blia.tgH.on), being actuated 
by envy, sent some Bhotrya thieves, who enteied the 
temple of Guhjeswail, broke the large bell, upset the 
Bhairava, and took away the Mula-kalasa , but no sooner 
had they clone this than they were struck blind, and were 
obliged to tbuow away the kalasa and make their escape 
It was found six months afterwards and restored to its 

There was a Kaji of Lahtpur, who once said that he 
would never permit himself to be impiisoned by Jaya- 
prakasa The Ilaja heard of this, and having got hold 
of hum by means of a Guru, named Devananda-bhajti, 
he put him in prison, where he died The Goikhali Baja 
was glad to hear of all these things 

At this time Pnthwinaiayana Sfih attacked Kirtipm 
with a large force His mam camp was at Naikup** 

1 One cxoio of emblems of Sna aie mailo of clay and woifelnnped m tins pfijl 
a The watei come, from seveiol spnugs at the foot of the Kaglijun moun- 
tain This ib wlieie tlic fish -tanks now aie 

' Theiouk-v iange on winch Kiitipm and Cluuhulril -.taivl 


The ISTepalese Kajis, noblemen, and sardars wore armour 
In the battle the troops of Deva-patan, being encouraged 
by their local goddess Jayabageswari, struck the first 
blow On the Gorkha side, Surpratap lost one of his 
eyes, and Kalu Panre was killed. The battle lasted for 
twelve ^gharia (nearly five hours), and both sides lost many 
men. On the Nepalese side twelve thousand sepoys, 
brought from the plains of India by Saktiballabh Sardar, 
were killed. Maharaj Prithwmarayana Sah was in a 
dola (palanquin), and a sepoy raised his khoda to cut 
him down, but his hand was held by another, who ex- 
claimed that he was a Eaja and not to be killed A 
Duan and a Kasai then carried the R,aja in one night to 
Noakot. The Raja praised the Duan and said Syabas 
put ("Well done, my son"), and from that day the people 
of his caste came to be called Putwar and had access to 
the king's person. 

Jaya-prakasa now thought that the Goikhalis were 
annihilated, and made great rejoicings. In this way the 
Nepalese repulsed the attacks of the Gorkhalis for 
eighteen years. 

At this time the Eaja had put a stop to the yearly 
stonethrowmg at Kankeswari , but having heard a great 
noise at midnight, he was obliged to allow the custom to 
be continued. He budt a house in Kantrpur for the 
Kumaris to hve in, which was constructed according to 
bastu-chakra, and instituted their rath-jatra. 

After some time Sitala, the goddess of small-pox, to 
bring rum on Nepal, entered Mohan-chok, and Jyoti- 
prakasa, the son of the Raja, died of that disease The 
Raja took the dead body with great pomp to the Raj- 
ghat at Pashupati and burned it 

The four Tharls, bemg jealous of the Tirhutiya Biah- 


228 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap. 

mans, went ovei to Prithwinarayana, and surrendered to 
the Gorkhalis some places which were in the jurisdiction 
of Nepal. 

Banjit Malla, the Raja of Bhatgaon, was glad that 
Jaya-prakasa had become childless and would soon be 
ruined. He now detained some people of Kathmanddn 
who had gone to see the Biskyat-jatrii, on the pretext 
that they were too proud of their dress 3 but released 
them again, when threatened by Jaya-prakasa. Jaya- 
prakasa, out of revenge, confined for six months, in the 
kot at Deva-pfvtan, some people from the other side of 
the Manohara, who had come to perform the ceremony 
of scatteiing grain at Pashupati, and only released 
them after they had paid heavy ransoms. He took into 
his service Naga sepoys to fight against the Gorkhalis, 
and foi the support of these he took away the jalhari of 
Pashupati-natha, which had been given by Vishnu Malla, 
the Kaja of Laht-patan. This not being sufficient, he 
got information from one Malebhata-dhanju of Deva- 
patan, and took away the treasure of Pashupati-natha 
and also that of Jayabageswari. He even took away the 
gajuras of the temples to support the sepoys, vowing at 
the same time that he would repay double of what he 
took, if he wei e successful against his enemy. 

He repaired the foundation of Taleju, and the cere- 
mony of consecration was performed with great pomp 
and rejoicing Images of Bhimasena and others were 
placed in the temple amidst grand musical performances 
and dances. 

He also renewed the principal timber of the Swa- 
yambhu mound. The following inscription on a stone 
contains an account of what was done 1 . 

1 A copy of tins inscription 13 m the University Library of Cambridge 


" Obeisance to Triratna, the protector of all Satwas * 
also obeisance to all Buddhas and Bodhiaatwas f Obei- 
sance to the lotos of the never-dying Sadguru, whose 
protection I ever seek ' This Sadguru, m order that 
prosperity and happiness may attend the gods and man- 
kind, has appeared m the Swayambhu Chaitya in Nepal, 
which is always surrounded by crowds of people, and 
lighted by the jewels which shine on the heads of 
Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara, Indra, and other gods and 
lokpals, who in constantly bowing and laising their 
heads spread variegated light around He is born the 
never-dying jewel to leward the merits of mankind. He 
exempts from the wheel of the world (1 e , from being 
born again) those who bow to him with sincerity. He 
is the noose by winch are successfully drawn the three 
sorts of Bodhi-gyan, namely, Siavaka-yana, Pratyeka- 
yana, and Maha-yana. He fulfils the desire of every 
one, like the Bhadra-kalasa. He is the ocean of good 
qualities and the sjjarsa-mani of Jambu-dwipa The great 
Swayambhu Chaitya, possessing such attributes, having 
been rendered uninhabitable by the sm of the Kali Yuga, 
requires to be repaired To repair it, Karmapa Lama, 
the most talented, the jewel of men of arts and sciences, 
having a mind as clear and enlightened as the sun and 
moon, came from the north, in order to give happiness 
to the king, kajisand people; and in N. S 871 (a d. 1751), 
in the year (of the Jupiter-cycle) named Prajapati, by 
the Bhotiyas Keda, and by the Chinese Simu-u, he com- 
menced the work, on an auspicious day, at a place 
between the Himalaya and Bmdhyachala mountains At 
the moment that the repairs were begun, Mahadeva, 
Ganapati, and Kumar appeared in their true foxms, and 
said that the charge of procuring the gold and othei 


things requisite for the work belonged to them, and 
that they would provide them. Vishnu, in the form 
of a Brahman, came and described the kind of beam 
which would be required. Through the interest taken 
in its completion by such great gods, Sri Sri Jaya- 
prakasa promised to carry out the repairs, and the 'Raj a 
of Gorkha, Sri Sri Sri Prithwmarayana promised to have 
the large beam dragged to its place. A war having 
broken out between the Mayurato country and Lahor, 
and it being necessary to conclude a treaty between Bhot 
and Nepal, the Lama was obliged to return to his own 
country. On arriving at Keron,. he said that he would 
not be able to return to Nepal, but that one of the five 
Karmapa Lamas would come in. his place and be as good 
as himself. If this could not be arranged, a disciple of 
his would come, whom the people should trust, and 
through him complete the repairs. He then returned to 
Bhot. Then came Brug-pa-thyang-chikhyempa, the om- 
niscient, the disciple of the former Lama, who, assisted 
by Sakya Bhikshu and Sasanadhara,. completed the repairs 
according to the directions of Karmapa Lama, suffering 
great hardships It was completed in 1ST S. 878 (a d 
1758), and was consecrated by Brug-pa-thyang-chikhyem- 
pa and Bir-ratna Lamas. 

Account of Expenditure. 
1,382 dharnis of copper 

2,045 tolas of goJd. The whole gold expended on 
it was 3,344 tolas and ten mashas. 
Sahi rupees 4,775. 

1 dharni, 1 seer, and 2 paos of silver. 

2 dharnis of pure copper 
14,106 charit mohars 


If all the khatas, kochm (kinds of silk), tea, ghl, salt, 
oil, and flesh, be taken into account, the total cost comes 
to 43,639 rupees, besides G7 horses and 21 pieces of 
kochrn. The musk used m applying to the deity was 
worth 1,000 rupees 

May the temple extend its protection to every living 
creature ! 

The inscription on this stone was formerly cut on 
another one, but Kaimfipa Lama, coming 011 a pilgrimage 
to Akshobhya Buddha at Swayamhku, saw the stone 
broken, and took it to Bhot, and this one is a copy of the 
former one. May the king, kajis, and every living ciea- 
tuie of this country obtain salvation, and be endowed 
with the title of Samyak Buddha by being absoibed into 
the Sri Sri Sri Bajradhara-bajrasatwa-sachchit-buddha." 

In K S 887 (a. d. 1767) there were 21 shocks of 
earthquake felt in twenty-four hours, on the 1st of 
Asarh Sudi, 

Prithwinarayana, when a youth, had obtained the pra- 
sada of Kumarl at Bhatgaon, and this helped his fortunes 
He was also called by Pashupati-natha, and came with 
his troops and visited the temple. He assigned a guthi 
to Pashupati-natha for the Panchamrita for bathing the 
images 1 . It was not the custom to bathe with Panch- 
amrita previously to this time This was the only 
religious endowment made by Prithwinarayana to the 
temple of Pashupati-natha. 

Eight months after this, on the 14th of Bhadon Sadi, 
N S. 888 (a d 1768), Prithwinarayana enteied Kantipnr 
with his troops Jaya-praklisa sat in the Talejn temple, 
and his tioops fought for an hour or two 2 At last he 

1 A mixture of cows' milk, cuid, glu, feuqnr and honey 

1 The tioopu and moat of tho people wexe drunk, .u 1^ the custom u,t tin- Indui 
j.ltia festival 

2$ 2 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap vi ] 

spread gunpowder on tlic steps of the temple, and fled 
to Lahtpur, and taking the Ilaja of that place, Tej- 
Narsinha, with him, he took refuge at Bhatgaon. The 
Gorkhalis entered the durbar, and went to the temple 
of Taleju, -where Tularam Panre "was killed by the ex- 
plosion of the gunpowder, and a number of the troops 
along with him. 

Prithwinarayana Sah obtained prasacta of Kumari on 
the 14th of Bhadon Sudi, and by his order the Jatra 
was continued. 

After two or thiee days, the six Pradhans of Pahtpur 
came to invite the Gorkhali Haja to their tow r n The 
Haja knew them to be traitors, and therefore told them 
m pleasant words to wait for him. the next day at 
Tekhu-dobhan. One of the Pradhans, having guessed 
the fate awaiting them, gave everything he possessed 
In charity during that one night. The next day Prithwi- 
narayana -went to the river side, and caused the Pradhans 
to be bound. One of them, shouted like a lion and 
escaped, though he was hotly pursued. He afterwaids 
went to TCasi. The others -were put to death, and their 
wives became satis. The Paja obtained possession of 
Lahtpur, and confiscated the property of the Pradhans 
who had been put to death ; but he confirmed the acts 
of charity performed by one of them on the night before 
their capture The Raja now lived and ruled quietly. 


Histoiy of tlie kings of Patau, in paifcicular of Itaja Sulcllii-Nar&ziilia. 

Taking of Patau by tlie Goiklias 

1. HATtmARA-siNHA M all A went to rule over Patau 
In the lifetime of his father Siva-sinha. He brought the 
linage of Dhantalo "Varahl to Lahtpur by floating her 
down the BagmatJ. He also obtained the favour of 
Panchalinga Bhairava, through the influence of which 
he became king. He had a son named Siddhi-Narsmha., 
for whose welfare he dedicated a village named Bhulu, 
and caused the fact to be inscribed on a copper plate. 

2. Siddhi-Narsmha Malla. 

This Rfya was very wise., because he was conceived 
whilst his father, in accordance with the advice of his 
Klajis, lived at Pashupati to the south of his temple ; and 
le was born at an auspicious moment. 

In N S 740 (a.d 1G20) he enlarged the diubrti of 
liahtpur. On the 10th of Jeth Sudi he couseciated 
in image of Talcju, by the advice of Biswanathopadhyaya, 
vliom he made his Guru He induced many merchants 
o reside m the town. One night he saw Ivadha-Kuslma 
n a dieam m front of the dm bar, and on that spot he 
>uilt a beautiful temple, and placed the deity m it. On 

234 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [ch\i> 

Thursday, the I Oth of Phagun Sudi> Punarbasu naksha- 
tra, Ayusman yog, N S. 757 (ad 1(>37), ho performed 
a kotyakuti-yagya, and conscci sited this temple. There 
was a biliar, named Hatkd Bihai, built by Lakshml- 
kamadeva-baiimi, near the Mula-chdk of the duibar. 
Tins bdiar &iddhi-Narsmha caused to be pulled down 
and rebuilt near Ga-ubalml He placed an image of 
Siddlu-Ganesha and one of Naismlia at the corner, and 
extended the duibar over the ground thus obtained 1 . 
Seeing that there were not cnipenteis enough m the 
town, he made Bandyas take up the trade, and assigned 
guthis to the ISTaikyas, to give them a feast on a certain 
day of every year 

In this reign the following bikars existed ■ 

Jyeshthabarn Tan gal, built by Bfdarchanadeva. 

Uharmakirti Tava, built by Bhuvanakar-barma. 

Mayuiabarn Viwlmuksha, built by Shankaiadeva 

Vaishnavabarn, budt by Baisdeva-barma. 

Onkuli Rudrabarn, built by Sivadeva-barma 

Hakwa, budt by Lakshmi-Kalyfai-barma. 

Hiranyabarn, built by BhlLskaradeva-baima. 

J^sodhaia-buya, built by Bidyadhara-baima 

Cbakra, built by Mandova-barma. 

Sakwa, built by Indradeva. 

Oatta, budt by Rudradeva-garga. 

Yanchhu, budt by Baladhaia-gupta 
Among these the following five, namely Vishnuksha, 
Onkuli, Gw&kshe (or Chakra), Sakwa, and Yanchhu, had 
one chief Naikya, who was the oldest among the five 
head Bauddha-margis of the bihars. The rest, namely 
Tangal, Tava, Vaishnavabarn, Hakwa, Hiranyabarn, Jaso- 

1 These buildings and images are j,tiii landing at the Patau durbar 


dhara and Datta, had each a separate Naikya, or chief 
Bauddha-margL The rank of Naikya was conferred on the 
oldest Bauddha-margis, and they were called Tathagats. 

Three bihars, namely Wambaha, Jyobvkh.ii, and Dhum- 
baha, were established in this reign. 

The Baja called the Naikyas of all these bihars before 
him, and ordered them to establish the custom of Thapa- 
twaya-guthi 1 . 

The Raja gave a place called Ngaka-chok, in the 
district of Hiranyabarn, to a Tantnka of that ]:»lace who 
had defeated some jugglers. 

He called together the men of these fifteen bihars to 
make rules for their guidance, and directed that the 
order of their precedence should be fixed according to 
the order m which tliey arrived. The people of Dhum- 
bahal came first 2 , but they were given only the third 
place. Those of Tangal remained first, and those of 
Tava second, on account of the antiquity of their bihars. 
To the rest precedence was given according to the order 
in which they presented themselves 

Because Chaubahal and Kirtipur were under the 
jurisdiction of Lalitpur, the bihars of those places weie 
amalgamated with the fifteen bihars of Lalitpur 

Another bihar named Sibahal was not amalgamated 
with these, because it was built after the rules had been 
made by the Raja for their guidance, and guthis had been 
assigned to them. 

There were several old bihars standing empty, which 
had existed before the founding of Lalitpur, having been 

1 A feafct at which tho Bau&dha maigls of the bihitis assemble and choose then 
Nailn as 

2 13ihn,i and B filial or B.ihn, aia names used intliSerontly for the pamo thing 
A is bimply a largo hquaie house, built lound an open eomt, and containing 
a shrnie or shrmos, as the case may be 

236 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

built by nirbanik bilnaprastha bhikshus, who, after en- 
tering on the grihastha life, bad removed to other places 
Siddhi-Narsmha gave these to other bhikshus to live 
in. These new bhikshus did not perform horn when 
one of their family died. They began to have families, 
but still they did not perform this ceremony; although 
they performed other ceremonies just like grihasthas 
Siddhi-Narsinha decided that, as they lived like gri- 
hasthas, whose houses remain impure after a death 
without the horn ceremony, they must perform this 

The Yampi Bihar, built by Sunayasri Misra was 
nirbanik (z e , the inhabitants did not marry) , and as 
a grihastha Acharya is reouned for performing the 
horn, the Raja decided that one of the people from 
Dhum Bihar should act as a priest to perform the horn 
in this bihar. 

The Raja next found that there were altogether 
twenty -five nirbanik bihars in the places under the 
jurisdiction of Lalitpur (viz,, Chaubahal, Bogmati and 
Clia.paga.on) , and in order to make rules for their guid- 
ance, he summoned all their bhikshus They did not, 
however, all come The bhikshus of only fifteen bihars 
came, namely of those lying on the left hand side of the 
route taken by Machehhmdia-natha's rath duimg his 
ratlrjatia, and those to whom the Raj it had given empty 
bihais to live m 

He made a rule that the five oldest among their 
bhikshus should be Naikyas, and should be called the 
Panck-buddhas, and he assigned a guthl for their main- 
tenance He made rules for electing their Naikyas or 
headmen, and for peifimnmg the ceremonies after a 
leath He also ruled that the son of the oldest Nfukyfi 


Blukshu should have the charge of the worship of the 
deities of all the bihars , and he put a stop to the old 
custom, by which the worship was pei formed by the 
head bhikshu of each bihar If this worshipper be- 
came one of the Panch-buddhas, then his son succeeded 
him m the performance of the worship 

He also amalgamated those fifteen bihars with the 
fifteen mentioned befoie 

Afterwards he made separate rules for the remaining 
ten bihars, which lay to the righthand of the route 
taken by Machchhlndra-natha's rath, and appointed 
headmen foi them 

The people of Lalitpur, as they could not worship 
such a number of bhikshus, worshipped only two, namely, 
the oldest among the bhikshus of all the bihars standing 
at the top of the public road, and the oldest of those 
standing at the foot of it 1 

The banaprastha bihars were called by some bahi, 
i e. outside, because the banaprastha bhikshus did not 
live m cities, but m forests 

Bhima Malla, a kaji of Lakskmi-Narsmha Raja (of 
Kantipur), having established thirty-two shops in Lhasa, 
Kuti, etc , and having made a treaty with the ruler of 
Bhot, the merchants of Lalitpur also began to go 
to trade there Siddhi-Narsmha decided that the 
ceremony of purification of those who returned from 
Bhot should be superintended by the five old Naikyas 
of Tava, Hakwa, Bu, Yam, and Yishnuksha bihars , but 
that the fees should go to the B.aja. After undergoing 
this purification, the travellers were readmitted into 

1 Tins is very obscure — not to say nonsensical The Pandit explains at to 
mean that one of these is the oldest of the bhikshus of the fifteen Dinars first 
mentioned, and the other the oldest of the hhikshus. of the other ten bihus 

2 38 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap 

their caste If one of the five Naikyas died during the 
ceremony, his successor had to give a feast, and undergo 
the usual ceremony for becoming a Naikya, befoie he 
could be admitted as one of them. This is called the 

Siddln-Narsmha made many other rules, and peopled 
the town, which contained 24,000 houses, but had be- 
come depopulated He made a dhara and a tank in 
Bhandarkhal 1 , m N. S 767 (a.d. 1647) On the 2nd 
o£ Jeth Badi in the same year, he put a golden roof on 
the Degutale, and on that occasion he feasted a number 
of Brahmans, and gave them each a mohar On the 
5th of Baisakh Badi m the same year, he consecrated 
the dhfua. within the durbar On this occasion also he 
feasted Biahmans and gave each a mohar In N, S 
768 (a d 1648), on the 8th of Bhadon Badi, a Rani of 
Raja Pratapa Malla died, and was burned according to 
custom , but Siddhi-Narsinha did not go into mourning, 
and celebrated the Dasain as usual. On the ninth day of 
the Dasaln he went to Hatko Bahal to fetch the Kumaris, 
but he could not do so, as Maheswari was crying 2 . 
Eight days after this, on the 1st of Aswin Badi, 
BhanumatT, the wife of Siddhi-Narsinha, died at mid- 
night on Friday, and on Saturday morning her body 
was taken on a jpalang z t as usual, to the burning-ghat 
and was burned No one was allowed to perform the 
Aragmata-dipa-dan 4 . The mourning was continued for 

1 A court in the durbar 

3 Little girls are selected to represent the vaiioue Kumaris at this festival, 
and are earned m the procession 

3 A peculiar litter used by the Newars for cairying the dead bodies of great 
people Common people are wrapped m a sheet, tied neck and heels to a pole, and 
bo carried to the ghat 

4 A light m a lantern hung upon a tall bamboo and kept burning all night 
during Kartik 


three fortnights. The Aragmata-dipa~dan was therefore 
commenced on Sukkaratii, or the 1st of Kartik Sudi, 
instead of Badi The Raja, only allowed musical instru- 
ments to be sounded, and no worship was performed 
at Yatyado-mandal, Balambu, Ratrl-mandal, Thasiwan, 
Masanado, Plthi, Jatlan, Phatase-mandal, Thanthachhe- 
maju, and Dhanmunisi, The Dasain was not celebiated 
this year. 

In 1ST. S 769 (a.d 16A9) he made a Bhugol-mandap 1 
in Bhandarkhal, representing the celestial bodies In 
the same year, on the 9th of Pus Sudi, he gave each 
Newar Brahman, and after them each man having the 
right of entrance to the Panchlmga Bhairava, ninety 
pathls of rice and two kurwas of glii. To every beggar 
who came from the hills, Kantiprir, Bhaktapur^ and the 
plains of India, he gave twenty pathls of rice and two 
paos of ghi The rice thus given m charity amounted 
to 30,505 pathls. On the Makar Sankranti, which fell 
on the 10th of Pus Badi, he gave the eighteen purans 
fco Janakmath Chakravarti 2 , who lived at Bahalukha 
In N S. 769 (a.d 1649) he gave some land to the 
gardener of Bhandarkhal. 

On the 3rd of Sawan Sukla, N S. 769, Sri Jaya 
Mangala-devi Thakuni of Thantho-bahal died 

In this year Gopi of Ikhachhe, Dam Bandya of Slako- 
bahal, and Madhava Chitrakar of Kothosatigla, prepared 
to make a Banra-jatra ; but, as the Raja did not allow 
them to bring the deity, they made no rejoicing, but 
only gave the alms The Raja did not go to the jatra 

On the 12th of Magh Krishn, N.S. 772, Siddhi-Nai- 
3inha relinquished worldly affairs, and went on a pilgrim- 

1 A temple with caived wooden images placed round the roof 
1 A Bengali, not a Nepnlese name 


ao-e. On tlie Gtli of Aswin Sudi, m the same year, Sri Sri 
Jaya Sri Jyoti Narsmha Malla died His wife Ham 
Chhatramati became a sati, and a slave girl also im- 
molated heiself. The roads to Kantipur and Bhatgaon 
bemg closed,, on account of enmity, the body was taken 
to Khola to be burned 1 

Tins year the Dasam was not publicly celebrated, but 
the Hajfi and priests only performed the ceremonies. 
The deity was not even bi ought down, and no buffaloes 
were sacrificed The god of Madichhe (a part of the Dur- 
bai) was bi ought down stairs, and the god of Thanchhe- 
mandal had a buffalo sacrificed to him, but the head of 
the buffalo was not made to dance 2 . No musical in- 
struments were played on, and the Bisarjan, or bidding 
adieu to the goddess, was done privately. The Prastha- 
pana was only made to go seven paces, and the deity was 
not taken outside. 

In N. S 774 (a d. 1654) the roof of Yappa Pitha was 
carried away by a storm, and the fire, with which a dead 
body was being burned at the time, fell on the Pitha, 
and the (sacred) stone cracked In N S 774:, on 
the 1st of Chait Badi, the painters of Bhatgaon did 
not come to the Snan-jatra of Machchhindra-natha 3 ; 
the image was taken out by Gangaram of Kobahal and 
two others, and the deity was bathed by two instead 
of four persons. The jatra commenced, but the rath 
stopped after advancing a bowshot The next day the 
same thing occurred On the sixth day the rath reached 
Gwalti-chok, The next day the wheels again stuck in 

1 A small stream south of Patan, falling into the Bagmati just above Chaubahal 
On this stream the new cannon manufactory and workshops are built 

3 After sacrificing the buffalo, a man cuts off the head and dances with it 
before the shrine 

3 It was their duty to take out the image for bathing 


the ground , and the following day the rath did not 
reach Ekaltyagal, for in Satyavagal it jumped and the 
front broke. The next day it was repaired and dragged 
to Ekaltyagal This day the rath was moved in the 
afternoon, and it got as far as De vagal in Evala, On 
the 1st of Baisakh Sudi it reached Punkhel The next 
day it got to Purchok-jhangra, and the jatra of Gaoba- 
hal was held. The next day the wheels stuck at Maha- 
pal, and the rath did not reach Nogal , therefore the 
Nogal-jatra was held on the next day, the 4 th of 
Baisakh. On the full-moon the Lagan-jatia did not take 
place. Next day the rath arrived and stbpped at 
Thanti. After this it reached Jyabal m twelve days, 
on the 1st of Jeth Sudi On the 4th of Jeth Sudi 
the rath moved, but, before reaching Lisochak, the 
right wheel stuck in the earth, and the next day the 
other broke. The following day the rath was repaired, 
but the two wheels broke immediately on its being put 
in motion. The day after it remained at Yepakulo, and 
the next day it crossed Nikhu Khola, but the right wheel 
stuck m the earth. The next day the shaft broke, and 
the next day the rath stopped at Ukfdomani, ^here 
it stayed for twelve days without moving After this 
the image was taken out of the rath, put into a 
khat 1 , and conveyed back to its own place This year 
Jideva Nayak and Amrit Smhadeva Nayak were the 
priests of Machchhindra-natha This year perspiration 
was seen constantly on the face of Charpot Ganesha for 
fifteen days, commencing from the 4th of Jeth 8udi 
On the 8th a santi was made by horn, and animals were 
sacrificed, to avert the -misfoi tunes which this foreboded 
In N. S. 776 (a r> 1656) Siddhi-Narsmha assigned 

1 A wooden slinne earned 00 men's shoulders 

w \ v 10 


lands to the gardener of the Bhandarkhal, and he then 
consecrated a Garud Nar&yana. Formerly, in Hapatal 1 , 
no house was allowed to be built higher than the rath 
of Machchhmdra-natha, but Siddhi-Narsinha built a 
very high temple, which he called Tava-gol This Raja 
was a great devotee of Sri Krishna, He used to regu- 
late his diet by increasing it daily by one handful of rice 
until it amounted to one pathi , and then he decreased 
it daily by a handful till it came down again to a single 
handful. He slept on a stone couch, and passed his days 
in prayer and worship. 

In 1ST. S 776, early in the morning of the 15th of 
!Phagun Badi, the gajura of the temple of Bug-devata 
in'Tava-bahal was struck by lightning, and the flag fell 
down. This year, during the rath-jatra of Bug-devata, 
at the time when the rath reached, the cross roads at 
Mahapal, a child, whose pashni 2 had just taken place, 
came and sat on the rath, and the devata taking pos- 
session of him, he spoke thus, " Come, Raja Siddhi-Nar- 
sinha I I am not at all pleased at thy building this high 
temple." Siddhi-Narsinha, however, did not come, and 
the devata disappeared, exclaiming, "I will never come 
to speak any more " 

In 1ST. S. 777 (a d 1657) Siddhi-Narsinha became a 
fakir and went away. 

" Siddhi-Narsmha, the omniscient, the jivan-mukta 
(having obtained salvation while still on earth), the 
chaste, the favourite of Krishna, the master of Yocra, the 
chief of poets, the relinquisher of the woild, the son 
of Hari-smha He who lepeats this slok will be ab- 

1 Part of Patan, in. tlie vicinity of the durbar 

3 Tlie ceremony of feeding a child with rice for the first time, which takes place 
when it xb between six and eight months old 



solved from sin." The Brahmans composed this slok 
because he was a jiyan-mukta 

3. Sri-nivasa Malla succeeded him. 

On the 12th of Jeth Sudi, N. S. 777, which was the 
day on which the rath of Machchhmdra-natha ought to 
arrive at Jyabal, great exertions were made to drag it 
to that place, and it got there late in the evening. The 
following day the rath moved of itself. Again, on the 
next day, while the priests were taking their food, the 
rath moved of itself. Lungsmha Yangwal saw this. In 
carrying the rath across the Bagmati, the shaft of Mina- 
natha's rath sunk so low that it touched the ground. 
On taking the image of Machchhmdra-natha back to 
Bugmati, it was found that the Nag-mani (jewel) in his 
coat was missing. In the kundal (ear-ornament) one of 
the feet of the horse harnessed to the car of the sun 
was wanting. The Garud in the coat and the parrot 
had also both lost their bills. Such ill omens had never 
been heard of before. This happened in the reign of 
Sri Sri Jaya Sri-nivasa Malla Thakur Raja, when Bimal- 
sinba and Dlpankar were the priests. Niva-surya Bandya 
of Itilanhe reported to the Raja that Bup-sinha Bandya 
of Ilayanhe had seen the grandson of Mal-sinha bring 
the missing jewel to Haku Bandya, to get it mounted 
in a ring, and that he had had it in his own hands. 
The Ifcaja, however, went to visit Machchhmdra-natha 
on the 14th of Jeth Krishna, on which day the priests 
are relieved by others, who take over charge of the 
ornaments, etc , and he found that the ruby was lying 
in one of the folds of the coat. He had it mounted with 
twelve diamonds round it, and presented it to the deity. 
He punished Rup-smha Bandya by confiscating all his 
property, and Niva-surya Bandya by confiscating all his 



property outside of Lis house, for making a false accusa- 

On the 6th of Sawan, N. S. 778 (a d. 1658), Bhatgaon 
and Lahtpur fought against Kantipur, and the road to 
Bhatgaon was thrown open. On the next day Sri-nivasa 
and Pratapa Malla took an oath upon the Haribansa, the 
Kali-purana (two sacred books), and a khukri (knife), and 
the road between Lalitpur and Kantipur was thrown 
open. On the 10th, the troops of Kantipur and Lalitpur 
went together to fight with the people of Nala, and, after 
eight days, communication with Inayaka was restored, 
after which all the roads were thrown open. 

On the 14th of Pus Sudi, K S. 780 (a d 1660), Jagat- 
prakasa Malla, Kaja of Bhatgaon, set fire to a small 
military outpost at the foot of Changu, beheaded eight 
men, and carried off twenty-one. Next morning, the 
daughter of Pratapa Malla went to Patan On the fol* 
lowing day, the twenty-one men, who had been carried 
away, were beheaded as sacrifices to deities. On the 
5th or 6th of Aswin, N S. 780, Pratapa Malla and 
Sri~nivasa conquered Bundegram, in the time of Chautara 
Pramanbirju. After this, they took a military outpost 
at Champa, on the 4th of Kartik Sudi, N. S. 781 (a d. 
1661). On the next day they took Chorpuri, and on 
the 10th of Aghan Badi they accepted an elephant and 
money from Bhatgaon. 

On the 3rd of Aghan Badi, N S 782 (ad 1662), 
Sri-nivasa Malla went to live at Bodegaon Seven days 
after, he took Nakdesgaon, and gave it up to be plun- 
dered. On the 10th of Magh Sudi, he took Themi , and 
on the 11th of the same month Pratapa Malla and 
Sri-nivasa returned to their respective capitals. 

In N. S. 783 (A D 1663^ SrT-rnvaRa rp-n»irt»H anH 


raised to three stories in height, the temple of Degutale 
in the Patan durbar. In N. S. 787 (a.d 1667), he built 
a three-storied temple at the top of the southern side of 
the Mula Chok, and placed an Agama devata m it. 
As he was sitting one night at a window on the eastern 
side of the durbar, he saw that the Asta-matrika-ganas 1 
entered the durbar and, after dancing, vanished again. 
The Raja was pleased, and calling into his presence the 
Bauddhacharyas of Buya Bihar, Nakbahd Tol, and Onkuli 
Bihar, he ordered them by turns to worship the Asta- 
matnkas in their houses during the Aswin Navaratri, 
and to bring them to dance at the durbar. The cost 
was to be defrayed by the durbar. This custom is 
observed to the present day. He built a three-storied 
temple of Degutale to the north of the Mula Chok, and 
also a hon>kuti, or room in which to perform horn. He 
also raised the temple of Sarbeswara to five stories in 
height, and repaired the tank and the kund (well). In 
this kund a duck was once lost and could not be found; 
but the owner, happening to go to Gosain Than, found 
it there ; and so, from that time, it became known that 
this kund was filled with water from that holy place. 
On the night of the full-moon o£ Sawan people place 
Sarbeswara in the kund, and those who cannot go to 
Gosain Than, bathe in this kund instead, and worship 

In this reign, in N. S. 793 (a.d. 1673), one Satyaram 
Bharo of Tangal Tol repaired the chaitya and the bathing- 
place in front of Mlna-natha. 

Sri-nivasa extended the period of dancing in the month 
of Kartik, established by his father Siddhi-Narsinha, 

1 BrShm&ni, Maheswarl, Vaishnavl, Kaumsri, Varahl, IndrRni. Chamtmaa, and 
Mahal akshtai 


from fifteen to twenty-five days. His minister Bha- 
girath Bhaiya, and his brother Bhagi Bharo, built the 
three-storied temple of Mahadeva in front of the durbar , 
and also the Lamu Pati (dharmasala) called in Newari 
Tahaphale, in 1ST. S. 798 (1678). 

In N S. 801 (ad 1681) the Raja built the great 
temple of Bhimasena. He repaired the temple of Mach- 
chhindra-natha in Ta,u Bahal, and made some more 
rules for the rath-jatra, which he inscribed on a stone, 
that he caused to be placed m the temple, at the spot 
whither the deity is brought after he has been concealed 
for four days. He made his son Yoga-narendra Malla 
and Kaji Bhagirath Bhaiya witnesses to this inscription 
He also placed his statue, made of gold, on a stone 
pedestal, to be exhibited in jatras. 

In this reign, in N. S 821 (a.d. 1701), Uddhava 
Sinha Babu, of Nogalbhont, repaired the Sun-dhara, 
in the name of his mother Phiku-lakshmi. This is 
written on a stone placed to the left of the dhara 1 
This dhara was built m the following manner. A 
dhara was made by a man of Satgal Tol, but it was 
much below the level of the ground, and people had a 
long way to descend to it. When it was finished, the 
man gave a feast to his friends, and one of the paity, 
when praising the water, "said that a peison coming to 
drink from this dhara would require to bring food with 
him to give him strength to ascend again t This man 
then began to worship Phulchoki Devi, who after some 
time was pleased and gave him a small pebble He 
took this home and locked it up in his dhukuti (treasure- 

1 This dhSrS appears to have been built before the beginning of the Nepal 
Sambat, because the inscription on a stone to the right of the dhara has been 
effaced, which must have been done at the time of the introduction of the new 
era, when all bonds and similar docunWts were destroyed. 


loom), and was thinking that he would make by its 
help a dhara as high as the top of his house. One day,' 
however, in his absence, his wife entered the room, in 
which the stone was kept, and thinking it was a useless 
thing, told the servant to throw it away outside of the 
city. The husband, on his return, discovered what had 
happened, hastened to the spot where the pebble had 
been thrown down, and found that a clear fountain had 
sprung up theie. He then constructed a covered water- 
course, and made the water run to a spot near his house, 
where he built the Sun-dhara The place where the 
pebble was thrown down is called N&g-khel 1 . 

4. His son Yoga-narendra Malla succeeded Sri-nivasa. 

He extended the period of the Kartik dance from 
twenty-five days to a month. He set up an image of 
Bhimasena, representing him in a passion, killing Dus- 
sasan, instead of with a pacific aspect. An Achar of 
Jhatapol, with the sanction of the Raja, assigned land 
for the annual rath-jatra of this Bhimasena. 

The Raja built a house, and placed a stone throne in 
the middle of it, where the astrologers assembled and 
consulted together to find out an auspicious day for the 
rath-jatra of Maehchhindra-natha. This house was named 

He gave a copy of the Karanda-Byuha, containing 
the history of Maehchhindra-natha, written in golden 
letters, to Dharmaraj Pandit of Onkuli Bihar, who recited 
this Puran m Mam-mandapa The Pandit gave the fol- 
lowing benediction to the Raja. " Raja. Yoga-narendra, 
may the Lok-natha, who has vanquished the wicked and 
made the people go in the right path, protect thee » 
Raja, the history contained in the book which thou hast 

1 Outside of Patau, on the road to Godavau 


given to me, has been recited to the people, and shall be 
recited again and again. For tins meritorious act may 
happiness attend thee, and mayest thou live long with 
good health, and reign over the people 1 " 

He also assigned many guthis to Machchhmdra-natha, 
and lands for the daily woiship of Harsiddhi devata. 
He erected a pillar m front of Degutale, and placed on 
it his own and his son's* statues' 2 

The Raja of Bhatgaon became jealous of him, and built 
a temple to the south of the durbar m Patan 3 with the 
object of making the Raja childless. Yoga-narendra was 
ignorant of the purpose for ^hich the temple was built. 
His son Siddbi-Narsmha, the heir apparent, died young, 
and from grief the Raja relinquished the world, and went 
away. He told the minister that as long as the face of 
his statue remained bright and untarnished, and the bird 
on its head had not flown away, he would know that the 
Raja was alive, and should cherish and respect his memory. 
For this reason a mattress is still every night laid in a 
100m in the front of the durbar, and the window is left 
open 3 . 

5. After him Mahipatindra, or Mahindra Sinha Malla 
(raja of Kantipur), became also raja of Patan. 

In N S 826 Rudramati, a daughter of Raja Yoga- 
narcndra, built a three-storied temple to the south of the 
pillar supj^oiting her fathers statue, and placed Hari- 
sankara m it. On the 11th of Bhadon Badi, 1ST. S. 842 
(a d. 1722)*, Mahindra Malla died. 

1 This book is still in the possession of the Pandit, and is recited yeaily I have 
myself been it 

3 Tins pillar still stands in the square before the durbar 
3 This i& still done 3 as the face of the statue remains bright 

* This date does not coirespond with that which is given in the account of the 
kinKb of Krtthnmndu 


6. Java Yoga-prakasa succeeded Mm. 

In 1ST. S. 843 (A. d. 1723) he performed a kotyahuti- 
yagya. After this Vishnu Malla, a grandson (daughter's 
son) of Yoga-narendra, became raja of Lalitpur. 

7. Sri Sri Vislmu Malla Raja. 

This Raja built a beautiful durbar, south of Bhandar- 
khal and north of the road taken by the rath-jatra, 
in which he placed a window, haying a golden image 
of Aryavalokiteswaia producing Brahma and other gods 
from his body This palace he named Lujhyal-chaukbath 
Durbar. In building this durbar, the Raja set an example 
to his subjects by mounting an elephant one moonlight 
night and carrying two or three bricks upon it. The 
people were thus induced to work Seven layers of 
bricks used to be laid one day, and the next day four 
layers were taken off and seven layers again laid. By 
doing this the structure was made very strong. On the 
day of roofing the durbar, Jothajti of Thainayako 
brought to assist m the work a great crowd of* people, 
whom he had assembled to help in roofing the Jotha 
Bihar, which he had built. For this service he received 
a dress of honour. 

There was a drought and famine at this time, and 
Vishnu Malla sent Sarbanand Pandit of Mahabuddha to 
Kwaehhe-bal-kumari to perform purascharana and nag- 
sadhana, after which rain fell. 

In order to terrify his enemies, the Raja offered a 
laige bell to Taleju, in front of the Mula Chok, m 1ST S. 
857 (ad 1737). He gave birtas to many Brahmans, 
and adopted them as sons. He offered a silver jalhari 
to Pashupati-natha. He had no sons, and therefore 
appointed Rajya-prakasa Malla as his successor, and died 
shortly afterwards. 

250 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap. 

8. Rajya-prakasa Malla. 

This Raja wm a pacific man, and worshipped a 
mmber of Sallgrams, The six Pradhans, taking advan- 
tage of his simplicity, deprived him of his eyesight. He 
iid not long survive this, and after his death the Pradhan 
:>f the Dhalachhekachha caste brought (9) the Raja of 
Bhatgaon, Ranjit Malla, and made him Raja of Patan 
also. After a year's reign, however, the Pradhans drove 
aim away, when he had gone to bathe at Sankha- 

10. After this the Pradhans made Jaya-prakasa, the 
Raja of ELantipur, Raja of Patan also, and he ruled over 
both cities. At this time Sodhan, gubahal of Bu-bahal, 
which is within Gada-bahal, used to visit the temple of 
Yaishnavl of Yapa Pitha very early in the morning, ac- 
companied by twenty or thirty companions. One morn- 
ing they saw a Sannyasi Gosain sitting on the body of 
a man, whom he had sacrificed, and performing anjan- 
sadhan. The Sannyasi, seeing these men enter the 
temple, ran away before he had completed the sadhan 
Sodhan occupied his seat, completed the ceremony, and 
gave the anjan to his companions, who through its 
virtue became fascinated and obeyed Sodhan implicitly. 
They returned home and hired a house in Nak-bihar, 
where they began to live. Sodhan gave the name of a 
deity to each of his companions, who assumed the cha- 
racter assigned to him. He told the people not to go 
to any temple, but to come to his house, where, he said, 
every god was to be found. He even sent men to fetch 
to his house the umbrellas, etc., belonging to the gods. 
The people brought many offerings, and Sodhan and his 
companions ate and drank freely. Jaya-prakasa heard 
of this, and sent men to anest them. Many escaped, 


but all those -who were caught were sacrificed, each to 
the Pitha devata whom he had personated 1 . 

Jaya-prakasa ruled for one or two years ; but the 
Pradhans were afraid of him, and one day, when he went 
to Tekhu-dobhan to bathe, they expelled him. 

11 They then installed as raja a grandson (daughter's 
son) of Yishnu Malla, named Viswajlt Malla, who reigned 
for four years The six Pradhans were soon displeased 
with him, and, in order to get rid of him, they accused 
him of adultery with one of their wives, and killed him 
at the door of Taleju. His Rani was sitting at a window 
above the Hapyatal, ^at the south-west corner, and she 
cried for help to the people, but no one would give aid. 
She then uttered a curse against the people of the city, 
to the effect that their voice might fail them m their 
time of need, and that they might be in terror when their 
trouble came. 

Thus the Raja died, and the Pradhans went to 
Noakot and brought Dalmardan Sah, whom they made 
raja with the permission of Prithwinarayana Sah. 

12. Dalmardan Sah reigned four years Being a 
Gorkhali, he did everything without consulting the 
Pradhans, who were therefore displeased and expelled 

13. Then they brought a descendant of Viswajlt, 
named Tej-narsmha Malla, and made him raja. He 
reigned for three years. 

1 Can this possibly be a reference to some persecution of the Christian colony 
which existed at this time at Pstan ? It is very strange that there is no mention 
of these Christians in this history , and still more so, that none of the people of 
Patan know anything about them, or have any traditions connected with them 
One of the priests died, and -was buried somewhere at Patau, and the others were 
expelled from the country by Prithwinarayana , but nothing is known of this by any 
one at Patau, though it took place barely a hundred years ago Their descendants 
now live at Bettiah. 

252 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap vxi 

In his time Prithwmarayana came into ISTepal, and 
Tej-narsmha fled to Phatgaon. 

Prithwmarayana, knowing the six Pradhans to be 
traitors, bound and killed them. One only escaped, who 
went ahead of all the others and could not be seized. 
The wives of the Pradhans became satis. 


Progiess of the Gorkha invasion under the command of Putlrvvmara- 
yana Taking of Bhatgaon Pate of the thioe kings of Bliatgaon, 
K.a,thm3,ndu and Patau 

The Gorkhalls fought for six months with, the people 
of Dhulkhel. After this Prithwmarayana Sail built a fort x 
on the top of the mountain south of Chaukot, and col 
lected a large number of troops 2 On consulting with 
his followers, he was told by the Kajis that small villages 
were easily taken, as the people fled when they heard 
the shouts of the assailants, but that this village, Chaukot, 
would require some military skill to take it. After 
this consultation the troops blockaded Chaukot. Some 
of the people fled to Pyuthana by the way of Basdol, and 
others to other places. Namsinha Hal went to Mahindra 
Smha Rai 3 , and said, " "We are unable to cope with the 
Gorkhalis, with the help of only fifty houses The rest 
of the people have fled, and I am come to tell you. 
Do not delay, but fly soon." Mahindra Smha reproached 
him and charged him. with cowardice, saying, " Do not 

1 There are the remains of such small garMs or forts on all the low riclgca 
round the valley They consist of circular ditches and mounds, and could hardly 
have held more than forty or fifty men 

a Chaukot and Dhulkhel or Bhai&hel li-> east of Bhatgaon 

3 It does not appear who these were , probably district officials 


stay for me, but escape with jour lives As for my- 
self, I will repulse the whole force of the Gorkhalis, 
and having earned great renown, will enjoy my posses- 
sions in ^happiness. If I do not succeed, I shall leave my 
body on the field of battle, and earn an abode m heaven, 
by the ment of which my sons and grandsons will obtain 
happiness." He then called together his faithful fol- 
lowers, who were desirous of securing happiness in the 
next world, and encouraged them. 

On the 6th of Jeth Badi a severe battle was fought, 
which lasted from evening till 12 gharis of the night. 
The Gorkhalls, having lost 131 men, retieated The 
battle was renewed daily for fifteen days, without the 
Gorkhalis making any impression Prithwinarayana and 
his Kajis were much disheaitened, and seeing that a small 
village made such a determined resistance, wondered 
what was to be expected from large towns On the 
6th of Joth Sudi a hardly contested battle was fought, 
which lasted till 1 4 gharis of the night At this time a 
sipuhi, getting behind Mahlndra Smha, killed him with 
a khoda, and a lance, and wounded Namsmha in the left 
shoulder, with a khukri, so that he fell senseless to the 
ground Seeing this, the Chaukotiyas fled, and the 
village was set on fire In this battle the Gorkhalls lost 
201 men, which, with the 131 killed on the former day, 
gives a total of 332 men killed 

Namsmha KaT, having recovered from his swoon, and 
seeing no Gorkhfdis near, raised himself, and binding up 
his wound with his waistcloth fled to Pyuthana, through 
BasdoL He saw Mahlndra Smha Rai lying on the 
ground lifeless, being pierced from behind by a khoda, and 
a lance, but he had no time to wait longer. 

The next morning Sri Prithwinarayana Sah inspected 


the field of battle, and seeing Mahlndra Sinha Hat's life- 
less body pierced with wounds, he praised his bravery, 
and sent for his family, that they, being the relatives of 
so brave a man, might have proper protection. They 
were brought and fed morning and evening from the 
royal kitchen After this, having with ease taken five 
villages, viz , Panavati, Banepa, Nala, Khadpu, and 
Sanga, Prithwlnarayana returned to Noakot. 

After eight months, Prithwlnarayana came to attack 
Bhatgaon, where he had previously gained over the 
Satbahalyas 1 by promising to leave to them the throne 
and revenue, and to content himself with a nominal 
sovereignty over the country According to previous 
arrangements, therefore, the troops commanded by the 
Satbahalyas fired blank cartridges on the enemy, ad- 
mitted them within the fortified walls with little oppo- 
sition, and secretly sent them ammunition. Thus Bhat- 
gaon was taken. The Gorkhalis entered the town, but 
met with great resistance at the durbar, which, they 
surrounded. After some fighting, the golden door of 
the Mtila Chok was broken open, and the Gorkhall troops 
entered the durbar. Jaya-prakasa Malla fought for 
three or four gharis, but he was disabled by receiving 
a bullet in his foot. Every one then yielded. The 
Bhotiya sipahis, having been suspected, had been shut 
up m a building, and on their clamouring to be let out 
to fight, Ranjit Malla set the place on fire. 

Prithwlnarayana Sah now entered the durbar, and 
found the Bajas of the three towns sitting together, 
whereat he and his companions began to laugh. Jaya- 
prakasa was offended at this, and said, " O Gorkhalis, this 
has come to pass through the treachery of our servants, 01 

1 Seven illegitimate Rons of Banjlt Malla 


slse yon would have had no cause for mirth. " The Gor- 
khalis then became silent. Some conversation took place 
between Prithwinarayana and Jaya-prakasa, in which the 
Latter praised the former, but cautioned him against his 
own officials, who he said were faithless and not to be 
trusted Prithwinarayana then paid his respects to Ranjit 
Malla, and respectfully asked him to continue to rule as 
he had hitherto done, although he (Prithwinarayana) had 
conquered the country. Kanjit Malla rephed that Prithwi- 
narayana had obtained the sovereignty by the favour of 
God, and that all that he now asked for was to be sent to 
Benares Prithwinarayana entreated him to remain; but 
the recollection of the treachery of the Satbahalyas was 
fresh m his memory, and he would not consent. PnthwI- 
naiayana then gave him leave to go, and also provided 
for his expenses on the road. 

When Banjit Malla reached the top of the Chan- 
dragin pass, he took a last view of Nepal, and with 
tears in his eyes exclaimed, " The Satbahalyas have 
killed my son Blr-Narsinha, and have caused me this 
sorrow." He then cursed thorn. "May they look hke 
Chandals, and live m beggary. May their offspring 
perish. May their birtas be taken from them , and may no 
respectable person ever associate with them May they 
be reduced to selling windows, houses, clay, and tiles w 
There are several songs on the subject composed by him. 
He then bade farewell to Tulja (Turja or Taleju), Pashu- 
pati, and Guhjeswarl, and went to seek an asylum -with 
Bisweswara-natha and Ganga. 

Prithwinarayana Sah then caused the members of the 
Satbahalya famihes to be brought bound before him ; 
and reflecting that they had been traitors to their father, 
for the sake of obtaining the gaddi, and that they could 


not be expected to be faithful to others, he caused the 
"noses of some of them to be cut off, and confiscated the 
whole of their property. 

Prithwmarayana Sah then asked Jaya Prakasa Malla 
what he intended to do. He replied that, by the favour 
of God, L he had ruled the country for a long time, en- 
joyed royalty, and built many monuments ; that now he 
had nothing to desire but that he might be conveyed to 
Arya. Chat at Pashupati, where he would obtain salva- 
tion (1 e., die). 

Prithwinarayana was touched by this speech, and con- 
sented to his being taken to Pashupati. He moreover 
gave orders to supply Jaya Prakasa with anything which 
he might desire to give away in charity ; and for this 
purpose a sawar was sent to ask what he wanted to 
give away. Jaya Prakasa said that he wanted nothing 
but an umbrella and a pair of shoes. The sawar re- 
turned and gave the message to the Gorkhah Raja, who 
was at once plunged into grief, and remained silent a 
long time. The request was repeated by the sawar, and 
the courtiers expressed surprise at the hesitation shown 
by the Maharaj in granting such trifles, when he had 
promised hirn anything he wanted to give away in charity. 
Prithwinarayana said that they did not understand the 
meaning of the request, which was that Jaya Prakasa 
wanted to be born again as his son, and thus to v enjoy 
the kingdom again, which he was very loath to grant 1 . 
However, as he had already promised to give him any- 
thing he wanted, the Raja mounted his horse, went to the 
place where Jaya Prakasa was, and, presenting to him an 
umbrella and a pair of shoes, said "I give you what 
you want, to be enjoyed by you, not, however, during 

1 The shoe denotes the eaith, and the umbrella the crown. 
W N. 17 

258 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap, viii.] 

my Irfetime, but in that of my grandson." Jaya Prakasa 
consented, and took the gift. He then said that the 
person who should offer a silver jalhari to Pashupati-natha 
would be himself returned to the earth. After saying 
this he died, and -was absorbed into the southern or 
Aghor face of Pashupati-natha. 

^ Tej-Narsinha, the Raja of Lalitpur, thought that all 
this evil was brought about by Ranjit Malla, and that 
there was no use in speaking- to any one. He therefore 
sat engaged in the worship of God., and would not speak. 
Por this reason he was sent to Lakshmlpur, to be kept 
in confinement ; and there he died. 


The Gfnkha dynasty in Nepal. Death of Piithwlnaiayana. War with 
Tibet and China Geneial BhimasBrta TJbulpa, made prune minister. 
War with the Entish Gieat earthquakes. 

1. After this Haja Prithwmarayana returned from 
Bhatgaon to Kantipur, and began to rule over the three 
towns. He built a laige dharmasala, and named it 
Basantpur. He granted the right of near approach to 
the royal person to Putwars, in N~. S. 890 (a.d. 1770), 
in consideration of the services they had rendered in 
the attack upon Kirtipur To the Kasais also he assigned 
lands, and appointed them to perform menial services in 
the temple of Guhjeswari Because Surpratap Sah (his 
brother) had lost one of his eyes in the war with the 
people of Kirtipur, Prithwmarayana ordered the nose of 
every male in that town, above twelve years of age, to 
be cut off. These noses weighed seventeen dharnis 
(about 80 lbs.), and the people thus mutilated were 865 
of those who had fought vahantly and kept the Gor- 
khalis out of the town. 

In this reign one Hamkrishna Kavar, with the 
permission of the Haja, made a road from Guhjeswari to 
Pashupati, and paved it with stone. The Raja built a 
bridge across the Rudramati, where the main road 
crossed it. 



The Raja sent Kaji Kahar Sinha to subdue the whole 
country lying between Bijayapur on the east, the Sapta- 
Gandaki on the west, Kiron and Kuti on the north, 
and Makwanpur and the Taryani (Teraa) on the south. 

Prithwinarayana reigned seven years, and died on the 
Sankranti day, N. S 895 (a. d. 1775), at Mohan Tirtha 
on the GandakL 

2. His son Sinha Pratap Sah reigned three years. 
This Raja, regarding Guhjeswarl as the mistress of 

Kepal, to wed to sacrifice to her a lakh and 25,000 
animals. He caused the Linga of Noakot to be brought 
to the Durbar, and assigned a guthi to maintain the 
Lmga-dhali-jatra (known now as the Indra-jatra). He 
performed all the ceremonies in the worship of Turja Devi, 
assisted by Achars, and died inN. S 898 (a b. 1778). 

3. His son Ran Bahadur Sah reigned 19 years. 

He was a powerful monarch. Suspecting the Achars of 
having caused the premature death of his father by frayog 
(*. e , repeating mantras), he caused many of them to be 
put to death near the Indrani Prtha He also, for some 
reason, caused the Mantn-nayak (prime minister) Bansraj 
Pande to be cut down in the Durbar. He made a silver 
jalharl and offered it to Pashupati-natha 1 . 

In the west he conquered Lamjung and Tanhau, 
and the country of the Chaublsi Rajas. His rule ex- 
tended as far as the Ganga. The British trembled in 
the south. He sent Samp Ka/p, who conquered the 
whole of the Kirati country, and extended his conquests 
as far as Sumbeswara in the east. Having learned the 
particulars of the northern country from Syamarpa Lama, 
whom he had sent for, he despatched troops to Sikbarjun, 

1 Thus showing that Jaya PraLiisa had returned to the ^oild, as predicted 
h\ him&ell 


who plundered Digarcha, and did not lespect the Chinese 
authority. The Chinese Emperor, being unable to brook, 
this insult, sent a large army, under the command of 
Kaji Dhurin and minister Thumtham. This army reached 
Dhebun 1 , when the Raja employed one Lakhya Banda 
of Bhinkshe Bahal to perform purascharan, while Mantri- 
nayak Damodar Pande cut the Chinese army to pieces 
and obtained great glory 2 . Afterwards the Chinese 
Emperor, thinking it better to live in friendship with the 
Gorkh&lis, made peace with them 

Bahadur Sah (the uncle of the king), being ill-ad- 
vised, measured the whole land, and on account of this 
sin of ascertaining the limits of the earth, he was put 
into prison, and died there. 

This Baja used to give 1000 cows in charity on great 
days. He caused meritorious acts (dharma) to be re- 
peatedly performed, and fed Brahmans and Fakirs in 
Pachll-khel 3 ; and every Saturday he caused curds and 
chiurd to be distributed at Pashupati-natha. 

He impressed all the people in the country, and built 
the temple of Jagan-natha on the Tudi-khel, which had 
no equal , but it was not completed. He repaired the 
kavacha (coat) of Pashupati-natha He appointed Gujar- 
at! music to be performed at the temples of Guhjes- 
warl, Bajra Jogmi, Changu Narayana, Dakshm Kali, 
Taleju, Degutaie, and Lomdi, and assigned guthis for 
the maintenance of mahapuja and sadabart (daily alms- 
giving of food, &c, to the poor) He gave many other 

1 A. hill north of Noakst 

s The Nepalesewere utterly defeated, and had to conclude an ignominious treaty 
of peace at Noakot This was the time when Colonel Kirkpatrick was sent hy the 
British to intercede with the Chinese, but arrived after the tieaty had been con- 

3 Near Panchhnga Bhairava, close to the junction of the Eagniatt and Yi&h- 


guthls, and obtained praise. He put a great bell and 
a large image of Bhairava m front of the Durbar. Tlie 
images of the Matrika Jo^ims were there before. 

Some time after tins tlie Raja made the daughter of a 
Misra his Rani 1 , and a son was born, who was ascertained 
to possess illustrious qualities, and was named Giiban- 
juddha Vikram Sah. The Raja abdicated in his favour, 
and, assuming the name of Nirgunananda Swarm, went 
to live in Deva-patan, where he laid out three sorts of 
gardens and dedicated them to Rashtipati-natha Thiity- 
two houses were demolished to make room for the 
gardens, but compensation was given for them He used 
to see bulls fight. The monkeys were very troublesome, 
and many weie put to death. Vultures and cats also 
shared their fate, as they were ill omens 2 . 

This Swami Raja was very just, and a great pro- 
ficient in music. After residing for three months at 
Deva-patan he went to live at Lalitpur. He sent his 
son Olrban-juddha to Noakot, quarrelled with his nobles 
and officers, made excrement be used as incense for 
Taleju and other deities, whose images he caused to be 
destioyed, and put Baids to death 8 . Sri Taleju he 
caused to be sent to Karbir Smasan, to be burned like 
a dead body, after making the Achars weep as for a dead 
person, and -causing Kasai and Kahal music to be per- 

He then assembled his subjects and enlisted them 
as sipahis, and quarrelled with his son. There was fear 

1 This was a BrShmanl widow from Tirhut Independently of her being a widow, 
the marriage was illegal, as being between a Bajpflt and a Brahmani. Hence the 
allusion' to incest hereafter 

a I know a large house, a part of ThapSthaK, which is not Used as a dwelling, 
house, because a^rolture onee perched on the roof ! 

• AH-this was because, on the occasion of the illness of his favourite BanI, he 
had performed pujSs, Ac , to these deities without avail. 


in the three cities ; but at this time, in order to purify 
himself from sin, and through fear of Damodar Kaji, he 
went to Varanasi (Benares) 1 . 

During his absence the Manila (second) Mahararii 
ruled the country. She built the three-storied temple of 
Nandikeswara and a dharmasala, constructed a tank, and 
assigned lands to keep up a sadavart and the daily 
worship of Siva. She offered beautiful bells to Gorakh- 
natha and other deities. At this time Kaji Kirtiman 
made a general paijni 2 of chautaras (relatives of the 
royal family), kajis, sardars, ministers, grooms, grass- 
cutters and pauwalis ; and in consequence some ill- 
disposed persons killed the Xajl in the durbar. The 
Rani caused these persons to be put to death. 

The Swaini Raja, after a residence of four years at 
Benares, returned to Nepal, and put to death Damodar 
Kaji and others of his enemies. He made new laws and 
issued many orders, stopped the main roads, confiscated 
all the birta lands of the Brahmans in the country, raised 
money by reassessing the lands, and from fear of small- 
pox ordered all the children to be taken out of the city. 

He conquered the country of Sansar Chand of 

The distressed \Brahmans, especially the Bhaimalyas, 
came before the Raja, and clamoured for redress. They 
recited the following slok . 

" Oh Maharaj, poison is not so deadly as the spoiling 
of the Brahman ; for poison kills one only, but the spoil- 
ing of the Brahman kills sons and grandsons " 

The Raja, however, paid no attention to them. He 

1 In reality lie -was forced to abdicate by the nobles. 

s Annual muster, when all officials xn the country may be turned out or con- 
firmed for another year. 


was the first Raja who brought gold ashrafls into cur- 
rency. His rule extended to Kangra and Garhwal, but " 
bad ministers curtailed his kingdom in the west. 

An ill omen happened at this time. A large jackal 
entered the city, passed through the bazar, and left the 
city by the northern gate. This happened on the night 
o£ Saturday, the 7th of Baisakh Sudi, N. S 917 (a.d. 
1807) 1 , and was the consequence of the resumption of 
Brahmans' lands, the stoppage of the main roads, ill 
usage of children, the desecration of many deities, and 
incest. The brother of the Raja killed him with a 
sword, through fear that he himself might be killed. 

4. His son Girban-juddha Yikram Sah reigned 20 

This Raja was of a very benevolent, pacific temper, 
and a worshipper of Yishnu. He caused all the expelled 
children to be brought back to their homes. He was a 
great respecter of Brahmans and of the Shastras. Having 
had explained to him the meaning of the Himavat 
Khanda 2 , he fasted the whole day and night of Siva- 
*. ratri, and dedicated the whole of Deva-patan to Pashu- 
pati-natha on the 14th of Phagun Badi, Vik. S. 1870 
(a, r> 1813) 

This Raja appointed Bhimasena Thapa to be prime 
minister and protector of the whole country. He built 
the bridge near Tankeswara, and a ghat, and made a 
golden dhara. He also built a bridge over the Bagmati, 
near the Kalmochani Tirtha, and placed a lion on a 
pedestal. He conferred the iitle of General on Bhlma- 
sena. He made good roads through every tol in the 
city. He built the great kot m Mam-deval and mmprl 

i The MS~haa 927. 

3 A part of the Skanda PurSna, desonlmxK the holv i>Iaees of Nepal. 


it Kainpu, in which to assemble the troops and keep 
their muskets. 

In this reign an insane Brahman came in the shape of 
Kalanki 1 , and sacrificed a Kusalya (a person of low caste), 
a horse, and a Brahmani, to Guhjeswari. 

The Kaja offered a silver image to Pashupati-natha, 
and placed it at the western door of the temple on the 
silver-plated floor. 

On the 10th of Jeth Sudi, N S. 930 (a d, 1810) 2 , a 
violent earthquake occurred, and many houses fell down. 
The great temples, such as Pashupati and Taleju, escaped 
injury. In Bhatgaon numerous lives were lost. 

He built a powder magazine on Thambahil-khel, 
and brought into currency dhyak or double pice. 

In his reign a war broke out with the British in the 
Taryani (Terai), but depriving them of wisdom, the Raja 
saved his country. Then calling the British gentlemen, 
he made peace with them, and allowed them to live near, 
Thambahil 3 . 

At this time dogs used to bring human flesh into the 
city, and as much trouble was caused by this, a great 
many of them were destroyed 4 . 

The Sitala Devi (smallpox), having been insulted for 
twelve years, at last became furious, and entered Nepal. 
Innumerable children died, and their dead bodies were 
not burned, but buried near the Bagmati. The effluvia 

1 Or Ealki^ the incarnation of Vishnu which is to appear at the end. of the Kail 

s Altered into 928 (a d 1808) 

8 Such is the native account of what we call the Nepal war, which ended in 
their total defeat at Makwanpur, and the loss of a great part of their possessions 
below the hills War was declared on the 1st November, 1814, and peace con- 
cluded ou the 5th March, 1816 

4 In times of plague the bodies of the poor, instead of being burned, are merely 
pinged mth fire and thrown into the beds of the rivers, where doga and vultures may 
be seen devouimg them. 

266 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap* 

from the dead bodies spread abroad, the water was 
poisoned, and vultures and wild beasts, which fed on the 
corpses, died in numbers. All the Nandis (stone images 
of bulls) having been brought out, a plentiful rain fell 
and washed away the corpses. The Baja being of a 
pacific nature, Sitala entered the durbar, and he died 
of smallpox at Arya Ghat, on the 1st of Aghan Sudi, 
1ST. S, 938 (a.d. 1818) 1 . At this date Sitala first ap- 
peared in Nepal. 

5 Sis son Bajendra Yikram Sah. 

This Baja repaired the umbrella of Pashupati-natha. 
The principal timber in Swayambhu having become 
rotten, a Lama was summoned from Lhasa, and it was 
replaced by a new sal beam. 

In this reign, m Yik. S. 1877 (a. d. 1820), General 
Bhimasena offered gold and silver doors to the southern 
side of the temple of Pashupati-natha. Afterwards, with 
the permission of the Baja, he made silver doors for 
the temple, placing four in the inner apartment and one 
in each of the four outer sides. 

In this reign one month of the year was lost 2 , and 
Dasatn was celebrated in Kartik instead of Kuar, Yik. 
S. 1879 (a. d. 1822). To insure the salvation of the 
Banis of the Swami Maharaj, he built temples near 
Kalmochan Tirtha 8 , naming them Tripureswara and Pur- 
neswara. ITear the temples he constructed ghats on the 
Bagmati, and erected an image of Hanuman. He frmH- a 
cantonment for the troops at Malthali. 

1 Read a d 1816. By this calculation lie reigned 19 years 

a The astrologers sometimes increase or decrease the number of months in the 
year, so as to keep the lunar months, by •which the time of the festivals is fixed, at 
the Bame periods Otherwise the months and festivals would fall at various times 
of the year, as is the case m the Mohammedan calendar. 

- 8 On the bank of th© Bagmati between Kathmandn. and Thapathali, -where Sir 
Jung Bahadur has just built a new temple. 




'f 1 





In this reign a thief stole the ornaments of Jaya 
Bageswarl, but after two years he was found out. He 
restored some o£ the ornaments, and was made to pay 
the price of the others, which he had sold and expended. 
With the money a new Bhandar-sala (store-house) was 

In N. S. 944, and Vik S. 1880 (a.d. 1823—24), 
through the influence of Saturn and other planets, which 
secretly came together in one sign of the zodiac, Mana- 
ma! appeared in Nepal, and numerous persons died from 
the effects of her evil eye. Through the influence of 
the seven planets, a disease called Bistiahi (cholera) 
appeared in the east, as far away as Dhaka and Budhi- 
Ganga, and then at a place in the east called Bisankhu. 
Many lives were lost. By the 1st of Magh it spread 
over the whole of Nepal, and extended as far as the Kali 
Gandaki ; but after two months it disappeared. 

In the same year seventeen shocks of earthquake 
were felt in one day and night. The Raja performed a 
santi (ceremony of purification). 

When the Raja first visited Guhjeswari and Pashu- 
pati-natha, he made an offering of one* rupee daily to 
each, and this custom is continued to the present time. 
It was not the custom before this. 

In this reign Mahabaruni (a eonj unction of certain 
planets at a certain time) took place, and many merito- 
rious acts were performed. General Bhimasena placed a 
"Narbada Siva on the Tudi-kbel, and named it Bhima- 
bhakteswara. The General made golden dh&ras, tanks, 
and gardens. Colonel Mathabar Smha also built many 
edifices ; and Colonel Ranbir Sinha constructed a sala, 
and established a sadabart. The Raja offered a golden 
lion on a pedestal to Guhjeswari, He also caused the 

268 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

Mohan Chok Durbar to be repainted. He offered an 
umbrella to each face of Pashupati-natha He decided 
that Brahinans of all tribes should be exempt from im- 
pressment for labour. 

On the-llth of Pus Sudi, N". S. 949 (a.d. 1829), 
he collected a lakh and 25,000 oranges from all the 
gardens, and offered them to Pashupati-natha. The 
whole temple was filled with them, only the head of 
Pashupati-natha being above them. He made frequent 
offerings of mangoes and amratak fruit (guavas) to 
Guhjeawari and Pashupati-natha, being such a wise 

Again a month was lost in this reign, the year being 
of eleven months only, and a great many people, as well 
as beasts, birds, and fishes, died in consequence. On the 
5th of Baiaakh Badi,Yik. S 1887 (a d. 1830), the powder- 
magazine at l^oakot was struck by lightning, and 62 men 
were killed. In the same year, on the 14th of Asarh 
Badi, about 10 p.m., the Thambahll magazine was struck 
by lightning and exploded, and 1 8 men were killed. 

On the 9th of Chart Badi, Vik. S. 1888 (a.d. 1831), 
the senior Maharanl died. Except the Brahmans, all 
castes shaved their heads and beards, as a sign of mourn- 
ing. The Brahmans were only four days rn mourning, 
but all officers and other subjects had to observe the 
full period of mourning (t.e., a whole year). Biding on 
horseback, military music, travelling in dolls or palan- 
quins, were all stopped, except in the case of marriages 
A bride and bridegroom were allowed to wear red clothes 
till the ceremonies were finished. 

The Raja was now in his 18th year, and the Sambat 
was also 88, whence cholera broke out m the country 1 , 

1 Any year in which 8 occurs is considered unlucky. 


but lie caused purascharan to be performed at Bachha- 
leswari by Brahmans, and the disease disappeared. On 
the day tbat this Devi's jatra was to take place, the 
Hani of the Swam! Maharaj died, but the jatra was 
celebrated. No other jatra was allowed to take place. 

At about 10 or 11 am. on the 4th of Aghan Sudi, 
"Vik S. 1889 (a d. 1832), the Maharaj mounted a 
female elephant, named Kunjkali, and Bhimasena Thapa 
was seated behind him on the same elephant. When 
they reached Bhuneswara, a male elephant, named Lal- 
bahadur, chased them General Bhimasena fell off at the 
entrance of the bridge over the Bagmati, and the Baja 
fell into the river, but no serious injury was received. 

In Vik. S 1890 (a d 1833), on the 12th of the second 
Bhadon Sudi (being a leap year there were two Bhadons), 
a shock of earthquake was felt towards evening, and 
another at 12 gharis of the night. Four shocks were 
felt m all, and the fourth was so violent that many 
buildings and temples fell down m Kathmadon, Patan, 
Bhatgaon, and the villages. 

In Patau the number of buildings damaged was 824 *. 
Of these there were 

Houses completely destroyed . ... 213 

Boofs damaged ... ... ... ... 98 

Kausis (open platforms on the roof with 

a parapet) damaged , . ,. ... 22 

Houses partly do .. ... 117 

Walls do. ... .. ' 374 

Temples do. ... .. ... .. 17 

Patis do. ... . . ... ... ... 14 

Two people were injured, of whom one died, and the 
other was only wounded 

1 There aie errors m tsveial of these numbers 








In Kathmadon 64.3 buildings were damaged. Of 
these there were 

Houses totally destroyed ... ... ... 365 

Roofs do. 

Two-storied patis do. 

One-storied patis do. 

Doors injured 

Minarets (dhareras) 
one of which was thrown down, and the other only in- 
jured. The great temple of Jagan-natha, on the Tudi- 
khel, also fell down, and 22 persons were buried under 
the ruins and died, and 30 more were injured. The 
parapet-walls of the bridge over the Bagmati were 
damaged to the extent of 20 haths (cubits). The top of 
the Tripureswara temple also fell down. 

In Bhatgaon 2747 buildings were damaged, 
there were 

Walls injured 

Hoofs do. .*. 


Kausis injured 

Houses totally destroyed 

Out of 16,456 inmates of 270 houses, 177 were killed, 
and 252 injured 1 . 

In Sankhu 236 houses were destroyed, and 21 temples 
and patis. 18 people were killed, and 10 injured. 

In Banepa 269 houses were damaged; and in Sana- 
g&on 33 houses were injured, and 2 people hurt. 

The temples of Pashupati, Guhjeswari, and Taleju, 
received no injury. 

Such a catastrophe had once before occurred in the 

1 Thifl gives about 60 mmates to each, house , but a Nepalese house is a large 
range of buildings lound a central square, and the population is very dense, there 
being a family m every room or two. 

Of these 



reign of Shyama Sinha, The present Raja, being wise, 
offered a golden crown to Panchlinga Bhairava. 

In this reign, on the 6th of Asarh Badi, Vik. 3. 1891 
(a.d. 1834), the powder-magazine at Themi was struck 
by lightning and exploded. On the 5th of Asarh Sudi, in 
the same year, a shock of earthquake was felt at night. 
Several shocks were felt from the 1st to the 2nd of Kartik 
Badi in the same year.* Much rain also fell, which com- 
menced and ended with the earthquakes. The Bagmati 
overflowed its banks, and washed away 200 stacks of 
rice. The eastern parapet of the bridge over the Bag- 
mati fell, and the image of Ganesa at the Bhairava Ghat 
was washed away. The water rose to the wall of the 
enclosure of Lakshmeswara Mahadeva. 

In this year the Baja made the elephants Hadbad- 
prasad and Hrragaj fight. They fought in the bed of 
the Bagmati for a whole day and night. The mahauts 
of both elephants received great rewards in dresses of 
honour, ornaments, and money. Tiger and elephant, fights 
were also exhibited. 

In this reign, in Yik. S. 1893 (a. d. 1836), a woman 
in Patan gave birth to two children joined to each other. 
People went to see them, and made offerings of money 
and rice. 

In Vik. S. 1894 (a.d. 1837), in the month of Sawan, 
the minister (Bhlmasena) was imprisoned by the troops, 
by order of the Baja, at the instigation of the sons of the 
former wicked minister, and his whole property was con- 
fiscated. The former minister's sons also abused him. 
This was unendurable by the high-minded minister, who 
thus received ingratitude for the faithful direction of the 
affairs of state, through the machinations of those who, as 
he said, were fed on the leavings of his table. He there- 

272 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap, ix ] 

fore cut Ins own throat and died 1 . This Bhimasena is 
said to be the same who, in a former birth, appeared as 
Bhlma Malla, a minister of the Newar Hajas 3 . 

The Ham of this Baja made a copper roof for the 
temple of Pashxipati-natha, m "Vik. S 1895 (a. d. 1838). 
In "Vik S. 1891 (a. D 1834), Suba Elulan and Jha made 
silver doors in three sides of the temple of Pashupati. 
Hirilal Jha, the son of this Suba, made golden roofs 
for the temples of Gnateswarl, Ichangu Narayana, and 
Akasbani or Bhatbhatyani. 

In this reign the people of the city paved the roads 
and streets 8 . 

1 This suicide (or murder) really took plane on the 29th of July, 1839- 
s Similarly, the present prime minister, Sir Jung Bahadur, ib believed to "be ar 
incarnation, of the king Ban Bahadur Sah 

6 This monarch, Bajendra Vikxam Sah, who was deposed in 1847, is Btill alive. 


Special lustoiy of the Gozkhrdl Dynasty 

Obeisance to Guru Ganesa and to Kul-devata. 

Formerly Suryabansi and Chandiabansi Rajas {i e , 
kings of the solar and lunar dynasties) ruled over the 
people, until their kingdoms were taken from them by 
the Yavanas (Musalmans), and they were deposed, 

Sri Vikramaditya and Salivahana were two powerful 
kings of the solar dynasty, and they sought out the 
rajas of the two dynasties and allotted to them king- 
doms, according to their abilities, wisdom and power, 
and placed them on the thrones, giving them tika (i. e , 
the mark on the forehead). They installed in this way 
eight hundred rajas. 

Among these was one Rishi-iaj Rana-jl, of the lunar 
dynasty, who was made the raja of Chitaur-garh 1 , and 
received the title of Bhattarak. Salivahana died shortly 
after the installation of Rishi-raj Bhattarak, and his terri- 
tories were overrun by Maunas and Yavanas, who estab- 
lished their rule and enforced their orders. Their rule, 
however, did not extend to Chitaur-garh, the Rajas of 
which preserved their independence for thirteen genera- 

T In Bajputrma, m the Mevtfti clntaict, neax Tonk. 
W. N IS 

2 74 



tions. The names of the independent lajas of Chitaur- 
garh wcic — 





8 Nidhi Bhattarak 

9 Bkaskara 
10. Nlla 
1 L. j3.Diiaya 
12. N fig j Til 
13 Dova-saiinfi „ 





1 Bishi-raj Bhattarak. 

2. Siva „ 

3. Srimad 

4. Srl-Tila 

5 Syama 

6 Govarddha 

7 Han 
Deva-sarma Bhattarak had a smi named Ayntabam 

KanaVji, who had not yet ascended tlie tin one when the 
Yavanas subjugated Deva-saima's country, and quitted it 
after they had established their authonty over him 
Ayutabam, disgusted at the loss of his independence, 
gave up the name of Bhattaiak, and retained only his 
original caste-surname of liana-]! 

The rajas who retained the title of Bana-ji weie — 

14. Ayntabam Bana-ji. 16. Kanakbam Rana-ji. 

15. Baiabubarn ,, 17 Yasobam „ 

The son of the last, named Audumbar, pleased 
the Emperor by his address and skill m swoid exeicise, 
and had the title of Ilrua (luio) confeucd on him The 
rajas who held the title of Ilava, m addition to their 
caste-surname of Bana-jl, \s ere • — ■ 

18 Audumbai Bana-ji Bava 
19. Bhattarak 

20 BirVikramajit ,, 

21 Jilla 

22. Ajilla 

23. Atal 

24. Tuthii 

25. Bimiki 




2G. Han llana-jl Bava 

27 Bi aland ,, 

28 Bakkan ,, 

29 Manoratha „ 

30. Jay a 

31. Jagatra 

32. Bhoj 

33. Bhupati 





This Raja had three sons — • 

Udayabam Rana-ji Rava 
Fatte Smha „ „ 

34 Manmath ,, „ 

Fatfce Sinha had a daughter named Sadal, -who wast 
mrivalled in beauty. The Emperor Akbar (sic) having 1 
tieard of this, called the Hana-ji, and asked him to give 
tier to him, saying that, as she was the most beautiful 
ady in the whole kingdom, she ought to be given to him, 
Decause everything excellent in the country was the 
oroperty of the Emperor. The Rana-ji told him that he 
would consult his relatives, and returned to Chitaur. 
He then made this known to his brothers, sons and 
nephews, and spoke thus " Every one is great in his 
)wn caste. Intermarriage is only honourable in one's 
)wn caste If an enemy attack the Emperor — we are 
Rajputs, and we are ready to sacrifice our lives in his 
defence If he want wealth — whatever belongs to us, 
belongs to the Emperor. But we will not put a stain on 
5ur caste by giving our daughter to him " 

An answer to this effect was sent to the Emperor, 
who, being enraged, attacked Chitaur, and a bloody 
battle was fought. Bhtipati Rava, Fatte Sinha, and a 
great, many Rajputs were killed, and thirteen hundred 
Ranis immolated themselves as satis The daughter of 
Fatte Smha killed herself by leaping into a pan of 
boiling oil. 

The survivors, under Udayabam Rana-ji Ravaj founded 
Udaypur and settled there , and Manmath Rana-ji Rava 
went to Ujjam. He had two sons, Brahmanika Rana-ji 
Rava and (35) Bhtipal Rana-ji Rava. These two brothers, 
being: on bad terms with each other, separated, the elder 


276 HISTORY 01 NEPAL [chap 

remaining there, and the younger going to the northern 

The latter arrived at Eicli "When setting out from 
TJjjam, he took with him his Ishta-devata (patron deity), 
who told him to halt and not to go beyond the place where 
he put him (the devata) upon the ground. In Siika 1417 
(a.d. 1495) he set out fiom Ridi and reached Sargka, 
where, being much fatigued, he put the devata on 
the ground, and the devata remained there Bhtipal 
Kana-jl stayed there for a shoit time, but, finding that, 
without some settled mode of life, it was difficult for him 
to live there, he went to Khilum, a place m Bhnkot, and 
brought its waste land into cultivation. In that place 
two sons were born to him, Khancha and Micha. Their 
bratabandha (taking the brahmanical thread) was per- 
formed there, and daughters of BaghubansI Eajpiits were 
brought from the plains for them to many. 

The elder with his rani went to Dhor, conquered 
Mangrat, and reigned over Garhon, Sathun, Bhnkot and 

The younger, Micha Khan, went to Nuwakot 1 with his 
rani, and ruled over it. 

The rajas who ruled over Nuwakot were . — 

36. Micha Khan 39. Micha Khan 

37. Jayan „ 40. Bichitra „ 
38 Surya „ 41. Jagdeva „ 

Kulmandan, the son of Jagdeva Khan, obtained the 
sovereignty over Kaskl. He pleased the Emperor in 
something, and received from him the title of Sah. He 
bad seven sons The eldest succeeded him in the 
government of Kaskl. The second, Kalu Sah, was asked 

1 Not the Noakst near Kathmanctfl, Tbut another far to tlie west 


for from lus father Kulmandan Sah by the people of 
Dura Danda in Lamjung, and was made their king. 

The Sekhant tribe of the people of Lamjung one day 
took him to the forest to hunt, and stationed him 011 
a high detached rock. They then dispersed themselves 
in the wood, and under pretence of shooting at deer, 
they killed him with poisoned arrows, 

For sometime after this Lamjung remained without 
a raja , but at last the people, unable to manage without 
one, again went to ask Kulmandan Sah for another son 
to become their raja He, however, replied that he had 
no cheap son to give to them, to be shot like a deer, by 
the wicked Lamjungyas. Upon this they swore with 
joined hands that the deed was not committed by them, 
but by the people of the Sekhant tribe, who ate cows' 
flesh, and were not to be trusted. They said they had 
been deceived by the Sekhants, and repeated their 
petition, declaring that they would never be able to 
manage their affairs without a raja; and they swore to 
be faithful. 

Kulmandan Sah told them that he had still six 
sons ; and that, setting aside the eldest, he would make 
the others sleep on one mattress, and then they might, 
without his selection, take the one whom Maheswari 
gave to them. The Baja then made them swear, though 
he knew they did not fear sin, that, if they again played 
the traitors, they would incur the sin of murdering a 
crore (ten millions) of Brahmans. According to their 
instructions, they went with a light into the room where 
the five sons were sleeping They saw that the heads 
of the four elder were just in the places where they had 
first laid them, but the head of the youngest had 
moved upwaids a long way. They thought therefoio 


that lie whose head had moved upwards in his sleep 
must be a very fortunate man, and they selected him 
and made him their Raja His name was Yasobam 

42. Kulmandan Sah, raja of Kaski. 

43 Yasobam Sah, raja of Lamjung 

Yasobam Sah had two sons The elder, Narhar 
Sah, ruled over Lamjung The younger, Drabya Sah, 
went to Gorkha, and gained over the subjects of 
that town, the raja of which was of a Khadka tribe of 
the Khas lace 

On Wednesday the 8th of Bhadon Badi, Saka 1481 
(a,b. 1559), Rohim Nakshatra (i.e., the moon being 
in the Rohini mansion), being an auspicious day, 
Drabya Sah, aided by Bhagirath Panth, Ganesa Pande, 
Gangaram Rana, Busal Arjyal, Khanal Bohra, and Murll 
Khawas of Gorkha, concealed himself in a hut. "When 
Ganesa Pande had collected all the people of Gorkha 
who wore the brahmanical thread, such as the Thapas, 
Busals, Ranas, and Maski Ranas of the Magar tribe, 
they went by the Dahya Gauda route and attacked 
the Durbar. Drabya Sah killed the Khadka Raja with 
his own hand, with a sword, during the battle that 
ensued. At the same auspicious moment Drabya Sah 
took his seat on the gaddi, amidst the clash of 

44. SriDrabyaBah, Saka 1481 (a d. 1559), reigned 11 years. 

45. „ PurandarSah,, 1492 „ 35 years. 

46. „ Chhatra Sah „ 1527 „ 7 months. 

47. „ Rama Sah „ 1528 „ 27 years. 
Chhatra Sah having no issue, his brother Rama 

Sah succeeded him. Chhatra Sah reigned only seven 










3 J 




and 8 months. 

Bama Sab. introduced the measures manu, pathi, and 
muri, and the use of scales and weights. He also made 
laws for debtors and creditors, fixing the rate of interest 
at ten per cent for money, and one-fourth of the quan- 
tity of gram. If the debtor was unable to pay within 
ten yeais, the creditor after that time might take twice 
the principal in money, and three times the amount in 
grain, but no moie. He made many other laws 

i 8 . Sri Dambar Sah, Saka 1 5 5 5 (a d. 1 6 3 3) , reigned 9 years. 

49, ,, Krishna Sah „ 15G4 

50. ,, Rudra Sah „ 1575 
51 „ Prit hwl-pati S ah „ 1591 

His son Blibhadra Sah 
52. His grandson Naibhupal Sah, Saka 1638 „ 

Of the senior rani of Prithwi-pati Sah was born 
Birbhadra Sah, who was the eldest son. He married the 
daughter of the Baja of Tanhun. ' She was pregnant, 
but no one knew of her state when she went away to 
her father's house, being on had terms with her mother- 
in law. Birbhadra Sah alone knew that she was preg- 
nant. He was unwell, and calling his youngest brother, 
Chandrartip Sah, said to him. "Great intimacy has ex- 
isted between us from our boyhood, and 1 wish to open 
my bosom to you alone. My disease seems a serious 
one, and I have no hope of recovery. My ram is preg- 
nant and has gone to her father's house. If anything 
happens to me by God's pleasure, you will make in- 
quiries as to the result of her pregnancy, and give her 
your support." His brother replied that he would carry 
out his desires to the utmost of his power, life, and 
wealth, and assuring him that nothing would go amiss- 


m his household, comforted him, and told him to think 
no more of it 

After two or three days Birbhadra died Chan- 
drarup Sah privately 'ascertained that the deceased's 
rani had given birth to Narbhupal Sah in Tanhun ; but 
he kept it a secret 

In Gorkha, Maharaj Pnthwi-pati, being very old, 
began to consider as to the selection of a successor. ; He 
reflected that his eldest son had been taken away by 
God, and had left no heir He could not give the gaddi 
to his second son, Dal Sah, as he was excluded by 
having only one eye If he gave it to the thnd, Udyot 
Sah, it would appear unjust to put a younger son on 
- the gaddf to the prejudice of an elder claimant His 
council was divided m its choice. Some were m favour 
of the second, and others of the third son, and they 
could not determine to whom to give the gaddi Chan- 
drarup Sah now presented himself to the Raja at a puvnte 
audience, and said that all the sons of a laja could not 
succeed their father, the rules enjoined by the Yudas, 
Puranas and Shastras, and the practice heretofoie ob- 
served, should still be followed " The counsellors," said 
he, ''are knaves. An heir of the Sahib-ji is m ex- 

Pnthwi-pati hereupon asked him to explain himself, 
and he then related all the paiticulars as to the rani 
of Birbhadra Sah having been piegnant, and having 
given birth to Narblmpfd Sah The Iwlja was glad to 
liiear this, but was still full of doubt Chandrarup Sail 
sent a messenger to fetch Naibhupal Sah, but the Raja 
of Tanhun, thinking that, by means of this child, the 
sovereignty of Gorkha might fall into his own hands, 
refused to send him. Chandrarup Sah then bribed the 


nurse and attendants of Narbhupal Sah, and by their 
help he succeeded in having him brought to his own 
house m Gorkha, where he kept him. carefully for three 
years. In the beginning of the fourth year, he one day 
sent him. on the back of a slave into the presence of the 
Raja, who inquired who the boy was, but on being told 
by the slave that it was the Sahib-ji (hen apparent), he 
said nothing. One day Narbhupal was swimming naked, 
and his whole body being exposed to the Raja's view, he 
exclaimed that he was an incarnation of Blrbhadra Sah, 
and carrying him off to the Durbar, he seated himself on 
the gaddi with his grandson m his lap. 

He then called Chandrarup Sah, and praised him for 
his endeavours to restore his lost descendant. Giving 
him a slap on the back, he exclaimed * " Syabas ' You 
have done your duty to the utmost My descendants 
will henceforth regard yours as their own brothers 
Your jaglrs and birtas wdl descend to your .posterity 

After the death of Prithwi-pati, Narbhupal Sah be- 
came raja. To him was born PuthwI-narayana Sah 
Narbhupal was not very fond of governing, but devoted 
his time to the worship of God. "When he died, Prith 
wi-narayana Sah took his seat on the gaddi, at th( 
age of twelve, m Saka 1664 (a.b 1742). 
53. Sri Prith wi-narayana Sah, Saka 1664, reigned 32 years 
54 ,, Pratap Smha Sah „ 1696, „ 2 year: 

and 9 months 
55. „ Ran Bahadur Sah „ 1699, „ 22 years 

PrithwI-narayana Sah, when twelve years old, de 
t ei mined to take Nuwakot. He failed in his first attempt 
but succeeded in his second attack, and then took all th< 
country around Nepal. 

282 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

At this time Nawab Kasim All Khan of Murshidab&d, 
having been defeated by the British, had taken refuge 
in Nepal for some time In return for the hospitality- 
shown him, he sent 60,000 troops to help the Nepalese, 
by the route of Makwanpur, but they were cut to pieces 
by only 400 scouts of PrithwI-narayana Sah. After this 
5,000 Nagas were coming to the assistance of the Ne- 
palese, but they shared the same fate on reaching Pana- 
vatL Again the Raja defeated the British troops (under 
Captain Kinloch), who were coming to Sindhuli Garhi. 
In this manner he took all the country around Nepal. 
To the east, his rule extended as far as Bijayapur Sukhim. 

At this time PrithwI-narayana Sah died, and Pratap 
Sinha Sah succeeded him He reigned two years and 
nine months. In his reign conquest was carried as far as 

Pratap Sinha Sah was succeeded by Ban Bahadur 
Sah, whose mother Bajendra-Lakshmi-devI was regent for 
nine years, during which time the territories of Tanhun, 
Lamjung, and Kaski, were brought under the Gorkha raj. 

When the Ban! died, the affairs of state were taken 
in hand by Bahadur Sah, the uncle of the Baja. During 
his regency, the country of the ChaubM and Balsi rajas 
m the west, and all the region as far as Garhwal, were 
conquered and brought under the Gorkha raj In Garh- 
wal a raja was installed by the Gorkhalis. At this time 
a Chinese army invaded the country, but it was defeated, 
and a treaty was concluded between the two states. 

Ban Bahadur having now come of age, Bahadur Sah 
made over the reins of government to him, and went on 
a pilgrimage, in which he died. 

At this time Girban-juddha Vikram Sah was born, 
md the Baja's councillors told him that his Highness's 


twenty-fourth year would be very imlucky, and that 
he would lose either his throne or his life in it. He 
therefore abdicated in his son's favour, in Saka 1721 
(a. d. 1799) 

56. Sri Girban-juddha Yikram Sah reigned 17 years. 

When giving up the gaddi to his son, Ran Bahadur 
Sah ordered that no change should be made in the 
offices of state for the next twelve years, and he ap- 
pointed Damodar Pande, Kirfciman Sinha Bashnyat, 
Tribhuvan, and Narsinha, to be Kajis. After this he lived 
the life of one removed from worldly cares 

The Kajis, however, did not adhere strictly to the 
instructions of the late Raja, who, on receiving a defiant 
reply to some of his angry remarks, thought it best to 
remove himself to Kasi (Benares), for fear of an outbreak 
on the part of the traitor ministers. 

In Benares Bhimasena Thapa became his confidant, 
through his talents- He advised him to make some ar- 
rangement with the British, and to return to Nepal, 
where he would then be able to punish the faithless and 
ungrateful, as the unlucky days were past. 

The Swami Maharaj then returned to Nepal, after 
taking a friendly leave of the British. He killed some 
of the traitors and dismissed others. After putting 
Bhimasena at the head of the government, with the title 
of Chief Kaji, he began to seek for seditious persons ; and 
Sher Bahadur, a son of Pratap Sinha by a Newari woman, 
fearing for his own life, one night killed the Raja. 

Girban-juddha came to the gaddi in Saka 1721 (a. d. 
1799). On the death of Ran Bahadur Sah, his junior 
rani, Lalit-Tripur-Sundari-devI became regent, and 
Bhimasena managed the affairs of state under her or- 

284 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap x ] 

The Gorkha raj now extended as far as Kangra. As 
a reward for Lis services, Girban-juddha conferred the 
title of General, as well as that of Kaji, 011 Bhimasena 

57. By the will of God Girban-juddha died young, 
and his son Sri Rajendra "Vikram Sah, when only two 
years old, was placed on the gaddi, in Saka. 1738 (a. r> 
1816). His step-grandmother Laht-Tripur-Sundari-devi 
"became regent, and Bhimasena continued to manage the 
affairs of state. 

When the Raja reached his eleventh year, Bhimasena 
represented to the Regent Rani that, as the members 
of the Royal House were decreasing, it would be better 
to have his Highness married; and with her consent 
he caused two daughters of legitimate Rajput families 
of Gorakhpur to be brought and married to the Raja 

In Saka 1751 (ad. 1829), on Sunday the 7th of 
Aswm Sudi, the Sahib-jyu (heir apparent) Sri Surendra 
"Vikram Sah was born 1 . 

1 Snrendi a Vikram Sah is the present king of Nepal, his father, -who is still alive, 
having heen deposed m a r> 1847 The heir apparent, Tiilok (Trailokya) Bir Vikram 
Sah, was horn on 1st December, 184=7 , and his son was horn on 8th August, 1875 

JEnd of the History of Nepal, as contained zn the oi iginal vianuscrtpt 

\ 1 < I, 

Rehire A WaftLinuld totto ■ Loa*m 

(Plate XV) 


fp Z84) 


Genealogy of Swasti Snmad Ati-prachand Bhujdandstyadi Sri Sri Sil 
Maliaraj Jang Bahadur Bana, G 0. B and G-CSI, Thong-lm- 
pim-ma-ko-kang--vang-sja,n, Piirae Minister and Commandei-m- 
Ohief of Nepal 1 . 

Tatta Rana was raja of Chitaur-garh. His nephew 
ITakht Sinha Rana liad a son named Kama Smha Rana, 
who, when Chitaur was taken, came to the hills with 
four of his followers, and entered, and remained for 
some time in, the service of a hill raja. The hill raja 
treated him with much kindness, and regarded him in 
the light of a brother. He built a house for him. to live 
in, near his durbar, made him his tutor, and began to 
learn fencing from him. 

The hill raja, having associated with Eama Sinha 
Rana for ten or twelve months, with a view to keep hurt 
in the country, told him. that, if he came to the hills, he 
must marry. He could not refuse the Raja's request, 
and the raja asked for the daughter of the raja of 
Binati, a Bagale Kshetri, and married her to Rama 
Sinha Rana, who in ten or twelve years had six sons. 

One of these six sons showed much bravery in a 
battle which was fought between the hill raja and the 
raja of Satan Kot, for which he had the title of Kunwar 
Khadka conferred on him, by which title his descendants 
are known to the present day. 

1 This genealogy w not contained in the Hiatoiy of Nepal, but denied from 
another source. 

286 HISTORY OF NEPAL. [chap 

At this time tlie younger brother of Rama Smha Rana 
set out from his home in search of him, and, having found 
him, they passed three or four days in the enjoyment 
of each other's company ; after which the younger brother 
said that it was ten or twelve years since Rama Smha 
had left his home , that the members of his family, whom 
he had left at home, weie weeping and longing to see 
him, and that he ought to pay them a visit once at any 
rate, and then return, if he chose to do so 

Rama Smha complied with this request, and, having 
taken leave of the raja, set out for Chitaur-garh, after 
making arrangements for his rani and sons. Rama Smha 
died shortly after reaching his home. 

The hill raja made Raut Kunwar, a son of Rama 
Smha, a nobleman (sardar) and commandant of troops, 
m which post he rendered the services required of him. 

A son named Ahirama Kunwar was born to Raut 
Kunwar. He was invited by the raja of Kaskell, who 
made him a nobleman, and gave him a village named 
Dhuage Saghii as a birta or jagir He had a daughter 
of great beauty, who was sought by the raja, who wished 
to marry her only by kalas-piija 1 . Ahirama replied, that 
he would give his daughter only in lawful marriage, 
and in no other way. The raja then wanted to take 
her by force, and brought his troops to the village , 
but Ahirama was assisted by the people of the village, 
of the Parajuh Thapa caste, and an affray took place, 
in which persons on both sides were wounded The 
same day Ahirama took his family, amongst whom 
were his two sons, Rama Krishna Kunwar, and Java 
Krishna Kunwar, aged twelve and ten years, and went 

1 This ceremony docs not admit to the full standing of a lawfully married 



to G-orkha, to take service under Sri (5) 1 Mahaiaj 
Prithwi-narayana, who gave him the village of Kunwar 
khola to live in, and made him. a nobleman. He died 
m the raja's service at the age of 56. 

His son Bama Krishna Kunwar became a nobleman 
at the age of fourteen, and having given proof of his 
bravery in one or two battles, which he fought and gamed 
against hill rajas, he raised confidence in the mmds of 
every one 

At that time kajl was the title corresponding to 
mukktiir at the present day ; and sardar was equivalent 
to commander-in-chief of the army 

Rama Krishna Kunwar was made a sardar, and 
selected to subjugate Nepal He built a fortress on the 
hill above Baity I, and carried on the war After some 
time it was arranged to attack the country simultaneously 
from different sides with troops under different sardars, 
and llama Krishna Kunwar entered the durbar by the 
Smha-dhoka gate and took it 

After taking Patau and Bhatgaon, Maharaj Prith- 
wi-narayana sent him towards the east, along with thiee 
01 foui other sardars, and after some fighting he con- 
qucied the country as far as Mechi. After his return 
he was sent to Pyuthfuia, and established a magazine 
there He died there at the age of 59 

His son Ilanjit Kunwar, when 21 years old, obtained 
the post of Subah of the whole of Jumla. The country 
had been only recently conquered, and authority had not 
been established The Jumliyas fled to Homla, whence 
they brought troops to retake the country, but were 
repulsed by Banjit Kunwar, and order was well estab- 
lished by him. To show his appreciation of his services, 

J Sij (5) meins that the woid i<s to he lcpeated fi\e traicB 

288 HISTORY OF NEPAL [chap, xi ] 

the Maharaj made him one of tlie four principal kajis. 
Ranjit was then ordered to conquer Kangra, and, having 
captured Jhapabesar in Kumaon, he attacked and took 
it by storm, after a severe encounter with Sansar Sinha 

During the attack, as Hanjit was scaling the wall by 
a bamboo ladder, he received a bullet in the right breast 
and fell down. After some time he died from the effects 
of this -wound, at the age of 58. 

His son Bal-narsinha Kunwar was then 22 years old, 
and was made the principal among the four kajis. He 
was one day present, engaged in some work, when Maha- 
raj Ran Bahadur Sail was struck with a sw6rd by his 
step-brother Sher Bahadur. The Maharaj called for help, 
and Bal-narsinha, turning round, saw what had happened 
and killed Sher Bahadur. 

Kaji Bal-narsmha died a natural death at the age of 59. 

His eldest son is Sri (3) Maharaj Jang Bahadur 
Kana, G-. C. B , G-. C. S. I., and Thong-Kn-pim-ma-ko- 
kang-vang-syan. The meaning of this Chinese title 
(conferred by the Emperor of China in 1871), as given 
by a person who knows a little Chinese, is • " Leader of 
the army, the most brave in every enterprise, perfect in. 
every thing, master of the army, Maharaj." 

JSKm- : '-% 

Hn hat t M-udini il<l UJi Loudou 



A. brief Gertealdgy of Srl(5)mau Maharaj adMraj SurSndra "Vikram Sab. 
Bahadur Shamslier-jang I>eva, king of .Nepal 1 . 

Sbi (5) Maharajadhiraj Surendra Vikram Sah Bahadur 
!3hamsher-jang is of tlie Rajput caste, and 46 years of 

In Lis reign a War lias been waged, against Bhot 
(Tibet), and a victory gained, in consequence of which 
the duty levied by the Tibetan government on Nepalese 
merchants has been remitted, and Tibet pays an annual 
tribute of 10,000 rupees to Nepal 

Through the friendship of the British government, 
a territory of 200 miles in length, wnich had formerly 
been lost, has been restored to Nepal. 

In Sambat 1907 (a.b. 1850) the true Bansavali, or 
history of the reigning dynasty, was destroyed by fire, 
with" other papers. The following narrative has, there- 
fore, been compiled from other sources. 

Sri (5) Maharaj Drabya Sah sat on the gaddl of the 
Gorkha raj in S. 1616 (a.d. 1559). He enacted many 
laws and regulations, and made settlements which are 
'still extant, and are well known as the " Band-o-bast of 

1 This narrative, too, is not contained m the History of Nepal, but has been 
derived from another source 

W N I 9 


Drabya Sah." He leigned 11 years, and died in S. 1627 

(A.D. 1570). 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Purandar Sah reigned 35 
years, and died in S 1662 (a.d. 1605), 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Chhatra Sail reigned only 
seven months. He had no son, and therefore 

His brother Sri (5) Maharaj Rama Sah succeeded him. 
He reigned 27 years, and died in S. 1690 (ad. 1633). 

His son Sri (5) Dambar Sah reigned 9 years, and died 
in S. 1699 (A.D. 1642). 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Krishna Sah reigned 16 years, 
and died in S. 1715 (ad. 1658). 

His son Sll (5) Maharaj Rudra Sah reigned 11 years, 
and died in S 1726 (a.d. 1669). 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Prithwi-pati reigned 47 years, 
and died in S. 1773 (.a.d. 1716). 

His son Sri Blrbhadra Sah died in the lifetime of his 
father, and 

His son Sri (5) Narbhupal Sah succeeded to the 
throne, and reigned 26 years and 8 months. He died in 
S. 1799 (a.d. 1742). 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Prithwi-narayana Sah suc- 
ceeded him. Being very brave and enterprising, he won by 
his wisdom and sword the throne of Nepal on Sunday the 
14th of Bhadon Sudi, S. 1825 (a.d. 1768), He conquered 
Makwanpur and the fcerritoiies of the east, as far as 
Mechi. He reigned 32 years, and died in S 1831 (a.d. 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Sinha Pratap Sah reigned 
only 2 years and 9 months, and died in S. 1834 (a.d. 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Ran Bahadur Sah was a wise 
and brave monaich, and very fond of war. He conquered 


the BaM and Chaubisi rajas in the west, and Lis vic- 
torious arms reached as far as Kangra in the east. After 
reigning 22 years, he abdicated in favour of his son, in 
S. 1856 (a.d. 1799), and led the life of a Swami or monk. 

Sri (5) Maharaj Girban-yuddha Vikram San reigned 
17 years, and died inS. 1873 (a.x>. 1816). 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Raj endra Vikram Sah reigned' 
30 years and 5 months. In S. 1904 (a.d. 1847) he re- 
signed the throne to 

His son Sri (5) Maharaj Surendra Vikram Sah Baha- 
dur Shamsher-jang, who has sat on the gaddi for 28 years. 

ALL the rajas who reigned in Gorkha and Nepal are 
fifteen generations, and so long the state has been in- 

The reigning king is the father Gf a son, the heir- 
apparent, who is also the father of a son. 





Dhyaraaya A soit of drum played on on© side -with a cane, twisted 
into a coil at one end _, on the otlier side with tlie bai e "band It is 
peculiar to the Jyapu caste. 

Bhusya. A pair of cymbals, played in company with the above 

TatnaJ A small plate of bellmetal, struck -with a stick A com- 
panion of the previous two 

ILOncha,-khm. A hollow earthen or wooden cylinder, one end of 
which is covered with leather, the other remaining open The left 
hand is thrust through the uncoveied end, while the otlier end is played 
on with the right hand It is peculiar to the Jyapu caste 

KhwalTmili A pa,ir of small cymbals, played along with the pie- 
vious instrument 

Bay a A kind of flute, made' of bamboo. 

Haya-khua. It is like the Dhyamaya, and played in the same way, 
but a stiaight stick is used instead of the twisted cane It is called 
KLasai baja, 01 Kasal's music 

Chhusya. A pan of cymbals, played with the pievious instrument. 
This and the 2ST3,ya-khin aie used m making proclamations 

ILahsl A long, straight, copiiei trumpet This is used, together 
with the and Chhusya, when dead bodies aie taken to bo 
burnt, and also m woiship 

Madal A sort of tamtam or dium, played with both hands It is 
peculiai to the 3Iagar caste 

Manjml A pan of small cymbal*, placed with the Madal. 

Kai tol, A pan of castanets 


Dainru A small wooden or clay instiument, m the shape of an 
homglass, coveied at both ends with leather, having a ball attached to 
its middle bj a stung, so that, -when the Damru is tinned quickly with 
the hand, the ball strikes the ends alternately, and produces a sound 
like a small drum, 

Dholak Like the Madal, played with both hands 

Mohali A kind of pipe or flageolet, peculiar to the Khusliya caste. 

Tanya A small kettledrum 

JChanjan A tambounue. 
/ Daugo-khm A sort of Dholak, played in the same way, 

BamfcaL A small tambourine, used to beat time 

Dhondhon A sort of drum, peculiar to the Bhotiyas. 

Karnal A tiumpet, made of copper or Uass 

Harsingha. Another kind of trumpet, used in marriage proces- 

Hong Another brass trumpet 

Panchta]-khm A sort of Mridang Both ends are covered with 
leather, and a small kettledrum is fixed in the middle. The kettledrum 
and the ends of the cylinder are played on alternately with both 

Ponga. A copper trumpet, shaped like a Kahal 

Dluk A sort of Dholak, but played on wi+h a stick at one end, 
and the hand at the other. 

jNgekii A buffalo-hoin 

Mudang or Pakluuj. A laige drum, like a .uuoiais:, piayeu on wiui 
both hands 

Khm A sort of Mudang 

Babhii A pan of small cymbals, of thm metal 

Bansn A flute, 

Bina or Bin A soit of double cithern or guitar, haying a gouid at 
each end It is played with both hands 

Sit3i It is like the Bin, but with only one gourd, played with the 

Sdi angi A soi t of fiddle 







E^gg" 1 ^ toe 



Large weeding toe 



Small -weeding koe 

Tlkho Kuto 





Wooden pulveriser 












B&nghl pole 






a _ 




3 3 

,, * 




-3 a 

f*" 6 



























T— I 





1— i 









































































Weights used m weighing gold 

10 lattis or lals = 1 masa 
10 masas = L tola 

Weights used in weighing silver* 

8 rattls or la-la = 1 masa. 
12 oias>as ~ 1 tola. 

Weights wed m weighing metal utensils 

M tolas - 1 kanwa 
I kanwas = 1 tukm or pao 
4 tuknls =s 1 ser 

3 s5rs = 1 dliaml = 5 pounds avoirdupois 

Dry Measure 

2 manas = 1 knrwa 
4 kurfffts ■= 1 path! = 8 pounds avoiidupois. 
20 pathls - 1 murl. 

Liquid Measure 

i dlyas - 1 chauthal 
2 chauthal = 1 adh tukm 
2 adh tuknls = 1 tukni 

4 tuknls ~ 1 kurwa =* 1 soi 
1 km was ss 1 pdtliT. 



00 bipalas = 1 pala 
60 palas = 1 ghaii = 24 minutes 
60 ghails = 1 day of 34 hours. 

The day begins when the tiles on the roof of a house can be counted, 
or when the han on the hack of a man's hand can he discerned against 
the sky. 

A copper vessel with a small hole in the bottom is so constructed 
that, when put on the surface of water in a tub, it fills sixty times a 
day , and each time it fills and sinks, the ghaii is struck 

The gharl, which is a flat metal plate or gong, is struck regulaily m 
piogiessive numbeis from morning to noon, one, two, three, &c If the 
day is twenty -foui gharls in length, the striking of the ghaii will give 
the number of gharls fiom morning till noon, after that, the first ghan 
stiuck will indicate the number of gharls which remain of the day till 
sunset The same holds good for the night That is to say from sunset 
to midnight the gharls are struck, one, two, three, &g , and from mid- 
night the striking indicates the number of gluris still to elapse before 





Pwi batiya 
















J elder 
\ younger 




( elder 
\ youngex 



TTncle .— 


brothei ; elder 

Jstha. babu 


brother, younger 

Kanchha babu. 




Father's sister's hushand 


Ajunt ' — 




Mother's sister, elder 

Jethi ama. 

Mother's sister, younger 

SjjiI ama 


brothel's wife, elder Jethi ima 


brother's wife, 

> Kanchha, ima 






















Newai i 




Kaya macha 

Mhyaya macha 









JDhom ma 
Dhoma ml 































































Guli gantha 



Go da 



Goda kd angula. 

Tuia. pachm 






























Hoi&o, pony 











Bakln a 


V-fl V/Cv U 






















B.aj ham 

Ba ham 

I) nek 




Kaikhui a 
















Parti idge 

r Daplna . 



•j Muhnal I 








Wild duck 

PanI hans 




ELkoyan mocha 
































Khama, tham 






















































NewWt % 

































































Thulo dori 

Tapu khipa 




















































3 o4 















































Khatira ■* 
ko ghau j 

Poyagu gha 















Than kwawan ioya 























J nudho 1 
[ kangal ) 
























chili* to 

chikdhTka, chikhak 


g a J 







Pi etty 


ban] a 






pakaej ugu 













Gi een 









Bi own 












Take away 

le j Ail 



















11 a 
















Tomoi row 



Yes^ei day 


















\\ N 






Yasodhaia mate" duhkha taya 

Yasodhara do not be cast down 
Bipatisa dhanya sahaya 

In misfoituno f altitude is tlio host fuend (or helpei) 

Siya buya jyatha juya 

To be bom, to die, and to be old, 

Rogaya harana yaya 

to be sick, I shall get rid of, 

Bhala pawa wane gyana laya 

when I shall be an ascetic Take this precept 

Mara gana dako khyaya 

1 shall drive out the sensual ploasuie cntictus, 
Ahankaia chhamha syuya 

Pride I shall kill, 

Sausaiaya duhkha nasayaya 

This woild's miseries I will destioy 

Ayasara sa jrvaya 

In time I will come, 

Kaya pam bhikshu yaya 

Sons I will make bhikshus, 

Dharma katha ana lhaya 

Moral piecepts theio I will impatfc 

Papa ya lapu tlya 

Sin's way I will stop 

Dharma ya lasa chhoya 

Yntuo's way I will show 

Mdksha puiasa ananda yaya 

In the city of salvation I will be happy. 


Nepala ya baikha saya 

Ne|>al sambat yon mu&fc know, 

Mlkha, bala pwala dbTiya 

Eye (3), bow (J), hole (9), I say (IS 952 = ad 1832) 

Lhdka mhaya dona khbatna yaya 

The authoi's defects you must oveilook 


Saklii piabhu juua gana jiln maul 

O fiiend 1 My husband nevet thinks of me 

Sakya kula ya. mam, tiibhuvana ya dham 

Sak>a dynabty'b jewel, mastei of the three woilds, 

Sausaia ta madu vati gyam 

Ii the "w 01 Id tbeie it. none equal to him in, enlightenment 

Wasiya juyava lanl dubkhl jT gaibhmi 

Being Ins lain I unhappy am pregnant 

Jl papl ya gana prana lCnl 

My life, sunful as I am, v dl novel last 

Wasaya iupa khanl so&o kiki mana warn 

His shape will chaim the heavenly beauties, 

Apsaia gana napa choni 

Who will be happy m his society 

Lhaka mha agyaul na sala ku>i langa muna 

F the ignoiaiit author hawng put together hoise (7), elephant (8), and 

col out (5), 
Bail ha sa thugulT kha ka na 
[11 this ycai this song made known (N S 587 = ad 1467) 


He maitii bhava mana tiva 

O, friendship in your mmd keep 

Mahabddhl gyana maiga khawa 

MahabodhI knowledge's path is this, 

Pi am dako thawa bhala pawa 

Eveiy lining cieatme legaid as youiself 

Tmatna ya sewa yaya swa wa pina 

Tuiatna to serve seek, O man 



Km una na kaiya }Iwa 

"With tendeinebs act 

Karana kaima yd- thugii khawa 

The cause of good luck is this. 

Kama kiodha lobha tola tawa 

Sensual plea&uio, angei, covctousness leave, 

Haikha na puny a yawa 

Cheeifully meiitonons acts perfoim. 

Bhawa bhaya haiana jiiyl wa 

"Worldly teais will be taken, away 

Chhokha, pliasa kha phaya tola tawa 

Backbiting, lying, causing enmity between two, lea\mg off, 

Dana yaye lasa yawa 

Chanty ti y to pi active 

Dlna duhkha papa mada yi wa 

Poverty, mibeiy, sm will not appioach 

Moha droha mabhim mas.wa yawa 

Illusion, enmity, vice, avoiding, 

Sugata bachana sa chaia lappya swa wa jana 

"F olio w the dnections of Sx.gata, man, 

Hischa y§ na bodhigyana la yi v/a 

Doubtless you will get the happy regiou 


Chandika jaya jaya chhi guna haya niasa yant 

Glory, glory to Chandika Your qualities 1 cannot describe 

Mai Chandra surya ya. k5ti teja utl 

O mothei, the light of ten millions of moons and suns 

Hinguli khwalaya jwala na re 

la in your bright vermilhon-like face 

Munda mala sa dS tana swana mala 

A garland of heads adorned with wreaths of flowers, 

Sua sa tat a kiki swana re 

On your head rests a kuki (pandanus) flower, 

Nhasa sa kundala hera ya mandala 

Your ears have beautiful diamond ear-nngs, 

Jolala mi cho wasa mana te 

Bright you are as the flame of fire, 

Batana payala luya ghaglana nhyana wa 

Jewelled ankle-ornaments with gold bells you wear, 


Jlianauam jhanatiam nya \va i§ 
Jlianana jhanana they sound 

Smlia bahml swa guli bhubana sa barana gathi nya bakkana iS 
Mounted on a lion, nustiess of the three world?, how can one de- 
scribe you 1 
Bliuta pari jana rasana harkhana daitya ya hi dako twa nya \va r6 
The families of devils merrily drink the blood of giants, 
Bajana j^ntara mridanga dabii dabii tala devana thanyawa re 
Musical instruments are played by gods and they sound dabu dabii, 
Apsara gana rasana chhl chanta hatawa pyakkuna hiiya wa re 
The apsaias (heavenly musicians) merrily smg your praises 
Mai Chandike thule sahasra jwi mati nya hunya katuna, taya wa r§ 
O mother Chandika, hear my thousand prayers with tenderness. 
Lhaka mha balakha anau nayaka juya jT chhl paliya asa re 
The boy author acknowledges that he walks with the suppoit of the 
hope of youi feet 

Kami mabkhn niisa wa yl — nhyathen sana ju yl wa 

When a bad woman comes — she goes her own way 

Khawa katham sani makhu — makhn katham sail! 

She will not go the right path — but will go the wrong way. 

Gasu mala nusa wa yl — la-thya sana. ju yl 

A. woman of bad character comes — she will misbehave, 

(3-hara saia phuna warn — pochi thawam ju yl 

Wealth will be destroyed — the man himself will be naked 

^STyanya mall makha bukha— kotha bakbam lhayi wa 

He .will have to heai malicious words — in the bedchambei she will 

relate many stones, 
Chalam mabhim. katham sana — phuki bakaya pha yi 
Misbehaving heiself— she will cause separation between biotheis, 
Chhabhl nibkim wanam magak — hitu. hila ju yl wa 
One or two husbands will be insufficient for her — she will roam about, 
Jala khalaya ke sisitaya — toha mala ju yl 

She will keep her things at her neighbours' — and will seek to quarrel 
Jhakanya nusa wa yl — dhukii tuna ju yl wa 
A quauelsome woman comes — she will seek to look into (her hus- 

uarid'<?) private stoteroom, 

3 IQ 


Yako basfcu lagaya laka, — thawa kuya naif 

Every stored up thing she will take — and lay claim to, 

Tawa dkanchi dhanjati madha — .sukluun ebon 5 so yl wa 

She will not tiouble hei self about high or low caste—but will live 

with any one with comfort 
Dara madu niisa wa yi — madia wana ju yi wa. 
A fearless woman comes — she will go away leaving hei chihlieu 
Dhan dhaima madha misa— fchawa yavva thya ju yl 
A woman without virtue— will go hei own way, 
Kaka tika punka talasa — bhalta matye na dhai 

She will love the husband who will feed — clothe and grvc hor orna- 
Taraam bhati bhala tanks nwasa — inis.1 pham pham ju yl 
If her husband is angiy — she will be m a lago 
Tliakim. thakim misa wa yl — luclii phachim jil yl wa 
An idle woman comes — &he will mnsbeluwe, 
Thawa katham mala talye — nyasya pyasyam. ju yi 
"Until hei wishes aie fulfilled— &he will flirt, 
Dako ba&tu lona naya — bhaiata tobam dlui 

She will eat all t>oits of things — and call hei husband poor, 

Dhana diabya bi&ya taya, nam — chone machone ya yi wa 

If all the wealth be given to hei— she will even then lemam un- 

Naya lapatye suklm maehi warn — pachu kala hal 

The dinner plate will be still wet — when she will leave hei hubband 

Pahalana gyana choni — tisa wasa dhai wa 

She will feign anger — to get clothes and ornaments 

Phako jiko sala kaya — bhala tawa lisyam wa yi 

Getting as much as she can— she will live with her husband 

Baha bhalto mala tale — mhicha puT ka so yi wa 

Until she gets a young husband — she seeks anothei with an open 

Bhasalai jyamadha mlsam — thawa yawa thya ju yi 

An immodest woman — wall go her own way, 

Madu khasa Iwapu thaya— mlbam ajaya biyi wa 

She will qnanel on a false pretext--and cause scandal to spioad, 

Yasa dhan taya naka — bhalta basya ka yi 

She will give her husband something to eat m curds — which will bung 
him under hei influence 

Raga thuga kala kaya — dama nhyata dha yl 

If you get a woman fiom the &tiecfc— she will want youi money, 


Ijasa tliuya nusa tasyaru — kuko pachaya yayl 

Women obtained froxn the stieet — will take away everything 

Wasa tisa, boya yata — upasana choni wa 

To show off her clothes and ornaments — she will fast, 

Sanja bhaju bhagl yana — bhalta danda ya kl 

She will bow to her paiamour — and cause her husband to be fined 

ICha nayu raiaa wai — nya khwaya chhuna. ju. yi wa 

A sweet speaking woman comes — she will fish about for husbands, 

Saha m&dii janma bhasan — rnijam kyena kaka yi 

She puts an unbearable nooses — on her husband's neck 

liathhya hari misa wa yl — bhalta boya kala ya nl 

A'murdeimg woman comes — she will entice away her husband, 

Chhasa choko dako phufca ka — trva minka bw5yi nban 

After destioymg eveiythxng in the house — she will run away 

JLihako arbha bujhaya yawa — thawata hifca ju yl wa 

Understand the meaning of ^hat has been said — it will benefit you 




This list has been carefully revised and collated •with the original 
MS , and gives the most coirecb forms of the royal names The teadei 
should compare it with the list in Thomas's edition of Pnnsep's JSssat/tf 
on Indian Antiquities, Vol. n , pp 268 — 271 

I) W 

1 Bhxiktamanagata (sic) 

2 Jaya Gupta 

3 Paiama Gupta. 

4 Bhlma Gupta. 

1 Vara Sinha 

2 Jayaniati Smha 

A Gupta Dynasty 

5 Bhiina Gupta 

6 Mam Gupta 

7 Vishnu Gupta 

8 Yakfaha Gupta 

B Ahli Dynasty 

3 Bhuvaua Smha 


1 Yalarnbai a. 

2 Pavi 

3 Skatidhaift (ku), 

4 Vdlamba. 

5 Huti 

6 Humati 
7. Jitedasti 

8 Gah 

9 Pushka 

10 Suyaima. 

1 1 Parva 

12 Bunka 
13. Swanandt* 
U Sthunkr. 
\of Gigln i 

Knatl Dyna&ty 














Pushkaia (sio) 

















1 Nimi&Ha 

2 Maiaksha. 

3 Xaka-varma 

D Somavanblii Dynasty 

4 Pashupieislia (leva 

5 Bla askai a-vai m a. 

E SuiyavansliI Dynasty 

1 Bhumi-vaima 

2 Cliandia-vairoa 

3 Chandi a-vai ma 

4 "Varsk a-vai rua 

5 Sarva-varma 

6 Prithw I-varnia 

7 Jyeshtha-varina 

8 BCan-vaima 

9 Ku vera-vai m a 

10 Siddhi-Yaima 

1 1 Haridatta-vat ma 

1 2 Vasudatta-vai ma, 

13 Pati-varma 

1 4 Shiva vi lddki-vai ma, 

15 Vasanta-vai rail 
16, Shiva-Yaim.3, 

1 7 Itudrade va- varm a 
18. Viikshadeva-vaima 
1 9 Sliankai adc va 





24 Udayadeva-vanna 

25 Manadeva-vai ma 
GimaJtcainadeva-vai ma 
ISTai gndi ade va-vai in a 
Bhlmadeva-vat ma 
Viahwade va-vax m 5 



F Thakuil 01* Rajput Dynasty 

1 Anahu-varma 

2 Krita-varma 

3, Bhlmarjuna-dcwi, 

4 JSTanda-deva 

5 VuadSva 

6 Chandraketu-dSva 

7 Narendia-dova. 

8 Vaja-deva 

9 Shankara-deva 








Balaij una-de va 




G unaka ma-ds va 




Lakshmlkama-de\ a 



G Yaishya-Thakuri Dynasty, from ISTuwakot 

1. Bluvskaia-deva 

2. Bala-dcva 

3. Padma-de\ a 

4. !Nagaijuna-deva 
5 Shankaia-deva 



H. Second Rajput Dynasty 



8. Mifcra dova 



9 An-deva 



10 Abhaya Malla [Nepal eia m 



tioduced, beginning m Oct 


INai asmka-deva 

ad 880] 



Budra deva. 

(11 JayadBva Malla 
(12 Ananda Malla. 

I Karnataki Dynasty, 



4 Shakti-dSva 



5 Ramasmha-deva. 



6 Han deva 

J Mukunda-sena invades and conquers the country 
K After his expulsion, vai ions Vaishy a-Thakurl dynasties foi 2 2 5 yeai s 

L AySdhya Dynasty, 

1 Harismha^deva, fiomSmuaun- 3. Shafetismha-deva 

gaih, ad 1324 4 Shyamasmha-deva 

2 Matismha-deva 

M, The Malla Rajas, descendants of Abhaya Malla 

1. Jayabhadia Malla 6 Askoka Malla 

2 Naga Malla. 7. Jayasthiti Malla 

3 Jayajagat Malla 8. Yaksha Malla [diviaion of the 

4 Nagendra Malla kingdom] 
5. Ugia Malla. 

a Bajas of Bhaktapur or Bhatgaon 

9 Baya Malla, eldest son of Yak- 14 JTagajjyoti(r) Malla 

sha Malla. 15 NarSndra Malla 

10 Suvarna Malla. 16 Jagatprakasha Malla. 

11 Pr ana Malla 17 Jit&mitra Malla 

12 Vi&hwa Malla 18, Bhupatlndia Malla. 
13. Tiailokya Malla 19 Ranaj it Malla. 



b. Haja of Banepa. 
9. Rana Malla, second son of Yakska Malla. 

c. Rajas of Kantipur or Kathniandu. 
9. Katna Malla, youngest son of Yakska Malla. 

10. Amara Malla. 

11. Suiya Malla. 

12. JSTarendra Malla. 

13. Malimdra Malla. 

14. Sadashiva Malla. 

15. Shivasinha Malla. 

16. Bakslmu-nai-asiuha Malla. 

17. Pratiipa Malla. 

18. Makindra (Bkupalendra)Malla. 

19. Shri-Bliaskara Malla. 

20. Jagajjaya Malla. 

21. Jaya-prakasha Malla. 

d. Rajas of Lalitapur or Patau. 

1 . Harihar a-sinha Malla, younger 

son of Skivasinka Malla (15) 
of Kathinandu. 

2. Siddhi-HSTaraainlia Malla. 

3. Skrl-lSrivasa Malla. 

4. Xoga-HSTarendra Malla. 

5. Malimdra (Malilpatlndra) Sia- 

ha Malla, of KLatlirnaiidu. 
C. Jaya-Ybga-prakasha Malla. 

7. Skri-shrl- Vishnu Malla. 

8. Rajya-prakaska Malla. 

9. Ranajit Malla, of Bhatgaon. 

1 0. Jaya-prakaska Malla, of Kafck- 


11. Vish-wajit Malla. 

12. Dalrnardan Sail (a G-orkhall). 

13. Teja-Narasinka Malla. 

1ST. GrSrkhalX Rajas of Nepal. 

1. PrithwI-lSTarayana Sah. 

2. Pratapa-sinha Sab. 

3. Rana Bahadur Sail. 

4. Grirvan-yuddha "Vikvama Sah. 

5. Rajendra Vikrama Sah. 

6. Surendra Vikrama Sak, now 





The fi»llu\\ing lough list of the nianusci lpts proem eel by me m 
Nepal foi the Umveibity Libiary of Cambridge 1 has been diawn up 
fiom the notes furnished, at the time of pui chase, by the Mil Munshi 
and Pandit attached to the Residency, with occasional coriections by 
Piofes&oi Cowell The manu&ciipts weie mo&tly bought thiough the 
said Pandit and other Pandits lesidmg at Bhatgaon and lYathmandu 

The matenal on "which they aie written, is, for the oldei manu- 
scripts, palm-leaf (tula-pciUi a, vulgarly tfd-patta? , wheneo the name of the 
"talipot" palm), foi the younger, paper The baik of the bucli 
(bhiirja, vulgaily bhoj) is u&ed m Nepal only for chaims and amulets, of 
which I biought home one specimen (Add MS 1378) At least I nevei 
baw 01 head of a book o± this inabenal The paper on wiuob tho 
latei manuscripts aie written is sometimes dyed black, in which case the 
wilting is either yellow 01 white, accoiding as a mixtuie of gold oi bilvei 
i& employed 

Many of these maimsciipt«, paiticuluily the oldei palm-lea\es, contain 
pictuie*, brilliantly colouied and occasionally glib Among those of 
later date Add MS 864 is especially notewoithy The wooden coveis 
aie also sometimes latqueicd and painted with figmes One has fine 
carved bia&3 coveis (Add MS 13o0) Some ot the boaute exhibit 
marks of woiship on ceitam occasions, ah they aie covered with small 
haid cakes oi lumps of nee, sandalwood dust, and led and yellow 
pigments, used by the natives m "doing pffjfi" The sacied tin each, 
■which weie al&o attached to them, have been 1 emoted 

Some of these Nepales>e books aie, I behe\e, among the olde&t, if nut 
the veiy oldest, San«lmt manuacirpts in JEiaope Tho dates depend, 
foi the piebdit, upon the authonty of tho native pandits, but will, of 
comse, be cair fully investigated by Piofessoi Cowell m the catalogue 
whicn he is now piepaimg In foirn, sue and appeal ance, many aie 

1 Otlier MS9 pui chased by mem Nopal are m the collection?, of the But sh 
Museum, the Geiman Onental Hociety at Halle, the Univeisity Library of B^ihn, 
the Umveisity Libraiy of St Peteibburg, and the Libraiy of the Imperial Acailenn 
of St Petersburg The wlmlc number of these is, hmapTBr, comparatively small 



identical with, the oldest manuscnpts of Hi Hodgson's collection, m the 
possesion of the Royal Asiatic Society of London, of which a catalogue 
has been lately published by Ptofes&ois CWell and Eggelmg Of the 
four manuscripts of which pliotogiaphs aie given m then woik, no 1 is 
dated K S 28C=ad 11G6, no 3, HS 218 = ad 1095, and no 4, 
1ST S 484 = ad 1364, while no 2 was wi it ten m the fouith year of 
king G-ovmda-pala, whose name, ho>vever ; does not occur either m my 
lists or in those of Piin&ep and Thomas Pei haps he may only hare 
been one of the numeious id] as of petty villages I may add that the 
dates aie expie&secl m seveial ways Sometimes they aie wiitten out m 
full , at othei times they aie indicated by woids, to which, a peculiar 
nuuiencal sense is attached (as m the Newau songs, nos I and II , 
p 307), and lastly they aie noted either by letter-numerals or by 
authmetical figuies (foi which see Piofessais Cowell and Eggehng's 
Catalogue of the Hodgson Collection, p 52), 

Regarding the names and contents of the Tibetan manuscripts I have 
no mfoimation Some of them appeal to be of consideiable age. Add 
MS 16G6 is> a huge book of gieat beauty, with seveial large pictures, 
and Add MS 1607 is also deseivmg of special mention I bought the 
foimei fiom the bon of a zneichant, who had biought it many yeais ago 
fiom Lhdba, and caiefully preserved it as a chaim till his death 

D W 


864 Book of pictiues 
8G5 Divyavadana 

866 Ashtasahasrika-pi aj n x - pai a- 

nnta, palmleaf, KS 128 
(ad 1008) 

867 Dasha-bhmnishwara 

868 Saptashataka-piajfia-paraimta 

869 Bodhicharyavataia. 

870 Swayambhu-purana-panjika 

87 1 Swayambhil- chaitya- bhatta- 


872 Avalukitcshwai a - guna - ka - 


873 Himavat-klianda 

874 Manl-chudavacUna 

875 Suvarna-prablu. 


809 Naipaliya-devata-stuti-kal- 
JBhadi achai I - maha - prani- 
dhanaraj a , Arya - vntta , 
Saptabuddha-stciti a 

Ashtaml - vrata - vidhana-ka- 


List of books, said to be a 
Catalogue of the Libiary m 
the Palace at Kathmandu - kalpa- 

Copy of an inscnption from 
an old temple on the hill 
of Swayambhu 








915 Saddliaiina-lankavataia 

916. Samadhi-raj a 

917 G-anrla-vy u ha 

918 Lahta- vistara 

1032 Saddharma-pundanka 

1039 Nepalese a&tiological papei 

1040 Apliomms of Chanakya 

1 041 Abhidhaima-kosharvyakhya 

1042 Two specimen pages of the 

Divyavadana, andthiee of 
the Lankavatata 

1049 Paiaroeshwaia-tantia, palm- 


1050 Tibetan MS 

1104 Nama-fcanglti and Sragdha- 

ra-stotia of Arya-taia 

1 105 "White Yajiu-voda, one palm- 

leaf, with accents 
HOG Amam-shataka, one leaf 

1107 Pail of a hymn to Viklmit, 

one leaf 

1108 Nama - sangiti - tippani, or 

Amuta-kauika, a d 1392 
1156 Hitopado&ha, one palm leaf 
1160 Nepalose Histoiy (Hindu 

11 01 Skishya-lukha-kavya, palm- 
leaf, N S 204 (ad 1084) 
1162. Dhatu-patha, palmleaf, N S 

476 (ad 1356) 

1163 A&htasahasrika-pi aj na - par a- 

mita, palmleaf 

1164 Pancha lak&ha 

1267 Kaianda-vytika, pi ose, palm- 


1268 Bala-bodha, etc, 153 years 


1269 ShTghia-bodha 

1270 Avalokite&hwara - guna - ka- 

landa-vyuha, poetical Vi- 
sion, 105 yeais old. 

1271 VagTshw ai a-pfy a 

Ann ars 

1272 Siagdhaia-£>tufci, with ]NTo- 

waai common taiy, jN" S. 
90 i (ad 1784) 

1273 Sngatavadana 

1274 Dwavjn&hatvavadaua-katlia. 

1275 K.Iianda-vyulia, pi ose 

1276 Papa pai lmiichana 

1277 Ap.ii rmitayu -nama- dhai anl- 

mahiyana-&uti a 

1 278 Adi-ynga-samadln. 

1*379 Kisshpanna-yogambali, or 
Nish i lanua-y ogambai a-tan- 

1280-1304 Tibetan MSS 

1305 Pmdapati avadlna 

1306 "Dodhisattwavadana - kalpa- 

lata, palmleaf, !N S 422 
(Ai> 1302) 
1307—1 1 Tibetan MSS 

1315 Sapta-aia, N8 921 (vd 


1316 Puja-paddhati 

1317 Pi ayei s and mantt as 

1318 Aiya-trua-bhattankaya-na- 

mash LOttai a-shataka 

1319 Chanda-maha-i Osh uia-tanbj a 

(EkaiavTi a -tantra), N.F? 
01 Jt (\d 1821) 

1320 Adi-yoga-samadhi, in 1838 

1321 ELaiand i-vyuha, pi ose, NS 

931 (ad' IS 11) 

1322 Avalokite-diwaia - gnna - ka- 

landa-vyuha, noetiy 

1323 Naraa-sangTti, with Newail 

translation, NS 979 (a » 

1 324 Saddhaima pnndar Tka 
1325. Paneha-iaksha, NS 939 

(\d 1819) 

1326 Phai ani-sangi aha, N B 839 

(AD 1719) 

1 327 J)wa\ inshalyavadana katha 



\X>T> MS 

1338 Jataka-mala 

1329 Tathagata-guhyaka (Guhya- 


1330 Karanda-vyuha, prose, N S 

70) (ad 1641) 
1331. Amaia-kOsha, part 1 

1332 Nama-sangtti 

1333 Stotias of Maclicliliiiidra, 

and songs of Buddha, a.d 
1334. Piljcl and &t<">tia of Macli- 
chhlndra (Bhimasena-pu- 

1 3 33 Pi ay gi to Shaky a Mum, Ma- 
hay lina-suti a 
133G Dhaianls to TJ&hnTsha-vijaya 

and Pama-&havail 
1337 Mantia of the A&hta-matri- 

1 3 3 8 AkI ita-in ati lka 
1 3 39 J\ rahava&tn 
1340 Hu- vaj 1 a-Unti a, NS 

(ad 1842) 
1311 Su \ arua-varnavadana 
1343 SuvAiita-piafrhasa 
1 3 i 3 Dh aranl-bangi aha 
1314 A mat a-ko&ha 
1345 Kapisavadana 
13 16 Buddhi-ehaiiakya, with Ne- 

waiT tianslation, N S 905 

(ad 1845) 
1347 LnkOshvvaia-pSiajika 
1348. Piatyangua, NS 937 (ad 


1349 Navagiaha-stoUa, N S 962 

(ad 1832) 

1350 Chha-ado-niaxijail 

1351 Aetiology, NS 982 (ad 

1352. Mahakala tantia, N S. 985 

(id 1865) 
13") 3 Nama-sangTti, with NcwaiT 






962 1364 




1354 Dhananjaya-mghanta, palm- 

leaf, NT S. 572 (a d. 

1355 Vasundhai a~kalpa, palmleaf, 

N 8 696 (a d 1576) 
1356. Saptavara, N S 860 (ad. 

Ashwaghosha - nandiirmkha- 

vadana, NS 973 (a,d. 


1359 Bhimasena-ka patha 

1360 Parthiya-puja, VS 1869 

(a.d 1812) 
1361. Daua-vakya, NS 977 (ad 

Sragdhaia-siotra, with Ne- 

wait notes, NS 965 (ad 

Saraswata, N S 802 (a d. 

Kal achakra - tanti a, palm- 

Jeaf, YS 1503 (ad 

Tathagala - guhyaka, N S 

986 (ad 1866) 
Karuna-p undai lka 
Clih and o - 'mi ita data, N S 

963 (ad 1843) 

1370 Lahta-vistaia, N S 967 (ad 


1371 KdM-khanda, part of the 


1372 Nauia-sangrti 

1373 Hitopadesha, N S 809 (ad 


1374 Karanda-vyuha, prose, N S 

993 (ad 1873) 

1375 Maui-chuda-vadana 

1376 Dm gati-pai l&hodhana 

1377 Sngntilviduna 




1 378 Dmgati-paiishodhana 

1379 Stotras 

1380 Snatavadana. 

138 1 Kaushigha - vlryotsahanava- 


1382 ShatpancLasika, Sanskut, 

ITewarl and Pai.batiya 

1383 Yogambai a - samadhi - piij a- 

paddhafci, NS 964 (ad 

1384. Duigati-paiiskMhana. 

1385. Aparimitayur - nama - naaha- 

yana-sutia, N.S 779 (a d 

1386 Avadana-shataka 

1387 Buddlia - chantia - kavya, 

N" S 950 (ad 1830) 

1 388 Gita - govmda - ahataka, IT S 

738 (a d 1618) 

1389 Goplchandra-nitaka 

1390 Haishadha-kavya-tlka, N S 

850 (ad 1730) 
1391. Mantra-mnkta valT 

1392 Sh.r5.ddha - paddhati, Sbaka 

1725 (a d 1803). 

1393 Kiishna-puja-paddhati, V S 

1830 (ad. 1773) 

1394 Champu-iamayana 

1395. Pancha - raksha, palmleaf, 
NS 508 (ad 1380) 

1396 ILaghuvansha-tlka. 

1397 Rudra-chmtara am 

1398 Mam-ckudavadana 

1399 ITalOdaya-tika 

1400 Tasuudhaia - viata - katha ? 

KS 888 (ad 1768) 

1401 Nandimukhashwa - ghosha, 

K" S 224 (a d 1804). 

1402 Dhatu-patha, Shaka 1741 

(ad. 1819) 

1403 Tirtha-prabha, 

140 i Vajia^uchT, V.&»*838 (a d 


1405 Ghaitya-pungala (xa), 2ST S 

734 (ad 1614) 

1406 Kjuya. - kanda - kramavalt, 

palmleaf,lTS10(AD 890) 

1407 Hitopadesha, palmleaf 
1408. do. , m ITewail 

1409 Rama - nafcaka, palnaleaf, 

ITS 480 (ad 1360) 

1410 Chikitsa-nibandha 

1411 Bhadrakalpavadana, IT S 

952 (a d 1832). 
1412. Pnja-kanda, IT B. 398 (a d 

1413 "Vidwan - moda - tatanguu, 

NS. 948 (ad 1828) 

1414 Shrmgabhei T 

1415 Jataka-malaj IT S 757 (a d 


1416 Durgati-paushodhana 

1417 ITriga-puj 5,. 

1418 Kathmayadati a 

1419 Lokeshwai a-shataka 
1420. Lok5shwara-paraj ika 

1421 Vajrasuchl 

1422 Saptabhidhanottai a 

1 423. Amoghapasha - lokeskwaia - 


1424. Manj u-ghosha-puj a. 
1435—43. Tibetan MSS 

1444 "Vanoua prayeis 

1445 DSTewari songs. 

1446 Pfrja 

1447. Pharani (Shlishavijaya). 

1448 Mantras 

1449 do 

1450 Puja with tnantias 

1451 Mautia«3 

1452 _do 

1453, Eka-jata dharani 

1454 Manilas 

1455 do 

1456 One leaf from atantru 
U.-iT—oB Tibetan JUSR 




1460 Pancha-i aksha. 

1461 Pi ay ei -cylinder, 

1462 Gita-govmda, N.S 892 (a.d. 


1463 Sablia-taiaugmJ 

1 464 AslitaE>aha&iiicri-prajiia-paTa- 
mitd, palmleaf, N S 5(ad 

1465 do do , palmleaf, N S 
3 (a d 883) 

1466 Shu&kma-jataka, palmleaf 

1467 Ganda-vyuha. 

1468. Swayambliu-puiana 

1469. do Sanssluifc and 

1470 Kaiavna-tantra, NS 032 

(a d 1812) 

1471 Bludiatharl 

1472 Vushti-cliintamam 
1173 Shnslia-j atakavadana. 

1474 "Va 1 dy a-j 1 vana 

1475 Pancha-iaksha, NS. 802 

(ad 1682) 

1476 Pancha-i aksha, Abhayanka- 

ll-clhai ani,Tai a-shatanatna, 

Makakala-tantra, N S 911 

(ad 1791) 
1477. Para-tantia, NS 940 (ad. 

1 478 Shik&ha-samuchchaya 

1479 Bribaj-j otaka, palmleaf, IfT S 

666 (ad 1546). 

1480 Mahay a,na-sutra 

1481 Samadhi-raja, NS 915 (a d, 

1482- Asliokavadana, K.S. 895 

(ad 1775) 
1483. Vmaya-sutra, N S. 901 (a.d. 

1484 Yritta-ratnakara 
1485. Dharam-bangraha, N S. 797 

(ad 1677) 


1486. Yasundh&ra-kalpa, 25" S. 841 

(ad 1721). 

1487. Ashtami - vrata - vidhana, 

N S 928 (a d 1808) 
1488 Amara-kosha, palmleaf, N S 
500 (ad 1380) 

1533 Ash-wagko&ka -nandimukha - 


1534 Naga-puja, N S. 811 (ad 


1535. Pmda-patravadana. 

1536. Swayambhu - purana, KS 

803 (ad 1683) 

1537 Kaplsavadana 

1538 Viraknshavadana, N S 964 

(ad 1844) 

1539 Buddhi-chanakya, Sanskrit 
and ParbatryZ, VS 1929 
(ad 1851) 

1540. TJdyoga - paiva, NS 787 
(ad 1667) 

1541 Kaghuvansha-kavya, N S 

827 (a d 1707). 

1542 "Virata-parva 

1543 Prajila-paramita (2500 shlo- 

kas), palmleaf 

1544 do do, a larger work, 
•with a note of recitation, 
N.S 499 (a d. 1379), palm- 

1545 Sheet of Tibetan writing 
1 5 46. Mah* samvara-hriday a 

1547 Nama-stotra 

1548 Nama-sanglti 

1549 Nam ^sktottara-shataka 

1550 Pancha-maha-raksha-stitra 
1551. Maha-rdshana-tantra, 
1552 Dharanls. 

1553. do. 

1554 do. 

1555 do 

1556. Sapta-shati, ITS. 703 (ad. 







1583), with beautiful brass 


Buddhi-chanakya, 1ST B 862 


(ad 1742) 


, Shatpancbashika 




Tibetan MS. 


iNaishadha-kavya, 1ST S 777 


A charm of seven letters 

(ad 1657) 


A chaiin, -written on biicli- 


Lanka vatara, N. S 902 (a d 




Tamil MS , pahnleaf 




Shambukavadana, palraleaf, 



N.S. 543 (ad. 1423) 


XJpusbadb avadana 




Avadana-sbataka, 1ST S 76 r ) 



(ad 1645) 


Rashtitapalavadana, N" S. 781 


Mub ui ta-ebmtamam 

(ad 1661) 


Mantia-chanakya, NS 862 



(ad 1742) 


Devi-raahatmya, JT S. 789 



(ad 1669) 


Avadana-mala, N"S 923 


Vicbiira-kai nikaradana, 

(a.» 1803) 

NS 994 (ad. 1874). 


Knya-yoga-sara, NS 807 



(ad 1687). 


Hitopadeslia, book 1, N.S 


Gubya-samaja, IN" S. 92 J 

858 (a d 1738) 

(ad 1804) 




Dashabbunmhwara, N S 


Sadbana-mala,N.S.939 (a.d 

916 (ad 1796) 



Bstal-pacbiM, Sanskut and 


Tantrakhyana, N.S. 949 

Newait, NS 795 (a.d 

(ad. 1829). 



Yaidyanga, medical, N* S. 



832 (a d. 1712). 




Eatnaguna-sanehaya, N.S 



950 (ad 1830). 




Bbagavad-gita and stotras, 

N.S 820 (a d. 1700) 

NS, 694 (ad. 1574) 




Avad ana-sangraba 


Asbtasahasrika-prajfla - para- 


Sbiva-purana, Sbaka 1504 

nuta, N" S 948 (a.d 1828) 

(ad. 1582). 


Prajna-paramita, part 1. 


Mudi a-rakshasa 


do do. , part 3 


do. in ParbatiyS 


do do. , patb 5 




do. do. , part 1. 


Vasifahtbavadana, £T S. 919 


do do, , part 2 

(ad. 1799) 


do* do. , part 3. 




J 632 Prajna-paramita, part 4, N.S. 
923 (a d 1803). 

1633 Prajfia-paramita, part 5 

1634 Klrti-pataka, N;& 772 (ad 


1 635 Yasundhara-rrata, 2$ S 805 

(ad 1685) 
1 6 3 G Ratnamala. 

1637 Bhagavata-purana, N.S 884 

(ad 1764) 

1638 Vuhach-ehanakya, N.S 802 

(ad 1682). 
1630 Amara-kosha, N.S 802 (a. d. 

1640 Siddhanta-sara. 

1641 Sangita-talodaya s NS. 783 

(ad 1663) 

1 642 Shuddha-dipika. 

1 6 43 Aslitasahasiika-pi*ajfia-para- 
mita, palmleaf, NS. 135 
(ad 1015) 

1644 Pancha-maha-raksha-sutia 

1 645 Shiyadharma-tantra, palmleaf, 

N S 259 (a d 1139). 

1646 Kuladatta-panj ika,-krrya-san- 

graha, palmleaf 

1647 Pancha-raksha, palmleaf 
1648. Sadaua-mala, palmleaf, N.S. 

226 (ad 1106) 
1649 Siddhi-sara, palmleaf, N S 
532 (A d 1412) 


1650, Amara-kSsha, palmleaf, 

1651, Amara-kSsha, palmleaf. 

1652, Yaidyanga, medical, palm- 

1653 Tattwa-sangraha, palmleaf 

1654. Saras wail, palmleaf. 

1655. Betal-pachisiy palmleaf and 


1656 Fancha - raksha, palmleaf, 
NS 518 (ad 1398) 

1657. Chandra -vyakarana, palm- 

1658 Nishka-nataka, palmleaf 

1659. Raja-nltisara, palmleaf, N S" 
621 (ad 1501). 

1660 Jyotisha, Vyakarana, etc, 


1661 Amara-kosha, palmleaf 

1662 Sahasiapramardana - maha- 

yanasuira, Maha-shitavati* 
Maha-mayuri-vidya, palm- 

1663. Sara-satigraha^pjdmleaf, N S. 

549 (a d, 1429). 

1664. Treatise on religious cus- 
toms, palmleaf, NS, 520 

(ad 1400) 

1665. JyStisha, palmleaf, K,S 577" 

(ad. 1457) 
1666—1678 Tibetan MSS 


a Unsorted fragments of Nai- 
shadha-charita and otlier 
MSS , palmleaf. 

6 Unsorted fragments of Bha- 
pungala, and other MSS , 

c Leaves containing alphabets 

and hats of numerals, in the 
handwriting of Pandit Guna- 

The following MSS are also 
not yet numbered and placed. 

1. Saddharma-pundarika, palm- 
leaf, N.S. f l 5 9 (a.d. 1039} 




2 Saddharraa-pundaiika, palm- 

3. uu do , palmleaf, 

KS 185 (ad 1065) 

4 Amara-kosha, palmleaf, N S 

500 (ad 1380) 

5 Sadliana-mala, palmleaf 

6 ICa^anda-vyuha, N S. 754 (a d 


7 Pancha-raksha, palmleaf, N S 

19 (ad 899). 

8 Megha-sutra, palmleaf, N S. 

494 (ad 1374) 

9 Yasnndhara - kalpa, palmleaf, 

NS. 212 (ad 1092) 

10 Hiranya-saptaka, NS. 235 

(ad 1115) 
Kurukiilla -kalpa, KS. 299 

(ad 1179) 
Abkishoka-vidhi, N.S. 560 

(ad. 1440) 
Yyakaiana (two small MSS ) 
Chandia-vyakaruna, IS" S 532 

(ad 1412). Palmleaf 

11 Ynddha-jayainava, 1ST S 566 

(ad 1446) 
Anga-vj dya-jyotiska 
Vaiahammira- kxita -jyotisha. 


1 2 A&litasahasi ik7i-praj na-parami- 

ta, palmleaf, N S 285 (a d. 

13 Shiva-dharma ; Shiva-dkarma- 

sangi aha s Yrisha-sara-sangra- 


ha j Dbarma-putnka-tantia 

14 Haragauri - nataka, Sanskrit 

and Paibatiya, by Blja Ja- 
gajjyoti(i) Malla, 1ST S 749 
(ad. 1629) 

15 Jyotisha, palmleaf 

1 6 Kuladatta- pan) ika- ki lya - san- 

graha , Yogmi - puj a - vidlu , 
Stotia 3 Dalanl-jala-s'imvara- 
tantra, Jyotisha, Bali-mala 
Palmleaf, NS. 583 (ad 

17 Amaia-kusha, with Paibatiya. 

tiamlation, palmleaf, N S. 
50G(ad 138C) 

18 Panehakaia, Guhyavali-viitti, 

Yoga-i atna-mal a Palmleaf, 
NS 37— 39 (ad 917—919) 
19. Nama-sanglk-tika, palmleaf, 
NS 570 (ad 1130) 

20 Pancha-rakshri, palmleaf, N S 

509 (ad 1380) 

21 Bodhi&attw a-y Ggasthana, palm- 


22 Yaji aval! - tantra, palmleaf, 

NS 519 (ad 1429) 

23 Guhya-pilha-tautm, palmleaf. 

24 Yyakaiana-tlka, palmleaf 

25 De\a-laks,hana, NS 399 (ad. 

1 2 7 9) , Pratuna - lakbliana , 
Khadga-piija, NS 391 (ad 
1271) Palmleaf 
26. Yaidyanga, medical, palmleaf, 
N S 396 (a d 1276)